Lysophosphatidylcholine as an effector of fatty acid-induced insulin resistance.
ABSTRACT: The mechanism of FFA-induced insulin resistance is not fully understood. We have searched for effector molecules(s) in FFA-induced insulin resistance. Palmitic acid (PA) but not oleic acid (OA) induced insulin resistance in L6 myotubes through C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) Ser307 phosphorylation. Inhibitors of ceramide synthesis did not block insulin resistance by PA. However, inhibition of the conversion of PA to lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) by calcium-independent phospholipase A? (iPLA?) inhibitors, such as bromoenol lactone (BEL) or palmitoyl trifluoromethyl ketone (PACOCF?), prevented insulin resistance by PA. iPLA? inhibitors or iPLA? small interfering RNA (siRNA) attenuated JNK or IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation by PA. PA treatment increased LPC content, which was reversed by iPLA? inhibitors or iPLA? siRNA. The intracellular DAG level was increased by iPLA? inhibitors, despite ameliorated insulin resistance. Pertussis toxin (PTX), which inhibits LPC action through the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)/G?(i), reversed insulin resistance by PA. BEL administration ameliorated insulin resistance and diabetes in db/db mice. JNK and IRS-1Ser307 phosphorylation in the liver and muscle of db/db mice was attenuated by BEL. LPC content was increased in the liver and muscle of db/db mice, which was suppressed by BEL. These findings implicate LPC as an important lipid intermediate that links saturated fatty acids to insulin resistance.
Project description:Calcium-independent phospholipase A(2)? (iPLA(2)?) (PNPLA8) is the predominant phospholipase activity in mammalian mitochondria. However, the chemical mechanisms that regulate its activity are unknown. Here, we utilize iPLA(2)? gain of function and loss of function genetic models to demonstrate the robust activation of iPLA(2)? in murine myocardial mitochondria by Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) ions. Calcium ion stimulated the production of 2-arachidonoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine (2-AA-LPC) from 1-palmitoyl-2-[(14)C]arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine during incubations with wild-type heart mitochondrial homogenates. Furthermore, incubation of mitochondrial homogenates from transgenic myocardium expressing iPLA(2)? resulted in 13- and 25-fold increases in the initial rate of radiolabeled 2-AA-LPC and arachidonic acid (AA) production, respectively, in the presence of calcium ion. Mass spectrometric analysis of the products of calcium-activated hydrolysis of endogenous mitochondrial phospholipids in transgenic iPLA(2)? mitochondria revealed the robust production of AA, 2-AA-LPC, and 2-docosahexaenoyl-LPC that was over 10-fold greater than wild-type mitochondria. The mechanism-based inhibitor (R)-(E)-6-(bromomethylene)-3-(1-naphthalenyl)-2H-tetrahydropyran-2-one (BEL) (iPLA(2)? selective), but not its enantiomer, (S)-BEL (iPLA(2)? selective) or pyrrolidine (cytosolic PLA(2)? selective), markedly attenuated Ca(2+)-dependent fatty acid release and polyunsaturated LPC production. Moreover, Ca(2+)-induced iPLA(2)? activation was accompanied by the production of downstream eicosanoid metabolites that were nearly completely ablated by (R)-BEL or by genetic ablation of iPLA(2)?. Intriguingly, Ca(2+)-induced iPLA(2)? activation was completely inhibited by long-chain acyl-CoA (IC(50) ?20 ?m) as well as by a nonhydrolyzable acyl-CoA thioether analog. Collectively, these results demonstrate that mitochondrial iPLA(2)? is activated by divalent cations and inhibited by acyl-CoA modulating the generation of biologically active metabolites that regulate mitochondrial bioenergetic and signaling functions.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) signaling through the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex attenuates insulin action via the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) at Ser307. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which the IKK complex phosphorylates IRS-1 is unknown. In this study, we report nuclear factor kappaB essential modulator (NEMO)/IKK-gamma subunit accumulation in membrane ruffles followed by an interaction with IRS-1. This intracellular trafficking of NEMO requires insulin, an intact actin cytoskeletal network, and the motor protein Myo1c. Increased Myo1c expression enhanced the NEMO-IRS-1 interaction, which is essential for TNF-alpha- induced phosphorylation of Ser307-IRS-1. In contrast, dominant inhibitory Myo1c cargo domain expression diminished this interaction and inhibited IRS-1 phosphorylation. NEMO expression also enhanced TNF-alpha-induced Ser307-IRS-1 phosphorylation and inhibited glucose uptake. In contrast, a deletion mutant of NEMO lacking the IKK-beta-binding domain or silencing NEMO blocked the TNF-alpha signal. Thus, motor protein Myo1c and its receptor protein NEMO act cooperatively to form the IKK-IRS-1 complex and function in TNF-alpha-induced insulin resistance.
Project description:Phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrates (Irs) on serine residues-typified by Ser307 of rodent Irs1-is thought to mediate insulin resistance. To determine whether Ser307 negatively regulates Irs1 in vivo, we generated knockin mice in which Ser307 (human Ser312) was replaced with alanine (A/A). Unexpectedly, A/A mice that were fed a high-fat diet developed more severe insulin resistance than control mice, accompanied by enhanced pancreatic compensation and impaired muscle insulin signaling. Chow-fed mice whose livers lacked Irs2 but retained a single knockin allele (A/lox::LKO2) were profoundly insulin resistant (versus +/lox::LKO2 mice), and their hepatocytes showed impaired insulin signaling ex vivo. Similarly, mutant A307 Irs1 adenovirus only partially restored the response to injected insulin in mice lacking hepatic Irs1 and Irs2. Thus, contrary to the results of cell-based experiments, Ser307 in mice is a positive regulatory site that moderates the severity of insulin resistance by maintaining proximal insulin signaling.
Project description:The contractile and relaxation characteristics of trabecular meshwork (TM) are presumed to influence aqueous humor (AH) drainage and intraocular pressure. The mechanisms underlying regulation of TM cell contractile properties, however, are not well understood. This study investigates the role of calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)), which controls eicosanoid synthesis, in regulation of TM cell contraction and AH outflow using mechanism-based isoform specific inhibitors (R)-bromoenol lactone (R-BEL, iPLA(2)? specific) and (S)-bromoenol lactone (S-BEL, iPLA(2)? specific). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed intense staining for both iPLA(2)? and ? isoforms throughout the TM, juxtacanalicular tissue, and Schlemm's canal of human eye. Inhibition of iPLA(2)? by R-BEL or small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of iPLA(2)? expression induced dramatic changes in TM cell morphology, and decreased actin stress fibers, focal adhesions, and myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation. AH outflow facility increased progressively and significantly in enucleated porcine eyes perfused with R-BEL. This response was associated with a significant decrease in TM tissue MLC phosphorylation and alterations in the morphology of aqueous plexi in R-BEL-perfused eyes. In contrast, S-BEL did not affect either of these parameters. Additionally, R-BEL-induced cellular relaxation of the TM was associated with a significant decrease in the levels of active Rho GTPase, phospho-MLC phosphatase, phospho-CPI-17, and arachidonic acid. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that iPLA(2)? plays a significant and isoform-specific role in regulation of AH outflow facility by altering the contractile characteristics of the TM. The effects of iPLA(2)? on TM contractile status appear to involve arachidonic acid and Rho GTPase signaling pathways.
Project description:Insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome subjects is profound in spite of muscle insulin receptor and insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) expression being nearly normal. Insulin receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) at Tyr896 is a necessary step in insulin stimulation of translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface. Serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 by some kinases diminishes insulin action in mice. We evaluated the phosphorylation status of muscle IRS-1 in 33 subjects with the metabolic syndrome and seventeen lean controls. Each underwent euglycemic insulin clamps and a thigh muscle biopsy before and after 8 weeks of either strength or endurance training. Muscle IRS-1 phosphorylation at six sites was quantified by immunoblots. Metabolic syndrome muscle IRS-1 had excess phosphorylation at Ser337 and Ser636 but not at Ser307, Ser789, or Ser1101. Ser337 is a target for phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and Ser636 is phosphorylated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1). Exercise training without weight loss did not change the IRS-1 serine phosphorylation. These data suggest that baseline hyperphosphorylation of at least two key serines within muscle IRS-1 diminishes the transmission of the insulin signal and thereby decreases the insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4. Excess fasting phosphorylation of muscle IRS-1 at Ser636 may be a major cause of the insulin resistance seen in obesity and might prevent improvement in insulin responsiveness when exercise training is not accompanied by weight loss.
Project description:Protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) was shown to participate in multiple cellular processes, including DNA damage response, cell cycle and embryo development. Recent studies demonstrated a looming role of PP4 in glucose metabolism. However, whether PP4 is involved in hepatic insulin resistance remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to estimate the role of PP4 in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-induced hepatic insulin resistance. db/db mice and TNF-?-treated C57BL/6J mice were used as hepatic insulin resistance animal models. In vitro models were established in both HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes by TNF-? treatment. We found that increased expression and activity of PP4 occurred in the livers of db/db mice and TNF-?-induced hepatic insulin resistance both in vitro and in vivo. Actually, PP4 silencing and suppression of PP4 activity ameliorated TNF-?-induced hepatic insulin resistance, whereas over-expression of PP4 caused insulin resistance. We then further investigated the prodiabetic mechanism of PP4 in TNF-?-induced insulin resistance. We found that PP4 formed a complex with IRS-1 to promote phosphorylation of IRS-1 on serine 307 via JNK activation and reduce the expression of IRS-1. Thus, PP4 is an important regulator in inflammatory related insulin resistance.
Project description:Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) promotes insulin resistance in tissues such as liver and skeletal muscle; however the influence of IL-1? on placental insulin signaling is unknown. We recently reported increased IL-1? protein expression in placentas of obese mothers, which could contribute to insulin resistance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IL-1? inhibits insulin signaling and prevents insulin-stimulated amino acid transport in cultured primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells. Cultured trophoblasts isolated from term placentas were treated with physiological concentrations of IL-1? (10pg/ml) for 24h. IL-1? increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) at Ser307 (inhibitory) and decreased total IRS-1 protein abundance but did not affect insulin receptor ? expression. Furthermore, IL-1? inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Tyr612, activation site) and Akt (Thr308) and prevented insulin-stimulated increase in PI3K/p85 and Grb2 protein expression. IL-1? alone stimulated cRaf (Ser338), MEK (Ser221) and Erk1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation. The inflammatory pathways nuclear factor kappa B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, which are involved in insulin resistance, were also activated by IL-1? treatment. Moreover, IL-1? inhibited insulin-stimulated System A, but not System L amino acid uptake, indicating functional impairment of insulin signaling. In conclusion, IL-1? inhibited the insulin signaling pathway by inhibiting IRS-1 signaling and prevented insulin-stimulated System A transport, thereby promoting insulin resistance in cultured PHT cells. These findings indicate that conditions which lead to increased systemic maternal or placental IL-1? levels may attenuate the effects of maternal insulin on placental function and consequently fetal growth.
Project description:The association of Alzheimer disease (AD) and Diabetes (DM) is less clear. Accumulation of beta amyloid (A?) and presence of hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) are hallmarks of AD, spreading in the region where insulin receptors are also found. A? exerts neuron toxicity, and could disturb insulin signaling of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3? and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but increase IRS-1-Ser307 phosphorylation which is viewed as insulin resistance marker. Previously we reported dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) mediate insulin resistance signals, and Abelmoschus esculentus (AE) subfractions F1 (rich in quercetin glucosides and triterpene ester) and F2 (containing large amount of polysaccharides) attenuate DPP-4-mediated apoptosis. In the present study, we aim to investigate if A? induce neuron death by regulating DPP-4 and insulin resistance signals, and the putative effect of F1 and F2. By MTT, microscopy, and Western blotting, we demonstrate treatment of appropriate doses of AE subfractions prevent A?-induced neuron apoptosis. F1 attenuate A?-induced caspase 3 expression especially at 25 ?g/mL, while F2 attenuate caspase 3 activation even at the low dose of 1 ?g/mL. Both AE subfractions decrease A?-enhanced DPP-4, but increase A?-reduced p-AMPK and p-PI3K. The activity analysis reveals that F2 is more valid than F1 to reduce DPP-4 activity. The inhibition of DPP-4 demonstrates it plays the pivotal role in A?-induced neuron apoptosis. Moreover, although both F1 and F2 are effective to inhibit p-IRS-1-Ser307, F2 takes advantage to reduce p-Tau while F1 is superior to enhance p-GSK-3?. This implies AE subfractions act on different targets, and could be developed respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrate AE is potential to prevent A?-induced neuron damage by regulating DPP-4 and the insulin resistance cascades. AE could be an adjuvant to protect neuron degenerative disease related to A? and insulin resistance.
Project description:We and others have shown that calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)) is involved in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Hence, we propose that iPLA(2) is a potential effective and novel target for EOC. We tested this concept and found that bromoenol lactone (BEL), a selective inhibitor of iPLA(2), significantly inhibited EOC metastatic tumor growth in mouse xenograft models using human SKOV3 and HEY ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, the combination of BEL with paclitaxel (PTX), one of the most commonly used therapeutic agents in EOC, almost completely blocked tumor development in the xenograft mouse model. BEL showed no detectable cytotoxic effects in mice. Another iPLA(2) inhibitor, FKGK11, also inhibited tumor development in the xenograft mouse model, supporting that the major target of action was iPLA(2). The additional effects of BEL with PTX in vivo likely stem from their distinct cellular effects. BEL and FKGK11 reduced adhesion, migration, and invasion of EOC cells in vitro; the reduced ability to adhere, migrate, and invade seems to increase the vulnerability of tumor cells to PTX. These results provide an important basis for the development of new treatment modalities for EOC.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Cytokines are elevated in various insulin-resistant states, including type 2 diabetes and obesity, although the contribution of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the induction of these diseases is controversial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We analyzed the impact of IL-6 on insulin action in murine primary myocytes, skeletal muscle cell lines, and mice (wild type and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B [PTP1B] deficient). RESULTS:IL-6 per se increased glucose uptake by activating serine/threonine protein kinase 11 (LKB1)/AMP-activated protein kinase/protein kinase B substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) pathway. A dual effect on insulin action was observed when myotubes and mice were exposed to this cytokine: additive with short-term insulin (increased glucose uptake and systemic insulin sensitivity) but chronic exposure produced insulin resistance (impaired GLUT4 translocation to plasma membrane and defects in insulin signaling at the insulin receptor substrate 1 [IRS-1] level). Three mechanisms seem to operate in IL-6-induced insulin resistance: activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2), accumulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (socs3) mRNA, and an increase in PTP1B activity. Accordingly, silencing JNK1/2 with either small interfering RNA or chemical inhibitors impaired phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Ser307), restored insulin signaling, and normalized insulin-induced glucose uptake in myotubes. When using a pharmacological approach, liver X receptor agonists overcome IL-6-induced insulin resistance by producing downregulation of socs3 and ptp1b gene expression. Finally, the lack of PTP1B confers protection against IL-6-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle in vitro and in vivo, in agreement with the protection against the IL-6 hyperglycemic effect observed on glucose and insulin tolerance tests in adult male mice. CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate the important role of IL-6 in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and further implicate PTP1B as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.