Structurally distinct LewisX glycans distinguish subpopulations of neural stem/progenitor cells.
ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that the stem and progenitor cell population that builds the central nervous system is very heterogeneous. Stem cell markers with the potential to divide this cell pool into subpopulations with distinct characteristics are sparse. We were looking for new cell type-specific antigens to further subdivide the progenitor pool. Here, we introduce the novel monoclonal antibody clone 5750. We show that it specifically labels cell surfaces of neural stem and progenitor cells. When 5750-expressing cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting from embryonic mouse brains, the sorted population showed increased neurosphere forming capacity and multipotency. Neurospheres generated from 5750-positive cells could self-renew and remained multipotent even after prolonged passaging. Carbohydrate binding assays revealed that the 5750 antibody specifically binds to LewisX-related carbohydrates. Interestingly, we found that the LewisX epitope recognized by clone 5750 differs from those detected by other anti-LewisX antibody clones like 487(LeX), SSEA-1(LeX), and MMA(LeX). Our data further reveal that individual anti-LewisX clones can be successfully used to label and deplete different subpopulations of neural cells in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, we present a new tool for the isolation and characterization of neural subpopulations and provide insights into the complexity of cell surface glycosylation.
Project description:LewisX (LeX) is a branched trisaccharide Gal?1?4(Fuc?1?3)GlcNAc that is expressed on many cell surface glycoproteins and plays critical roles in innate and adaptive immune responses. However, efficient synthesis of glycopeptides bearing LeX remains a major limitation for structure-function studies of the LeX determinant. Here we report a total synthesis of a LeX pentasaccharide 1 using a regioselective 1-benzenesulfinyl piperidine/triflic anhydride promoted [3 + 2] glycosylation. The presence of an Fmoc-threonine amino acid facilitates incorporation of the pentasaccharide in solid phase peptide synthesis, providing a route to diverse O-linked LeX glycopeptides. The described approach is broadly applicable to the synthesis of a variety of complex glycopeptides containing O-linked LeX or sialyl LewisX (sLeX).
Project description:The Lewisx trisaccharide, also referred to as the CD15 antigen, is a diagnostic marker used to distinguish Hodgkin's lymphoma from other lymphocytic cancers. However, the role of such fucosylated structures remains poorly understood, in part because carriers of Lewisx structures on Hodgkin's Reed-Sternberg cells have not been identified.GalMBP, an engineered carbohydrate-recognition protein that binds selectively to oligosaccharides with paired terminal galactose and fucose residues, has been used in conjunction with proteomic and glycomic analysis to identify glycoprotein carriers of Lewisx and related glycan structures in multiple Hodgkin's Reed-Sternberg cell lines.Multiple glycoproteins that bind to GalMBP and carry CD15/Lewisx have been identified in a panel of six Reed-Sternberg cell lines. The most commonly identified Lewisx-bearing glycoproteins are CD98hc, which was found in all six cell lines tested, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and DEC-205, which were detected in five and four of the lines, respectively. Thus, several of the most prominent cell adhesion molecules on the lymphomas carry this characteristic glycan epitope. In addition, the Hodgkin's Reed-Sternberg cell lines can be grouped into subsets based on the presence or absence of less common Lewisx-bearing glycoproteins.CD98 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 are major carriers of CD15/Lewisx on Reed-Sternberg cells. Binding of DC-SIGN and other glycan-specific receptors to the Lewisx epitopes on CD98 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 may facilitate interaction of the lymphoma cells with lymphocytes and myeloid cells in lymph nodes.
Project description:Complex N-glycans of glycoproteins of the zona pellucida (ZP) of human oocytes have been implicated in the binding of spermatozoa. The termini of these unusual bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary N-glycans consist of the tetrasaccharide sialyl-Lewisx (SLex ), which was previously identified as the minimal epitope for sperm binding. We describe here the chemoenzymatic synthesis of highly complex triantennary N-glycans derived from ZP carrying SLex moieties at the C-2 and C-2' arm and a sialyl-Lewisx -Lewisx (SLex -Lex ) residue at the C-6 antenna and two closely related analogues. The compounds were examined for their ability to inhibit the interaction of human sperm to ZP. It was found that the SLex -Lex moiety is critical for inhibitory activity, whereas the other SLex moieties exerted minimal effect. Further studies with SLex -Lex and SLex showed that the extended structure is the more potent inhibitor. In addition, trivalent SLex -Lex and SLex were prepared which showed greater inhibitory activity compared to their monovalent counterparts. Our studies show that although SLex can inhibit the binding of spermatozoa, presenting this epitope in the context of a complex N-glycan results in a loss of inhibitory potential, and in this context only SLex -Lex can make productive interactions. It is not the multivalent display of SLex on a multi-antennary glycan but the presentation of multiple SLex -Lex on the various glycosylation sites of ZP that accounts for high avidity binding.
Project description:Neural stem cells (NSCs) can be isolated from different regions of the central nervous system. There has been controversy whether regional differences amongst stem and progenitor cells are cell intrinsic and whether these differences are maintained during expansion in culture. The identification of inherent regional differences has important implications for the use of these cells in neural repair. Here, we compared NSCs derived from the spinal cord and embryonic cortex. We found that while cultured cortical and spinal cord derived NSCs respond similarly to mitogens and are equally neuronogenic, they retain and maintain through multiple passages gene expression patterns indicative of the region from which they were isolated (e.g Emx2 and HoxD10). Further microarray analysis identified 229 genes that were differentially expressed between cortical and spinal cord derived neurospheres, including many Hox genes, Nuclear receptors, Irx3, Pace4, Lhx2, Emx2 and Ntrk2. NSCs in the cortex express LeX. However, in the embryonic spinal cord there are two lineally related populations of NSCs: one that expresses LeX and one that does not. The LeX negative population contains few markers of regional identity but is able to generate LeX expressing NSCs that express markers of regional identity. LeX positive cells do not give rise to LeX-negative NSCs. These results demonstrate that while both embryonic cortical and spinal cord NSCs have similar self-renewal properties and multipotency, they retain aspects of regional identity, even when passaged long-term in vitro. Furthermore, there is a population of a LeX negative NSC that is present in neurospheres derived from the embryonic spinal cord but not the cortex.
Project description:Organ-specific colonization suggests that specific cell-cell recognition is essential. Yet, very little is known about this particular interaction. Moreover, tumor cell lodgement requires binding under shear stress, but not static, conditions. Here, we successfully isolate the metastatic populations of cancer stem/tumor-initiating cells (M-CSCs). We show that the M-CSCs tether more and roll slower than the non-metastatic (NM)-CSCs, thus resulting in the preferential binding to the peritoneal mesothelium under ascitic fluid shear stress. Mechanistically, this interaction is mediated by P-selectin expressed by the peritoneal mesothelium. Insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 carrying an uncommon non-sulfated sialyl-Lewisx (sLex) epitope serves as a distinct P-selectin binding determinant. Several glycosyltransferases, particularly α1,3-fucosyltransferase with rate-limiting activity for sLex synthesis, are highly expressed in M-CSCs. Tumor xenografts and clinical samples corroborate the relevance of these findings. These data advance our understanding on the molecular regulation of peritoneal metastasis and support the therapeutic potential of targeting the sLex-P-selectin cascade.
Project description:While irradiation can effectively treat brain tumors, this therapy also causes cognitive impairments, some of which may stem from the disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis. To study how radiation affects neurogenesis, we combine phenotyping of subpopulations of hippocampal neural stem and progenitor cells with double- and triple S-phase labeling paradigms. Using this approach, we reveal new features of division, survival, and differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells after exposure to gamma radiation. We show that dividing neural stem cells, while susceptible to damage induced by gamma rays, are less vulnerable than their rapidly amplifying progeny. We also show that dividing stem and progenitor cells that survive irradiation are suppressed in their ability to replicate 0.5-1 day after the radiation exposure. Suppression of division is also observed for cells that entered the cell cycle after irradiation or were not in the S phase at the time of exposure. Determining the longer term effects of irradiation, we found that 2 months after exposure, radiation-induced suppression of division is partially relieved for both stem and progenitor cells, without evidence for compensatory symmetric divisions as a means to restore the normal level of neurogenesis. By that time, most mature young neurons, born 2-4 weeks after the irradiation, still bear the consequences of radiation exposure, unlike younger neurons undergoing early stages of differentiation without overt signs of deficient maturation. Later, 6 months after an exposure to 5 Gy, cell proliferation and neurogenesis are further impaired, though neural stem cells are still available in the niche, and their pool is preserved. Our results indicate that various subpopulations of stem and progenitor cells in the adult hippocampus have different susceptibility to gamma radiation, and that neurogenesis, even after a temporary restoration, is impaired in the long term after exposure to gamma rays. Our study provides a framework for investigating critical issues of neural stem cell maintenance, aging, interaction with their microenvironment, and post-irradiation therapy.
Project description:Selectins are a class of cell adhesion molecules that play a critical role during the initial steps of inflammation. The N-terminal domain of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) binds to all selectins, but with the highest affinity to P-selectin. Recent evidence suggests that the blockade of P-selectin/PSGL-1 interactions provides a viable therapeutic option for the treatment of many inflammatory diseases. Herein, we report the total synthesis of threonine bearing sialyl LewisX (sLeX) linked to a Core-1- O-hexasaccharide 1, as a key glycan of the N-terminal domain of PSGL-1. A convergent synthesis using ?-selective sialylation and a regioselective [4+2] glycosylation are the key features of this synthesis.
Project description:Cholera is a life-threatening diarrhoeal disease caused by the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Infection occurs after ingestion of the bacteria, which colonize the human small intestine and secrete their major virulence factor - the cholera toxin (CT). The GM1 ganglioside is considered the primary receptor of the CT, but recent studies suggest that also fucosylated receptors such as histo-blood group antigens are important for cellular uptake and toxicity. Recently, a special focus has been on the histo-blood group antigen Lewisx (Lex), however, where and how the CT binds to Lex remains unclear. Here we report the high-resolution crystal structure (1.5?Å) of the receptor-binding B-subunits of the CT bound to the Lex trisaccharide, and complementary quantitative binding data for CT holotoxins. Lex, and also L-fucose alone, bind to the secondary binding site of the toxin, distinct from the GM1 binding site. In contrast, fucosyl-GM1 mainly binds to the primary binding site due to high-affinity interactions of its GM1 core. Lex is the first histo-blood group antigen of non-secretor phenotype structurally investigated in complex with CT. Together with the quantitative binding data, this allows unique insight into why individuals with non-secretor phenotype are more prone to severe cholera than so-called 'secretors'.
Project description:Mammalian tissue-specific stem cells and progenitors demonstrate differential DNA damage response. Neural progenitors in dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are known to undergo apoptosis after irradiation. Using a mouse model of hippocampal neuronal development, we characterized the apoptosis sensitivity of the different neural progenitor subpopulations in adult mouse dentate gyrus after irradiation. Two different bromodeoxyuridine incorporation paradigms were used for cell fate mapping. We identified two apoptosis sensitive neural progenitor subpopulations after irradiation. The first represented non-proliferative and non-newborn neuroblasts and immature neurons that expressed doublecortin, calretinin or both. The second consisted of proliferative intermediate neural progenitors. The putative radial glia-like neural stem cells or type-1 cells, regardless of proliferation status, were apoptosis resistant after irradiation. There was no evidence of radiation-induced apoptosis in the absence of the Trp53 (p53) gene but absence of Cdkn1a (p21) did not alter the apoptotic response. Upregulation of nuclear p53 was observed in neuroblasts after irradiation. We conclude that adult hippocampal neural progenitors may demonstrate differential p53-dependent apoptosis sensitivity after irradiation.
Project description:Human NT2- cells differentiate in vitro into NT2N neurons in the presence of retinoic acid, and culture in the presence of mitosis inhibitors. We have previously observed the presence of the Lewisx determinant exclusively in NT2N neurons but not in NT2- cells. We also obtained evidence that Lex is synthesized in these cells by FUT9 (Brito,...,Costa (2007) J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 1260). We would like to compare the levels of expression of the different glycosyltransferases, particularly, fucosyltransferases and sialyltransferases to explain the exclusive detection of Lex in the neurons. In addition, we would like to know if there are some Lex-binding proteins that may act as binding partners of Lex in the neurons.