The cellulose synthase superfamily in fully sequenced plants and algae.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The cellulose synthase superfamily has been classified into nine cellulose synthase-like (Csl) families and one cellulose synthase (CesA) family. The Csl families have been proposed to be involved in the synthesis of the backbones of hemicelluloses of plant cell walls. With 17 plant and algal genomes fully sequenced, we sought to conduct a genome-wide and systematic investigation of this superfamily through in-depth phylogenetic analyses. RESULTS:A single-copy gene is found in the six chlorophyte green algae, which is most closely related to the CslA and CslC families that are present in the seven land plants investigated in our analyses. Six proteins from poplar, grape and sorghum form a distinct family (CslJ), providing further support for the conclusions from two recent studies. CslB/E/G/H/J families have evolved significantly more rapidly than their widely distributed relatives, and tend to have intragenomic duplications, in particular in the grape genome. CONCLUSION:Our data suggest that the CslA and CslC families originated through an ancient gene duplication event in land plants. We speculate that the single-copy Csl gene in green algae may encode a mannan synthase. We confirm that the rest of the Csl families have a different evolutionary origin than CslA and CslC, and have proposed a model for the divergence order among them. Our study provides new insights about the evolution of this important gene family in plants.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Enzymes of the cellulose synthase (CesA) family and CesA-like (Csl) families are responsible for the synthesis of celluloses and hemicelluloses, and thus are of great interest to bioenergy research. We studied the occurrences and phylogenies of CesA/Csl families in diverse plants and algae by comprehensive data mining of 82 genomes and transcriptomes. RESULTS: We found that 1) charophytic green algae (CGA) have orthologous genes in CesA, CslC and CslD families; 2) liverwort genes are found in the CesA, CslA, CslC and CslD families; 3) The fern Pteridium aquilinum not only has orthologs in these conserved families but also in the CslB, CslH and CslE families; 4) basal angiosperms, e.g. Aristolochia fimbriata, have orthologs in these families too; 5) gymnosperms have genes forming clusters ancestral to CslB/H and to CslE/J/G respectively; 6) CslG is found in switchgrass and basal angiosperms; 7) CslJ is widely present in dicots and monocots; 8) CesA subfamilies have already diversified in ferns. CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that: (i) ferns and horsetails might both have CslH enzymes, responsible for the synthesis of mixed-linkage glucans and (ii) CslD and similar genes might be responsible for the synthesis of mannans in CGA. Our findings led to a more detailed model of cell wall evolution and suggested that gene loss played an important role in the evolution of Csl families. We also demonstrated the usefulness of transcriptome data in the study of plant cell wall evolution and diversity.
Project description:The CELLULOSE SYNTHASE (CESA) superfamily of proteins contains several sub-families of closely related CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE (CSL) sequences. Among these, the CSLA and CSLC families are closely related to each other and are the most evolutionarily divergent from the CESA family. Significant progress has been made with the functional characterization of CSLA and CSLC genes, which have been shown to encode enzymes with 1,4-?-glycan synthase activities involved in the biosynthesis of mannan and possibly xyloglucan backbones, respectively. This review examines recent work on the CSLA and CSLC families from evolutionary, molecular, and biochemical perspectives. We pose a series of questions, whose answers likely will provide further insight about the specific functions of members of the CSLA and CSLC families and about plant polysaccharide biosynthesis is general.
Project description:Glucuronoarabinoxylan, xyloglucan, and galactomannan are noncellulosic polysaccharides found in plant cell walls. All consist of beta-linked glycan backbones substituted with sugar side chains. Although considerable progress has been made in characterizing the structure of these polysaccharides, little is known about the biosynthetic enzymes that produce them. Cellulose synthase-like (Csl) genes are hypothesized to encode Golgi-localized beta-glycan synthases that polymerize the backbones of noncellulosic polysaccharides. To investigate this hypothesis, we used heterologous expression in Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells to systematically analyze the functions of the gene products of a group of Csl genes from Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa L.), including members from five Csl gene families (CslA, CslC, CslD, CslE, and CslH). Our analyses indicate that several members of the CslA gene family encode beta-mannan synthases. Recombinant CslA proteins produce beta-linked mannan polymers when supplied GDP-mannose. The same proteins can produce beta-linked glucomannan heteropolymers when supplied both GDP-mannose and GDP-glucose. One CslA protein also produced beta-linked glucan polymers when supplied GDP-glucose alone. Heterologous expression studies of additional candidate glycan synthases in insect cells or other systems may help identify other noncellulosic polysaccharide biosynthetic enzymes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The carbohydrate polymers that encapsulate plants cells have benefited humans for centuries and have valuable biotechnological uses. In the past 5 years, exciting possibilities have emerged in the engineering of polysaccharide-based biomaterials. Despite impressive advances on bacterial cellulose-based hydrogels, comparatively little is known about how plant hemicelluloses can be reconstituted and modulated in cells suitable for biotechnological purposes.<h4>Results</h4>Here, we assembled cellulose synthase-like A (CSLA) enzymes using an optimized Pichia pastoris platform to produce tunable heteromannan (HM) polysaccharides in yeast. By swapping the domains of plant mannan and glucomannan synthases, we engineered chimeric CSLA proteins that made β-1,4-linked mannan in quantities surpassing those of the native enzymes while minimizing the burden on yeast growth. Prolonged expression of a glucomannan synthase from Amorphophallus konjac was toxic to yeast cells: reducing biomass accumulation and ultimately leading to compromised cell viability. However, an engineered glucomannan synthase as well as CSLA pure mannan synthases and a CSLC glucan synthase did not inhibit growth. Interestingly, Pichia cell size could be increased or decreased depending on the composition of the CSLA protein sequence. HM yield and glucose incorporation could be further increased by co-expressing chimeric CSLA proteins with a MANNAN-SYNTHESIS-RELATED (MSR) co-factor from Arabidopsis thaliana.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The results provide novel routes for the engineering of polysaccharide-based biomaterials that are needed for a sustainable bioeconomy. The characterization of chimeric cellulose synthase-like enzymes in yeast offers an exciting avenue to produce plant polysaccharides in a tunable manner. Furthermore, cells modified with non-toxic plant polysaccharides such as β-mannan offer a modular chassis to produce and encapsulate sensitive cargo such as therapeutic proteins.
Project description:The tiller inhibition gene (tin) that reduces tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum) is also associated with large spikes, increased grain weight, and thick leaves and stems. In this study, comparison of near-isogenic lines (NILs) revealed changes in stem morphology, cell wall composition, and stem strength. Microscopic analysis of stem cross-sections and chemical analysis of stem tissue indicated that cell walls in tin lines were thicker and more lignified than in free-tillering NILs. Increased lignification was associated with stronger stems in tin plants. A candidate gene for tin was identified through map-based cloning and was predicted to encode a cellulose synthase-like (Csl) protein with homology to members of the CslA clade. Dinucleotide repeat-length polymorphism in the 5'UTR region of the Csl gene was associated with tiller number in diverse wheat germplasm and linked to expression differences of Csl transcripts between NILs. We propose that regulation of Csl transcript and/or protein levels affects carbon partitioning throughout the plant, which plays a key role in the tin phenotype.
Project description:Despite the central role of xyloglucan (XyG) in plant cell wall structure and function, important details of its biosynthesis are not understood. To identify the gene(s) responsible for synthesizing the beta-1,4 glucan backbone of XyG, we exploited a property of nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) seed development. During the last stages of nasturtium seed maturation, a large amount of XyG is deposited as a reserve polysaccharide. A cDNA library was produced from mRNA isolated during the deposition of XyG, and partial sequences of 10,000 cDNA clones were determined. A single member of the C subfamily from the large family of cellulose synthase-like (CSL) genes was found to be overrepresented in the cDNA library. Heterologous expression of this gene in the yeast Pichia pastoris resulted in the production of a beta-1,4 glucan, confirming that the CSLC protein has glucan synthase activity. The Arabidopsis CSLC4 gene, which is the gene with the highest sequence similarity to the nasturtium CSL gene, is coordinately expressed with other genes involved in XyG biosynthesis. These and other observations provide a compelling case that the CSLC gene family encode proteins that synthesize the XyG backbone.
Project description:The cell wall plays an important role in responses to various stresses. The cellulose synthase-like gene (<i>Csl</i>) family has been reported to be involved in the biosynthesis of the hemicellulose backbone. However, little information is available on their involvement in plant tolerance to low-temperature (LT) stress. In this study, a total of 42 <i>Csls</i> were identified in <i>Musa acuminata</i> and clustered into six subfamilies (<i>CslA</i>, <i>CslC</i>, <i>CslD</i>, <i>CslE</i>, <i>CslG</i>, and <i>CslH</i>) according to phylogenetic relationships. The genomic features of <i>MaCsl</i> genes were characterized to identify gene structures, conserved motifs and the distribution among chromosomes. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to show the diversity in these genes. Different changes in hemicellulose content between chilling-tolerant and chilling-sensitive banana cultivars under LT were observed, suggesting that certain types of hemicellulose are involved in LT stress tolerance in banana. Thus, the expression patterns of <i>MaCsl</i> genes in both cultivars after LT treatment were investigated by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technique followed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) validation. The results indicated that <i>MaCslA4/12</i>, <i>MaCslD4</i> and <i>MaCslE2</i> are promising candidates determining the chilling tolerance of banana. Our results provide the first genome-wide characterization of the <i>MaCsls</i> in banana, and open the door for further functional studies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>CesA and Csl gene families, which belong to the cellulose synthase gene superfamily, plays an important role in the biosynthesis of the plant cell wall. Although researchers have investigated this gene superfamily in several model plants, to date, no comprehensive analysis has been conducted in the common bean.<h4>Results</h4>In this study, we identified 39 putative cellulose synthase genes from the common bean genome sequence. Then, we performed a bioinformatics analysis of this gene family involving sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis, gene structure, collinearity analysis and chromosome location. We found all members possess a cellulose_synt domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these cellulose synthase genes may be classified into five subfamilies, and that members in the same subfamily share conserved exon-intron distribution and motif compositions. Abundant and distinct cis-acting elements in the 2 k basepairs upstream regulatory regions indicate that the cellulose synthase gene family may plays a vital role in the growth and development of common bean. Moreover, the 39 cellulose synthase genes are distributed on 10 of the 11 chromosomes. Additionally expression analysis shows that all CesA/Csl genes selected are constitutively expressed in the pod development.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This research reveals both the putative biochemical and physiological functions of cellulose synthase genes in common bean and implies the importance of studying non-model plants to understand the breadth and diversity of cellulose synthase genes.
Project description:Flavobacterium columnare is an important bacterial pathogen of freshwater fish that causes high mortality of infected fish and heavy economic losses in aquaculture. The pathogenesis of this bacterium is poorly understood, in part due to the lack of efficient methods for genetic manipulation. In this study, a gene deletion strategy was developed and used to determine the relationship between the production of chondroitin lyases and virulence. The F. johnsoniae ompA promoter (PompA) was fused to sacB to construct a counterselectable marker for F. columnare. F. columnare carrying PompA-sacB failed to grow on media containing 10% sucrose. A suicide vector carrying PompA-sacB was constructed, and a gene deletion strategy was developed. Using this approach, the chondroitin lyase-encoding genes, cslA and cslB, were deleted. The ?cslA and ?cslB mutants were both partially deficient in digestion of chondroitin sulfate A, whereas a double mutant (?cslA ?cslB) was completely deficient in chondroitin lyase activity. Cells of F. columnare wild-type strain G4 and of the chondroitin lyase-deficient ?cslA ?cslB mutant exhibited similar levels of virulence toward grass carp in single-strain infections. Coinfections, however, revealed a competitive advantage for the wild type over the chondroitin lyase mutant. The results indicate that chondroitin lyases are not essential virulence factors of F. columnare but may contribute to the ability of the pathogen to compete and cause disease in natural infections. The gene deletion method developed in this study may be employed to investigate the virulence factors of this bacterium and may have wide application in many other members of the phylum Bacteroidetes.
Project description:Cellulose synthase-like (CSL) genes are predicted to catalyse the biosynthesis of non-cellulosic polysaccharides such as the ?-D-glycan backbone of hemicelluloses and are classified into nine subfamilies (CSLA-CSLH and CSLJ). The CSLD subfamily is conserved in all land plants, and among the nine CSL subfamilies, it shows the highest sequence similarity to the cellulose synthase genes, suggesting that it plays fundamental roles in plant development. This study presents a detailed analysis of slender leaf 1 (sle1) mutants of rice that showed rolled and narrow leaf blades and a reduction in plant height. The narrow leaf blade of sle1 was caused by reduced cell proliferation beginning at the P3 primordial stage. In addition to the size reduction of organs, sle1 mutants exhibited serious developmental defects in pollen formation, anther dehiscence, stomata formation, and cell arrangement in various tissues. Map-based cloning revealed that SLE1 encodes the OsCSLD4 protein, which was identified previously from a narrow leaf and dwarf 1 mutant. In situ hybridization experiments showed that OsCSLD4 was expressed in a patchy pattern in developing organs. Double-target in situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that SLE1 was expressed specifically during the M-phase of the cell cycle, and suggested that the cell-cycle regulation was altered in sle1 mutants. These results suggest that the OsCSLD4 protein plays a pivotal role in the M phase to regulate cell proliferation. Further study of OsCSLD4 is expected to yield new insight into the role of hemicelluloses in plant development.