Dynamic acetylation of all lysine-4 trimethylated histone H3 is evolutionarily conserved and mediated by p300/CBP.
ABSTRACT: Histone modifications are reported to show different behaviors, associations, and functions in different genomic niches and organisms. We show here that rapid, continuous turnover of acetylation specifically targeted to all K4-trimethylated H3 tails (H3K4me3), but not to bulk histone H3 or H3 carrying other methylated lysines, is a common uniform characteristic of chromatin biology in higher eukaryotes, being precisely conserved in human, mouse, and Drosophila. Furthermore, dynamic acetylation targeted to H3K4me3 is mediated by the same lysine acetyltransferase, p300/cAMP response element binding (CREB)-binding protein (CBP), in both mouse and fly cells. RNA interference or chemical inhibition of p300/CBP using a newly discovered small molecule inhibitor, C646, blocks dynamic acetylation of H3K4me3 globally in mouse and fly cells, and locally across the promoter and start-site of inducible genes in the mouse, thereby disrupting RNA polymerase II association and the activation of these genes. Thus, rapid dynamic acetylation of all H3K4me3 mediated by p300/CBP is a general, evolutionarily conserved phenomenon playing an essential role in the induction of immediate-early (IE) genes. These studies indicate a more global function of p300/CBP in mediating rapid turnover of acetylation of all H3K4me3 across the nuclei of higher eukaryotes, rather than a tight promoter-restricted function targeted by complex formation with specific transcription factors.
Project description:The acetyltransferases CBP and p300 are multifunctional transcriptional co-activators. Here, we combined quantitative proteomics with CBP/p300-specific catalytic inhibitors, bromodomain inhibitor, and gene knockout to reveal a comprehensive map of regulated acetylation sites and their dynamic turnover rates. CBP/p300 acetylates thousands of sites, including signature histone sites and a multitude of sites on signaling effectors and enhancer-associated transcriptional regulators. Time-resolved acetylome analyses identified a subset of CBP/p300-regulated sites with very rapid (<30 min) acetylation turnover, revealing a dynamic balance between acetylation and deacetylation. Quantification of acetylation, mRNA, and protein abundance after CBP/p300 inhibition reveals a kinetically competent network of gene expression that strictly depends on CBP/p300-catalyzed rapid acetylation. Collectively, our in-depth acetylome analyses reveal systems attributes of CBP/p300 targets, and the resource dataset provides a framework for investigating CBP/p300 functions and for understanding the impact of small-molecule inhibitors targeting its catalytic and bromodomain activities.
Project description:Stimulation of the MAPK pathway results in mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1/2 (MSK1/2)-catalyzed phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 or 28 and expression of immediate-early (IE) genes. In 10T1/2 mouse fibroblasts, phosphorylation of H3S10 and H3S28 occurs on different H3 molecules and in different nuclear regions. Similarly, we show that mitogen-induced H3S10 and H3S28 phosphorylation occurs in separate pools in human primary fibroblasts. High-resolution imaging studies on both cell types reveal that H3S10 and H3S28 phosphorylation events can be induced in a single cell but on different alleles, giving rise to H3S10ph and H3S28ph epialleles. Coimmunoprecipitation and inhibition studies demonstrate that CBP/p300-mediated H3K27 acetylation is required for MSK1/2 to phosphorylate S28. Although the K9ac and S10ph marks coexist on H3, S10 phosphorylation is not dependent on K9 acetylation by PCAF. We propose that random targeting of H3S10 or H3S28 results from the stochastic acetylation of H3 by CBP/p300 or PCAF, a process comparable to transcriptional bursting causing temporary allelic imbalance. In 10T1/2 cells expressing Jun, at least two of three alleles per cell were induced, a sign of high expression level. The redundant roles of H3S10ph and H3S28ph might enable rapid and efficient IE gene induction.
Project description:Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Overexpression of the transcripts from the P3 and P4 promoters of the insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) gene is observed in HCC. The present study investigated the involvement of HBx in IGF-II overexpression and its epigenetic regulation. Firstly, the effects of HBx on P3 and P4 mRNA expression, the methylation status of the P3 and P4 promoters, and MBD2 expression were analyzed in human HCC cells and HCC samples. Next, interaction between HBx and MBD2 or CBP/p300 was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation, and HBx-mediated binding of MBD2 and CBP/p300 to the P3 and P4 promoters and the acetylation of the corresponding histones H3 and H4 were evaluated by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation. Finally, using siRNA knockdown, we investigated the roles of MBD2 and CBP/p300 in IGF-II overexpression and its epigenetic regulation. Our results showed that HBx promotes IGF-II expression via inducing the hypomethylation of the P3 and P4 promoters, and that HBx increases MBD2 expression, directly interacts with MBD2 and CBP/p300, and elevates their recruitment to the hypomethylated P3 and P4 promoters with increased acetylation levels of the corresponding histones H3 and H4. Further results showed that endogenous MBD2 and CBP/p300 are necessary for HBx-induced IGF-II overexpression and that CBP/p300 presence and CBP/p300-mediated acetylation of histones H3 and H4 are partially required for MBD2 binding and its demethylase activity. These data suggest that HBx induces MBD2-HBx-CBP/p300 complex formation via interaction with MBD2 and CBP/p300, which contributes to the hypomethylation and transcriptional activation of the IGF-II-P3 and P4 promoters and that CBP/p300-mediated acetylation of histones H3 and H4 may be a rate-limiting step for the hypomethylation and activation of these two promoters. This study provides an alternative mechanism for understanding the pathogenesis of HBx-mediated HCC.
Project description:The histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzymes p300 and CBP are closely related paralogs that serve as transcriptional coactivators and have been found to be dysregulated in cancer and other diseases. p300/CBP is a multidomain protein and possesses a highly conserved bromodomain that has been shown to bind acetylated Lys residues in both proteins and various small molecules, including I-CBP112 and CBP30. Here we show that the ligand I-CBP112 can stimulate nucleosome acetylation up to 3-fold while CBP30 does not. Activation of p300/CBP by I-CBP112 is not observed with the isolated histone H3 substrate but requires a nucleosome substrate. I-CBP112 does not impact nucleosome acetylation by the isolated p300 HAT domain, and the effects of I-CBP112 on p300/CBP can be neutralized by CBP30, suggesting that I-CBP112 likely allosterically activates p300/CBP through bromodomain interactions. Using mass spectrometry and Western blots, we have found that I-CBP112 particularly stimulates acetylation of Lys18 of histone H3 (H3K18) in nucleosomes, an established in vivo site of p300/CBP. In addition, we show that I-CBP112 enhances H3K18 acetylation in acute leukemia and prostate cancer cells in a concentration range commensurate with its antiproliferative effects. Our findings extend the known pharmacology of bromodomain ligands in the regulation of p300/CBP and suggest a novel approach to modulating histone acetylation in cancer.
Project description:Although p300 and CBP lysine acetyltransferases are often treated interchangeably, the inability of one enzyme to compensate for the loss of the other suggests unique roles for each. As these deficiencies coincide with aberrant levels of histone acetylation, we hypothesized that the key difference between p300 and CBP activity is differences in their specificity/selectivity for lysines within the histones. Utilizing a label-free, quantitative mass spectrometry based technique, we determined the kinetic parameters of both CBP and p300 at each lysine of H3 and H4, under conditions we would expect to encounter in the cell (either limiting acetyl-CoA or histone). Our results show that while p300 and CBP acetylate many common residues on H3 and H4, they do in fact possess very different specificities, and these specificities are dependent on whether histone or acetyl-CoA is limiting. Steady-state experiments with limiting H3 demonstrate that both CBP and p300 acetylate H3K14, H3K18, H3K23, with p300 having specificities up to 10¹?-fold higher than CBP. Utilizing tetramer as a substrate, both enzymes also acetylate H4K5, H4K8, H4K12, and H4K16. With limiting tetramer, CBP displays higher specificities, especially at H3K18, where CBP specificity is 10³²-fold higher than p300. With limiting acetyl-CoA, p300 has the highest specificity at H4K16, where specificity is 10¹?-fold higher than CBP. This discovery of unique specificity for targets of CBP- vs p300-mediated acetylation of histone lysine residues presents a new model for understanding their respective biological roles and possibly an opportunity for selective therapeutic intervention.
Project description:p300/cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein-binding protein (CBP) are general coactivators for multiple transcription factors involved in various cellular processes. Several highly conserved domains of p300/CBP serve as interacting sites for transcription factors and regulatory proteins. Particularly, the intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity and transactivation domains (TAD) play essential roles for their coactivating function. Autoacetylation of p300/CBP is commonly observed in cell-free HAT assays and has been implicated in the regulation of their HAT activity. Here, we show that six lysine-rich regions in several highly conserved functional domains of p300 are targeted by p300HAT for acetylation in cell-free systems. We show that p300 is susceptible to acetylation in cultured tumor cells and that its acetylation status is affected by histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. We further show that either treatment with deacetylase inhibitors or coexpression of Gal4-p300HAT, which alone has no transactivation activity, stimulates the activity of the COOH-terminal TAD of p300 (p300C-TAD). We have defined the minimal p300C-TAD and show that it is sufficient to respond to deacetylase inhibitors and is a substrate for p300HAT. Finally, we show that acetylated p300 possesses enhanced ability to interact with p53. Taken together, our data suggest that acetylation regulates p300C-TAD and that acetylation of p300/CBP may contribute to the dynamic regulation of their complex formation with various interacting partners.
Project description:Histone acetylation at DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites by CBP and p300 histone acetyltransferases (HATs) is critical for the recruitment of DSB repair proteins to chromatin. Here, we show that CBP and p300 HATs also function in DSB repair by transcriptionally activating the BRCA1 and RAD51 genes, which are involved in homologous recombination (HR), a major DSB repair system. siRNA-mediated depletion of CBP and p300 impaired HR activity and downregulated BRCA1 and RAD51 at the protein and mRNA levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that CBP and p300 bind to the promoter regions of the BRCA1 and RAD51 genes, and that depletion of CBP and/or p300 reduces H3 and H4 acetylation and inhibits binding of the transcription factor E2F1 to these promoters. Depletion of CBP and p300 impaired DNA damage-induced phosphorylation and chromatin binding of the single-strand DNA-binding protein RPA following BRCA1-mediated DNA end resection. Consistent with this, subsequent phosphorylation of CHK1 and activation of the G2/M damage checkpoint were also impaired. These results indicate that the HATs CBP and p300 play multiple roles in the activation of the cellular response to DSBs.
Project description:Lens induction is a classical embryologic model to study cell fate determination. It has been proposed earlier that specific changes in core histone modifications accompany the process of cell fate specification and determination. The lysine acetyltransferases CBP and p300 function as principal enzymes that modify core histones to facilitate specific gene expression. Herein, we performed conditional inactivation of both CBP and p300 in the ectodermal cells that give rise to the lens placode. Inactivation of both CBP and p300 resulted in the dramatic discontinuation of all aspects of lens specification and organogenesis, resulting in aphakia. The CBP/p300(-/-) ectodermal cells are viable and not prone to apoptosis. These cells showed reduced expression of Six3 and Sox2, while expression of Pax6 was not upregulated, indicating discontinuation of lens induction. Consequently, expression of ?B- and ?A-crystallins was not initiated. Mutant ectoderm exhibited markedly reduced levels of histone H3 K18 and K27 acetylation, subtly increased H3 K27me3 and unaltered overall levels of H3 K9ac and H3 K4me3. Our data demonstrate that CBP and p300 are required to establish lens cell-type identity during lens induction, and suggest that posttranslational histone modifications are integral to normal cell fate determination in the mammalian lens.
Project description:The acetyltransferases CBP and p300 are multifunctional transcriptional co-activators; however, their acetylation targets, site-specific acetylation kinetics, and function in proteome regulation are incompletely understood. We combined quantitative proteomics with novel CBP/p300-specific catalytic inhibitors, bromodomain inhibitor, and gene knockout to show that CBP/p300 acetylates thousands of sites, including signature histone sites, as well as a multitude of sites on signaling effectors and enhancer-associated transcriptional regulators. Kinetic analysis identified a subset of CBP/p300-regulated sites with very rapid (<30min) acetylation turnover, revealing a dynamic balance between acetylation and deacetylation. Quantification of acetylation, mRNA, and protein abundance after CBP/p300 inhibition reveals a kinetically competent network of gene expression that strictly depends on CBP/p300-catalyzed rapid acetylation. Collectively, our in-depth acetylome analyses reveal systems attributes of CBP/p300 targets, and the resource dataset provides a framework for investigating CBP/p300 functions, as well as for understanding the impact of small molecule inhibitors targeting its catalytic and bromodomain activities.
Project description:Dynamic acetylation of all lysine-4-trimethylated histone H3 is a complex phenomenon involved in Immediate-early gene induction in metazoan eukaryotes. Higher eukaryotes express repeated copies of three closely related H3 variants, inaccessible to genetic analysis. We demonstrate conservation of these phenomena in Dictyostelium which has three single-copy H3 variant genes. Although dynamic acetylation is targeted to two H3 variants which are K4-trimethylated, K9-acetylation is preferentially targeted to one. In cells lacking Set1 methyltransferase and any detectable K4-trimethylation, dynamic acetylation is lost demonstrating a direct link between the two. Gene replacement to express mutated H3 variants reveals a novel interaction between K4-trimethylation on different variants. Cells expressing only one variant show defects in growth, and in induction of a UV-inducible gene, demonstrating the functional importance of variant expression. These studies confirm that dynamic acetylation targeted to H3K4me3 arose early in evolution and reveal a very high level of specificity of histone variant utilization in a simple multicellular eukaryote.