Effect of iclR and arcA knockouts on biomass formation and metabolic fluxes in Escherichia coli K12 and its implications on understanding the metabolism of Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3).
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Gene expression is regulated through a complex interplay of different transcription factors (TFs) which can enhance or inhibit gene transcription. ArcA is a global regulator that regulates genes involved in different metabolic pathways, while IclR as a local regulator, controls the transcription of the glyoxylate pathway genes of the aceBAK operon. This study investigates the physiological and metabolic consequences of arcA and iclR deletions on E. coli K12 MG1655 under glucose abundant and limiting conditions and compares the results with the metabolic characteristics of E. coli BL21 (DE3). RESULTS: The deletion of arcA and iclR results in an increase in the biomass yield both under glucose abundant and limiting conditions, approaching the maximum theoretical yield of 0.65 c-mole/c-mole glucose under glucose abundant conditions. This can be explained by the lower flux through several CO2 producing pathways in the E. coli K12 ?arcA?iclR double knockout strain. Due to iclR gene deletion, the glyoxylate pathway is activated resulting in a redirection of 30% of the isocitrate molecules directly to succinate and malate without CO2 production. Furthermore, a higher flux at the entrance of the TCA was noticed due to arcA gene deletion, resulting in a reduced production of acetate and less carbon loss. Under glucose limiting conditions the flux through the glyoxylate pathway is further increased in the ?iclR knockout strain, but this effect was not observed in the double knockout strain. Also a striking correlation between the glyoxylate flux data and the isocitrate lyase activity was observed for almost all strains and under both growth conditions, illustrating the transcriptional control of this pathway. Finally, similar central metabolic fluxes were observed in E. coli K12 ?arcA ?iclR compared to the industrially relevant E. coli BL21 (DE3), especially with respect to the pentose pathway, the glyoxylate pathway, and the TCA fluxes. In addition, a comparison of the genome sequences of the two strains showed that BL21 possesses two mutations in the promoter region of iclR and rare codons are present in arcA implying a lower tRNA acceptance. Both phenomena presumably result in a reduced ArcA and IclR synthesis in BL21, which contributes to the similar physiology as observed in E. coli K12 ?arcA?iclR. CONCLUSIONS: The deletion of arcA results in a decrease of repression on transcription of TCA cycle genes under glucose abundant conditions, without significantly affecting the glyoxylate pathway activity. IclR clearly represses transcription of glyoxylate pathway genes under glucose abundance, a condition in which Crp activation is absent. Under glucose limitation, Crp is responsible for the high glyoxylate flux, but IclR still represses transcription. Finally, in E. coli BL21 (DE3), ArcA and IclR are poorly expressed, explaining the similar fluxes observed compared to the ?arcA?iclR strain.
Project description:Although a whole arsenal of mechanisms are potentially involved in metabolic regulation, it is largely uncertain when, under which conditions, and to which extent a particular mechanism actually controls network fluxes and thus cellular physiology. Based on (13)C flux analysis of Escherichia coli mutants, we elucidated the relevance of global transcriptional regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, CreB, CreC, Crp, Cya, Fnr, Hns, Mlc, OmpR, and UspA on aerobic glucose catabolism in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at a growth rate of 0.1 h(-1). The by far most relevant control mechanism was cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent catabolite repression as the inducer of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-glyoxylate cycle and thus low tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes. While all other mutants and the reference E. coli strain exhibited high glyoxylate shunt and PEP carboxykinase fluxes, and thus high PEP-glyoxylate cycle flux, this cycle was essentially abolished in both the Crp and Cya mutants, which lack the cAMP-cAMP receptor protein complex. Most other mutations were phenotypically silent, and only the Cra and Hns mutants exhibited slightly altered flux distributions through PEP carboxykinase and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, respectively. The Cra effect on PEP carboxykinase was probably the consequence of a specific control mechanism, while the Hns effect appears to be unspecific. For central metabolism, the available data thus suggest that a single transcriptional regulation process exerts the dominant control under a given condition and this control is highly specific for a single pathway or cycle within the network.
Project description:Malate is a C4-dicarboxylic acid widely used as an acidulant in the food and beverage industry. Rational engineering has been performed in the past for the development of microbial strains capable of efficient production of this metabolite. However, as malate can be a precursor for specialty chemicals, such as 2,4-dihydroxybutyric acid, that require additional cofactors NADP(H) and ATP, we set out to reengineer Escherichia coli for Krebs cycle-dependent production of malic acid that can satisfy these requirements.We found that significant malate production required at least simultaneous deletion of all malic enzymes and dehydrogenases, and concomitant expression of a malate-insensitive PEP carboxylase. Metabolic flux analysis using 13C-labeled glucose indicated that malate-producing strains had a very high flux over the glyoxylate shunt with almost no flux passing through the isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction. The highest malate yield of 0.82 mol/mol was obtained with E. coli ?mdh ?mqo ?maeAB ?iclR ?arcA which expressed malate-insensitive PEP carboxylase PpcK620S and NADH-insensitive citrate synthase GltAR164L. We also showed that inactivation of the dicarboxylic acid transporter DcuA strongly reduced malate production arguing for a pivotal role of this permease in malate export.Since more NAD(P)H and ATP cofactors are generated in the Krebs cycle-dependent malate production when compared to pathways which depend on the function of anaplerotic PEP carboxylase or PEP carboxykinase enzymes, the engineered strain developed in this study can serve as a platform to increase biosynthesis of malate-derived metabolites such as 2,4-dihydroxybutyric acid.
Project description:Despite our increasing topological knowledge on regulation networks in model bacteria, it is largely unknown which of the many co-occurring regulatory events actually control metabolic function and the distribution of intracellular fluxes. Here, we unravel condition-dependent transcriptional control of Escherichia coli metabolism by large-scale (13)C-flux analysis in 91 transcriptional regulator mutants on glucose and galactose. In contrast to the canonical respiro-fermentative glucose metabolism, fully respiratory galactose metabolism depends exclusively on the phosphoenol-pyruvate (PEP)-glyoxylate cycle. While 2/3 of the regulators directly or indirectly affected absolute flux rates, the partitioning between different pathways remained largely stable with transcriptional control focusing primarily on the acetyl-CoA branch point. Flux distribution control was achieved by nine transcription factors on glucose, including ArcA, Fur, PdhR, IHF A and IHF B, but was exclusively mediated by the cAMP-dependent Crp regulation of the PEP-glyoxylate cycle flux on galactose. Five further transcription factors affected this flux only indirectly through cAMP and Crp by increasing the galactose uptake rate. Thus, E. coli actively limits its galactose catabolism at the expense of otherwise possible faster growth.
Project description:We have previously reported that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase(Pck) overexpression under glycolytic conditions enables Escherichia coli to harbor a high intracellular ATP pool resulting in enhanced recombinant protein synthesis and biohydrogen production. To understand possible reasons of the high ATP haboring cell, we carried out transcriptome and metabolic flux analysis. Overall design: Comparison of main metabolic gene and regulator expression profiling using RNA-seq data of BL21(DE3) vs. BL21(DE3)_Pck_over under glucose LB
Project description:The 13C-MFA experiments require an optimal design since the precision or confidence intervals of the estimated flux levels depends on factors such as the composition of 13C-labeled carbon sources, as well as the metabolic flux distribution of interest. In this study, useful compositions of 13C-labeled glucose for 13C-metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA) of Escherichia coli are investigated using a computer simulation of the stable isotope labeling experiment. Following the generation of artificial mass spectra datasets of amino acid fragments using five literature-reported flux distributions of E. coli, the best fitted flux distribution and the 95% confidence interval were estimated by the 13C-MFA procedure. A comparison of the precision scores showed that [1, 2-13C]glucose and a mixture of [1-13C] and [U-13C]glucose at 8:2 are one of the best carbon sources for a precise estimation of flux levels of the pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis and the TCA cycle. Although the precision scores of the anaplerotic and glyoxylate pathway reactions were affected by both the carbon source and flux distribution, it was also shown that the mixture of non-labeled, [1-13C], and [U-13C]glucose at 4:1:5 was specifically effective for the flux estimation of the glyoxylate pathway reaction. These findings were confirmed by wet 13C-MFA experiments.
Project description:The mode of succinate mediated repression of mineral phosphate solubilization and the role of repressor in suppressing phosphate solubilization phenotype of two free-living nitrogen fixing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains was studied. Organic acid mediated mineral phosphate solubilization phenotype of oxalic acid producing Klebsiella pneumoniae SM6 and SM11 were transcriptionally repressed by IclR in presence of succinate as carbon source. Oxalic acid production and expression of genes of the glyoxylate shunt (aceBAK) was found only in glucose but not in succinate- and glucose+succinate-grown cells. IclR, repressor of aceBAK operon, was inactivated using an allelic exchange system resulting in derepressed mineral phosphate solubilization phenotype through constitutive expression of the glyoxylate shunt. Insertional inactivation of iclR resulted in increased activity of the glyoxylate shunt enzymes even in succinate-grown cells. An augmented phosphate solubilization up to 54 and 59% soluble phosphate release was attained in glucose+succinate-grown SM6? and SM11? strains respectively, compared to glucose-grown cells, whereas phosphate solubilization was absent or negligible in wildtype cells grown in glucose+succinate. Both wildtype and iclR deletion strains showed similar indole-3-acetic acid production. Wheat seeds inoculated with wildtype SM6 and SM11 improved both root and shoot length by 1.2 fold. However, iclR deletion SM6? and SM11? strains increased root and shoot length by 1.5 and 1.4 folds, respectively, compared to uninoculated controls. The repressor inactivated phosphate solubilizers better served the purpose of constitutive phosphate solubilization in pot experiments, where presence of other carbon sources (e.g., succinate) might repress mineral phosphate solubilization phenotype of wildtype strains.
Project description:Even though transcriptional regulation plays a key role in establishing the metabolic network, the extent to which it actually controls the in vivo distribution of metabolic fluxes through different pathways is essentially unknown. Based on metabolism-wide quantification of intracellular fluxes, we systematically elucidated the relevance of global transcriptional regulation by ArcA, ArcB, Cra, Crp, Cya, Fnr, and Mlc for aerobic glucose catabolism in batch cultures of Escherichia coli. Knockouts of ArcB, Cra, Fnr, and Mlc were phenotypically silent, while deletion of the catabolite repression regulators Crp and Cya resulted in a pronounced slow-growth phenotype but had only a nonspecific effect on the actual flux distribution. Knockout of ArcA-dependent redox regulation, however, increased the aerobic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity by over 60%. Like aerobic conditions, anaerobic derepression of TCA cycle enzymes in an ArcA mutant significantly increased the in vivo TCA flux when nitrate was present as an electron acceptor. The in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate that ArcA-dependent transcriptional regulation directly or indirectly controls TCA cycle flux in both aerobic and anaerobic glucose batch cultures of E. coli. This control goes well beyond the previously known ArcA-dependent regulation of the TCA cycle during microaerobiosis.
Project description:In Escherichia coli, expression of the glyoxylate bypass operon appears to be controlled, in part, by the product of iclR+. Mutations in iclR have been found to yield constitutive expression of this operon, suggesting that iclR+ encodes a repressor protein. We have cloned iclR+ by taking advantage of its tight genetic linkage with the glyoxylate bypass operon. The clone complemented a mutant allele of iclR in trans, restoring an inducible phenotype for this operon. Deletion analysis identified a region of ca. 900 base pairs that was necessary and sufficient for complementation. The nucleotide sequence of the insert was then determined. Translation of this sequence revealed an open reading frame capable of encoding a protein with Mr 29,741 preceded by a potential Shine-Dalgarno ribosome-binding site. The deduced amino acid sequence includes a region at the amino terminus that may form a helix-turn-helix motif, a structure found in many DNA-binding domains.
Project description:Determining how facultative anaerobic organisms sense and direct cellular responses to electron acceptor availability has been a subject of intense study. However, even in the model organism Escherichia coli, established mechanisms only explain a small fraction of the hundreds of genes that are regulated during shifts in electron acceptor availability. Here we propose a qualitative model that accounts for the full breadth of regulated genes by detailing how two global transcription factors (TFs), ArcA and Fnr of E. coli, sense key metabolic redox ratios and act on a genome-wide basis to regulate anabolic, catabolic, and energy generation pathways. We first fill gaps in our knowledge of this transcriptional regulatory network by carrying out ChIP-chip and gene expression experiments to identify 463 regulatory events. We then interfaced this reconstructed regulatory network with a highly curated genome-scale metabolic model to show that ArcA and Fnr regulate > 80% of total metabolic flux and 96% of differential gene expression across fermentative and nitrate respiratory conditions. Finally, based on the data we propose a feedforward with feedback trim regulatory scheme by showing extensive repression of catabolic genes by ArcA and extensive activation of chemiosmotic genes by Fnr. We further corroborated this regulatory scheme by showing a 0.71 r2 (p < 1e-6) correlation between changes in metabolic flux and changes in regulatory activity across fermentative and nitrate respiratory conditions. We also are able to relate the proposed model to a wealth of previously generated data by contextualizing the existing transcriptional regulatory network. Biological replicates were performed in triplicate for Δfnr, ΔarcA, and wild type Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 strains under both fully fermentative and nitrate respiratory conditions. An 18 chip study with three different strains under two different culture conditions.
Project description:The constitutive activation of the anoxic redox control transcriptional regulator (ArcA) in Escherichia coli during aerobic growth, with the consequent production of a strain that exhibits anaerobic physiology even in the presence of air, is reported in this work. Removal of three terminal cytochrome oxidase genes (cydAB, cyoABCD, and cbdAB) and a quinol monooxygenase gene (ygiN) from the E. coli K-12 MG1655 genome resulted in the activation of ArcA aerobically. These mutations resulted in reduction of the oxygen uptake rate by nearly 98% and production of d-lactate as a sole by-product under oxic and anoxic conditions. The knockout strain exhibited nearly identical physiological behaviors under both conditions, suggesting that the mutations resulted in significant metabolic and regulatory perturbations. In order to fully understand the physiology of this mutant and to identify underlying metabolic and regulatory reasons that prevent the transition from an aerobic to an anaerobic phenotype, we utilized whole-genome transcriptome analysis, (13)C tracing experiments, and physiological characterization. Our analysis showed that the deletions resulted in the activation of anaerobic respiration under oxic conditions and a consequential shift in the content of the quinone pool from ubiquinones to menaquinones. An increase in menaquinone concentration resulted in the activation of ArcA. The activation of the ArcB/ArcA regulatory system led to a major shift in the metabolic flux distribution through the central metabolism of the mutant strain. Flux analysis indicated that the mutant strain had undetectable fluxes around the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and elevated flux through glycolysis and anaplerotic input to oxaloacetate. Flux and transcriptomics data were highly correlated and showed similar patterns.