Association of maternal height with child mortality, anthropometric failure, and anemia in India.
ABSTRACT: Prior research on the determinants of child health has focused on contemporaneous risk factors such as maternal behaviors, dietary factors, and immediate environmental conditions. Research on intergenerational factors that might also predispose a child to increased health adversity remains limited.To examine the association between maternal height and child mortality, anthropometric failure, and anemia.We retrieved data from the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey in India (released in 2008). The study population constitutes a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of singleton children aged 0 to 59 months and born after January 2000 or January 2001 (n = 50 750) to mothers aged 15 to 49 years from all 29 states of India. Information on children was obtained by a face-to-face interview with mothers, with a response rate of 94.5%. Height was measured with an adjustable measuring board calibrated in millimeters. Demographic and socioeconomic variables were considered as covariates. Modified Poisson regression models that account for multistage survey design and sampling weights were estimated.Mortality was the primary end point; underweight, stunting, wasting, and anemia were included as secondary outcomes.In adjusted models, a 1-cm increase in maternal height was associated with a decreased risk of child mortality (relative risk [RR], 0.978; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.970-0.987; P < .001), underweight (RR, 0.971; 95% CI, 0.968-0.974; P < .001), stunting (RR, 0.971; 95% CI, 0.968-0.0973; P < .001), wasting (RR, 0.989; 95% CI, 0.984-0.994; P < .001), and anemia (RR, 0.998; 95% CI, 0.997-0.999; P = .02). Children born to mothers who were less than 145 cm in height were 1.71 times more likely to die (95% CI, 1.37-2.13) (absolute probability, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.07-0.12) compared with mothers who were at least 160 cm in height (absolute probability, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.04-0.07). Similar patterns were observed for anthropometric failure related to underweight and stunting. Paternal height was not associated with child mortality or anemia but was associated with child anthropometric failure.In a nationally representative sample of households in India, maternal height was inversely associated with child mortality and anthropometric failure.
Project description:Importance:Evidence on the relative importance of various factors associated with child anthropometric failures (ie, stunting, underweight, and wasting) and their heterogeneity across countries can inform global and national health agendas. Objective:To assess the relative significance of factors associated with child anthropometric failures in 35 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Design, Setting, and Participants:This cross-sectional study of 299?353 children who were born singleton and aged 12 to 59 months with nonpregnant mothers and valid anthropometric measures assessed the strengths of associations of 26 factors with child stunting, underweight, and wasting, using Demographic and Health Surveys (2007-2018) from 35 LMICs. Data analysis was conducted from July 2019 to February 2020. Exposures:A total of 9 direct factors (ie, dietary diversity score; breastfeeding initiation; vitamin A supplements; use of iodized salt; infectious disease in past 2 weeks; oral rehydration therapy for children with diarrhea; care seeking for suspected pneumonia; full vaccination; and indoor pollution) and 17 indirect factors (household wealth; maternal and paternal education; maternal and paternal height and body mass index; maternal autonomy for health care, movement, and money; water source; sanitation facility; stool disposal; antenatal care; skilled birth attendant at delivery; family planning needs; and maternal marriage age) were assessed. Main Outcomes and Measures:Three anthropometric failure outcomes were constructed based on the 2006 World Health Organization child growth standards: stunting (height-for-age z score less than -2 standard deviations [SDs]), underweight (weight-for-age z score less than -2 SDs), and wasting (weight-for-height z score less than -2 SDs). Results:Among the 299?353 children aged 12 to 59 months included in the analysis, 38.8% (95% CI, 38.6%-38.9%) had stunting, 27.5% (95% CI, 27.3%-27.6%) had underweight, and 12.9% (95% CI, 12.8%-13.0%) had wasting. In the pooled sample, short maternal height was the strongest factor associated with child stunting (odds ratio [OR], 4.7; 95% CI, 4.5-5.0; P?<?.001), followed by lack of maternal education (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.8-2.0; P?<?.001), poorest household wealth (OR, 1.7; 95% CI,1.6-1.8; P?<?.001), and low maternal body mass index (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.6-1.7; P?<?.001). Short paternal height was also significantly associated with higher odds of stunting (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.7-2.2; P?<?.001). Consistent results were found for underweight (eg, short maternal height: OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 3.3-3.7; P?<?.001; lack of maternal education: OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.7-2.0; P?<?.001) and wasting (eg, low maternal body mass index: OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 2.1-2,4; P?<?.001; poorest household wealth: OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3; P?<?.001). Parental nutritional status and household socioeconomic conditions ranked the strongest (1st to 4th) for most countries, with a few exceptions (eg, lack of maternal education ranked 18th-20th in 8 countries for child wasting). Other factors were not associated with anthropometric failures in pooled analysis and had large country-level heterogeneity; for example, unsafe water was not associated with child underweight in the pooled analysis (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-1.00; P?<?.001), and it ranked from 4th to 20th across countries. Conclusions and Relevance:In this study, socioeconomic conditions and parental nutritional status were the strongest factors associated with child anthropometric failures. Poverty reduction, women's education, and nutrition programs for households could be important strategies for reducing child undernutrition; however, country-specific contexts should be considered in national policy discussions.
Project description:Although maternal stature has been associated with offspring mortality and health, the extent to which this association is universal across developing countries is unclear.To examine the association between maternal stature and offspring mortality, underweight, stunting, and wasting in infancy and early childhood in 54 low- to middle-income countries.Analysis of 109 Demographic and Health Surveys in 54 countries conducted between 1991 and 2008. Study population consisted of a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of children aged 0 to 59 months born to mothers aged 15 to 49 years. Sample sizes were 2,661,519 (mortality), 587,096 (underweight), 558,347 (stunting), and 568,609 (wasting) children.Likelihood of mortality, underweight, stunting, or wasting in children younger than 5 years.The mean response rate across surveys in the mortality data set was 92.8%. In adjusted models, a 1-cm increase in maternal height was associated with a decreased risk of child mortality (absolute risk difference [ARD], 0.0014; relative risk [RR], 0.988; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.987-0.988), underweight (ARD, 0.0068; RR, 0.968; 95% CI, 0.968-0.969), stunting (ARD, 0.0126; RR, 0.968; 95% CI, 0.967-0.968), and wasting (ARD, 0.0005; RR, 0.994; 95% CI, 0.993-0.995). Absolute risk of dying among children born to the tallest mothers (> or = 160 cm) was 0.073 (95% CI, 0.072-0.074) and to those born to the shortest mothers (< 145 cm) was 0.128 (95% CI, 0.126-0.130). Country-specific decrease in the risk for child mortality associated with a 1-cm increase in maternal height varied between 0.978 and 1.011, with the decreased risk being statistically significant in 46 of 54 countries (85%) (alpha = .05).Among 54 low- to middle-income countries, maternal stature was inversely associated with offspring mortality, underweight, and stunting in infancy and childhood.
Project description:Background:Undernutrition among preschool children in Northern region is the highest in Ghana. However, there is scarcity of data on the factors that determine undernutrition in these children. This study investigated the effect of maternal and child factors on undernutrition among preschool children in Northern Ghana. Methods:This study was a community based analytical cross-sectional survey on a sample of 425 mother- child pairs drawn from 25 clusters. A semi- structured questionnaire was used to collect data on maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics, feeding practices and anthropometry. Anthropometric indices of Height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ), Weight-for-height Z-scores (WHZ) and Weight-for - age Z-scores (WAZ) were used to classify child stunting, wasting and underweight respectively. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine associations between explanatory variables and undernutrition. Results:The prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight were 28.2, 9.9 and 19.3% respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that, the odds of stunting was higher among male children [AOR?=?1.99; 95% CI (1.26-3.13); p?=?0.003], children of mothers less than 150 cm in height [AOR?=?3.87; 95% CI (1.34-11.20); p?=?0.01], mothers 155-159 cm tall [AOR?=?2.21; 95% CI (1.34-3.66); p?=?0.002], and older children aged 12-23 months [AOR 9.81; 95% CI (2.85-33.76); p?<?0.001]. Wasting was significantly higher among male children [AOR?=?2.40; 95% CI (1.189-4.844); p?=?0.015], consumption of less than four food groups [AOR?=?3.733; 95% CI (1.889-7.376); p?<?0.001] and among children of underweight mothers [AOR?=?3.897; 95% CI (1.404-10.820); p?=?0.009]. Male children [AOR?=?2.685; 95% CI (1.205-5.98); p?=?0.016] and having low birth weight [AOR?=?3.778; 95% CI (1.440-9.911); p?<?0.001] were associated with higher odds of underweight in children. Conclusion:Maternal height associated negatively with stunting but not wasting. Factors that affect low height -for-age z-score (HAZ) may not necessarily be the same as stunting. Infant and child feeding practices as measured by dietary diversity score associated positively with weight-for-height Z-scores than length-for-age Z-scores of young children. Surprisingly, consumption of some specific food groups including, animal source foods, legumes, staples and eggs were associated with lower HAZ but with increased likelihood of higher WHZ among children 6-59 months.
Project description:Background: Young children living in urban slums are vulnerable to malnutrition and subsequently poor health outcomes, but data on the correlates of stunting, underweight, wasting, and anemia specifically among 10-18 month-old children in India remain limited. Objective: In this analysis, we sought to describe the prevalence of and examine correlates for different markers of undernutrition, including stunting, underweight, and anemia among 10-18 month-old children living in urban slums, an understudied vulnerable group. Methods: Children and their mothers (n = 323) were screened for anthropometry, demographics, and complete blood counts for hemoglobin concentration between March and November 2017 (Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02233764). Correlates included child and mother's age, sex, birth order, birth weight, illness episodes, hemoglobin concentration, family income, maternal height, and maternal education level. Risk ratios (RR, 95% CI) for binary outcomes (stunting, underweight, wasting and anemia) and mean differences (?, 95% CI) for continuous outcomes (anthropometric Z-scores, hemoglobin concentration) were calculated using multivariate binomial and linear regression (SAS 9.4). Results: The prevalence of stunting was 31.2%, underweight 25.1%, wasting (9.0%), and anemia (76%) among all children. Male children had a higher prevalence of poor growth indices and lower anthropometric Z-scores than females. Male sex, low birthweight, shorter maternal height, report of ?1 episodes of illness within the past month, older maternal age, and birth order ?2 were also associated with poor growth and anemia in multivariate models. Correlates of undernutrition were different among females and males. Female children had a 40% (20, 60%) higher risk of anemia associated with diarrhea, and male children who were firstborn had a 20% (0, 70%) lower risk of anemia. Conclusions: These results show that poor growth and anemia among young children is prevalent in urban slums of Mumbai, and that sex of the child may play an important role in informing interventions to address undernutrition.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This study investigated the risk factors associated with the coexistence of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children under age 5 in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).<h4>Design</h4>Data of 127, 487 under-5 children from 31 countries in SSA were pooled from the Demographic and Health Surveys collected between 2010 and 2019. We examined the risk of coexistence of stunting, underweight, and wasting using multinomial logistic regression models. The results were presented using relative risk ratios (RRR) with corresponding confidence intervals (CIs).<h4>Setting</h4>Thirty-one sub-Saharan African countries.<h4>Participants</h4>Children under age 5.<h4>Outcome measures</h4>The outcome variables were three child anthropometrics: stunting (height-for-age z-scores); underweight (weight-for-age z-scores) and wasting (weight-for-height z-scores).<h4>Results</h4>The prevalence of coexistence of stunting, underweight, and wasting varied across countries, with the highest (12.14%) and lowest (0.58%) prevalences of coexistence of stunting, underweight and wasting in Benin and Gambia respectively. The risk of coexistence of the three indicators of undernutrition was higher among children aged 1 year (RRR=3.714; 95% CI 3.319 to 4.156) compared with those aged 0. The risk of coexistence of the three dimensions was lower among female children (RRR=0.468 95% CI 0.420 to 0.51), but higher for those with small size at birth (RRR=3.818; CI 3.383 to 4.308), those whose mothers had no education (RRR=3.291; 95% CI 1.961 to 5.522), not working (RRR=1.195; 95% CI 1.086 to 1.314), had no antenatal visits during pregnancy (RRR=1.364; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.541), children delivered at home (RRR=1.372; CI 1.232 to 1.529), those from poor households (RRR=1.408; 95% CI 1.235 to 1.605), those whose mothers had no access to media (RRR=1.255; 95% CI 1.144 to 1.377) and living in households with an unimproved toilet facility (RRR=1.158; 95% CI 1.032 to 1.300).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Findings suggest the urgent need for consideration of the coexistence of stunting, wasting and underweight among under-5 children in policy design and programming of interventions to eradicate child malnutrition in SSA. In the short-term, national-level policies and interventions need to be well tailored considering the compositional characteristics.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Maternal height has been confirmed to be associated with offspring stunting in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), but only limited studies have examined the paternal-offspring association, and few studies have examined the joint effect of maternal and paternal height on stunting. <b>Objective:</b> To investigate the association between parental height and stunting of children aged under five in LMICs. <b>Methods:</b> We obtained data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 14 LMICs from 2006 to 2016. The association between maternal and paternal height and height-for-age <i>z</i> score (HAZ) of children aged under five was analyzed using a linear regression model in consideration of complex survey design, and regression coefficients (β) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Then, the association between maternal and paternal height quintile and child stunting was analyzed using a modified Poisson regression approach with robust error variance in consideration of complex survey design with adjustment for covariates. The effect estimates were expressed as relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs. <b>Results:</b> A total of 50,372 singleton children were included and the weighted prevalence of stunting was 34.5%. Both maternal height and paternal height were associated with child HAZ (β = 0.047; 95% CI, 0.043, 0.050; and β = 0.022; 95% CI, 0.018, 0.025, respectively). Compared with those born to the tallest mothers and fathers, children from the shortest mothers and the shortest fathers had higher risks of stunting (adjusted RR = 1.89; 95% CI, 1.78, 2.01; adjusted RR = 1.56; 95% CI, 1.47, 1.65, respectively). The mother-offspring associations are substantively larger than the father-offspring associations for each corresponding height quintile. Children from the shortest parents had the highest risk of stunting compared with children from the tallest parents (adjusted RR = 3.23; 95% CI, 2.83, 3.68). <b>Conclusions:</b> Offspring born to short parents are at increased risk of stunting in LMICs, and this intergenerational effect is partly driven by maternal intrauterine influence. This suggests the importance of improving the nutritional status of children and adults in LMICs, especially female caregivers.
Project description:The prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight are reported separately. However, the data of the multiple anthropometric failures combinations of these conventional indicators are scant. This study attempted to estimate the overall burden of undernutrition among children under 5 years old, using the composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF), and to explore the correlates. The study used secondary data from the Bangladesh demographic and health surveys (BDHS), undertaken in 2014. CIAF provides an overall prevalence of undernutrition, which gives six mutually exclusive anthropometric measurements of height-for- age, height-for-weight, and weight-for-age. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the correlates of CIAF. The overall prevalence of undernutrition using the CIAF was 48.3% (95% CI [47.1%, 49.5%]) among the children under 5 years old. The prevalence of anthropometric failure due to a combination of both stunting and underweight was 18.2%, wasting and underweight was 5.5%, and wasting, underweight, and stunting was 5.7%. The odds of CIAF were higher among young maternal age, having the poorest socio-economic status, living in rural areas, higher order of birth, and received no vaccination compared with other counterparts. In Bangladesh, one out of two children has undernutrition, which is preventing the potential of the millions of children. Mothers who gave birth before age 20 living in the rural areas with belonging to lower socio-economic status and whose children had a higher order of birth and receive no vaccination were observed as the main determinants of undernutrition. Nutrition sensitive interventions along with social protection programmes are crucial to deal the underlying causes of undernutrition.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Malnutrition is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional status of children under 5 years of teenage and adult mothers in Tamale Metropolis, Ghana. A case-control study involving 300 (150 cases, 150 controls) mother-child pairs was carried out. A questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics of mothers and children and anthropometry was used to assess the nutritional status of children. Anthropometric z-scores derived based on WHO Child Growth Standards were used to determine stunting, wasting and underweight statuses of children. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the nutritional status of children of teenage and adult mothers. RESULTS:Children of teenage mothers, compared to those of adult mothers, were 8 times more likely to be stunted [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)?=?7.56; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.20-13.63], 3 times more likely to be wasted (AOR?=?2.90; 95% CI 1.04-8.04), and 13 times more likely to be underweight (AOR?=?12.78; 95% CI 4.69-34.81) after adjusting for potential confounders. The risk of child malnutrition increases with young maternal age; interventions should be targeted at teenage mothers and their children to reduce the risk of malnutrition.
Project description:Child stunting in Vietnam has reduced substantially since the turn of the century but has remained relatively high for several years. We analysed data on children 6-59 months (n = 85,932) from the Vietnam Nutritional Surveillance System, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to estimate relative risk (RR) of stunting, stratified by child age and ecological region. Covariates at the child, maternal, household, and environmental levels were included based on available data and the World Health Organization conceptual framework on child stunting. Among children 6-23 months, the strongest associations with child stunting were child age in years (RR: 2.49; 95% CI [2.26, 2.73]), maternal height < 145 cm compared with ?150 cm (RR: 2.04; 95% CI [1.85, 2.26]), living in the Northeast compared with the Southeast (RR: 2.01; 95% CI [1.69, 2.39]), no maternal education compared with a graduate education (RR: 1.77; 95% CI, [1.44, 2.16]), and birthweight < 2,500 g (RR: 1.75; 95% CI [1.55, 1.98]). For children 24-59 months, the strongest associations with child stunting were no maternal education compared with a graduate education (RR: 2.07; 95% CI [1.79, 2.40]), living in the Northeast compared with the Southeast (RR: 1.94; 95% CI [1.74, 2.16]), and maternal height < 145 cm compared with ?150 cm (RR: 1.81; 95% CI [1.69, 1.94]). Targeted approaches that address the strongest stunting determinants among vulnerable populations are needed and discussed. Multifaceted approaches outside the health sector are also needed to reduce inequalities in socioeconomic status.
Project description:Changes in precipitation patterns might have deleterious effects on population health. We used data from the Uganda National Panel Survey from 2009 to 2012 (n = 3,223 children contributing 5,013 assessments) to evaluate the link between rainfall and undernutrition in children under age 5 years. We considered 3 outcomes (underweight, wasting, and stunting) and measured precipitation using household-reported drought and deviations from long-term precipitation trends measured by satellite. We specified multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for the community, village, and individual. Underweight (13%), wasting (4%), and stunting (33%) were common. Reported drought was associated with underweight (marginal risk ratio (RR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.35) in adjusted analyses. Positive annual deviations (greater rainfall) from long-term precipitation trends were protective against underweight (marginal RR per 50-mm increase = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.92, 0.97) and wasting (marginal RR per 50-mm increase = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87, 0.98) but not stunting (marginal RR per 50-mm increase = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.01). Precipitation was associated with measures of acute but not chronic malnutrition using both objective and subjective measures of exposure. Sudden reductions in rainfall are likely to have acute adverse effects on child nutritional status.