GATA3 expression is decreased in psoriasis and during epidermal regeneration; induction by narrow-band UVB and IL-4.
ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is characterized by hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and by infiltration of activated Th1 and Th17 cells in the (epi)dermis. By expression microarray, we previously found the GATA3 transcription factor significantly downregulated in lesional psoriatic skin. Since GATA3 serves as a key switch in both epidermal and T helper cell differentiation, we investigated its function in psoriasis. Because psoriatic skin inflammation shares many characteristics of epidermal regeneration during wound healing, we also studied GATA3 expression under such conditions.Psoriatic lesional skin showed decreased GATA3 mRNA and protein expression compared to non-lesional skin. GATA3 expression was also markedly decreased in inflamed skin of mice with a psoriasiform dermatitis induced with imiquimod. Tape-stripping of non-lesional skin of patients with psoriasis, a standardized psoriasis-triggering and skin regeneration-inducing technique, reduced the expression of GATA3. In wounded skin of mice, low GATA3 mRNA and protein expression was detected. Taken together, GATA3 expression is downregulated under regenerative and inflammatory hyperproliferative skin conditions. GATA3 expression could be re-induced by successful narrow-band UVB treatment of both human psoriasis and imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis in mice. The prototypic Th2 cytokine IL-4 was the only cytokine capable of inducing GATA3 in skin explants from healthy donors. Based on these findings we argue that GATA3 serves as a key regulator in psoriatic inflammation, keratinocyte hyperproliferation and skin barrier dysfunction.
Project description:The immunomodulator <i>Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor</i> (MIF) exerts pleiotropic immunomodulatory activities and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory diseases. Expression levels of MIF are also significantly elevated in the skin and serum of psoriasis patients, but the pathogenic significance of MIF in psoriasis is unknown. We have therefore addressed the role of MIF in two mouse models of psoriasis, namely in the imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis (IIPD) and the IL-23-induced dermatitis model. Daily treatment with Aldara™ cream, containing imiquimod, markedly increased the abundance of MIF in the skin and generated a cellular skin expression pattern of MIF closely resembling that in human plaque psoriasis. Deficiency in MIF significantly alleviated IIPD. On the clinical level, all hallmarks of psoriasiform dermatitis, including erythema, skin infiltration, and desquamation were reduced in <i>Mif</i> <sup>-/-</sup> mice. On the histopathological level, MIF deficiency decreased keratinocyte hyperproliferation, inflammatory cell infiltration, specifically with respect to monocyte-derived cells, and dermal angiogenesis, suggesting that MIF may be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasiform dermatitis through several mechanisms. Similarly, MIF deficiency also significantly reduced disease in the IL-23-induced dermatitis model, suggesting that MIF is involved in the pathogenic pathways activated by IL-23 and required to achieve full-blown psoriasiform dermatitis. Collectively, our results lend support to a possible disease-promoting role of MIF in psoriasis, which should be further investigated.
Project description:Psoriasis is characterized by keratinocyte hyperproliferation. While significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanism regulating the proliferation of keratinocytes, little is known about the epigenetic factors that control this process. EZH2 and EZH2 mediated trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) was previously shown ectopically expressed in carcinoma and mediated proliferation, thereby we sought to clarify the role of EZH2-H3K27me3 in the proliferation of psoriatic keratinocyte. Interestingly, we found that EZH2 and H3K27me3 were both overexpressed in the epidermis of psoriatic lesional skin compared to normal skin. In vitro, the expression of EZH2 and H3K27me3 was stimulated in human keratinocytes treated with mixture of psoriasis-related cytokines pool (TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-17A, and IL-22). Knockdown of EZH2 significantly reduced keratinocyte proliferative activity. Results from mRNA microarray analysis suggested that Kallikrein-8 (KLK8) might be the target gene of EZH2 in psoriatic keratinocytes. Overexpression or knockdown KLK8 could partially reverse the abnormal proliferation of keratinocytes caused by knockdown or overexpression of EZH2. In vivo, the inhibitor of EZH2, GSK126 could ameliorate the imiquimod-induced psoriasiform lesion. These results suggest that EZH2 might be a therapeutic target for the treatment of psoriasis.
Project description:<b>Background</b>: Psoriasis is characterized by keratinocyte proliferation and massive inflammatory leukocytes infiltration, affecting 0.14%-1.99% of the world's population. Our aim was to identify novel potential therapeutic strategies for psoriasis. <b>Methods</b>: Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to identify gene modules that were closely related to psoriasis based on the GSE30999 dataset, which contained expression data from 85 patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Then, angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), one of the most related hub genes, was selected for <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> functional assays. In our experiments, imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasiform dermatitis in mice and human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells were used to study the potential roles and mechanisms of ANGPTL4 in psoriasis. <b>Results</b>: WGCNA analysis revealed the turquoise module was most correlated with psoriasis, and ANGPTL4 is one of the most related hub genes that significantly upregulated in psoriasis lesions compared with non-lesional skin. Consistent with the bioinformatic analysis, the expression of ANGPTL4 was significantly upregulated in IMQ-induced psoriasiform skin of mice. Exogenous recombinant ANGPLT4 protein treatment could promote the proliferation and induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in HaCaTs, whereas silencing of ANGPTL4 effectively inhibited these effects. Then we demonstrated that recombinant ANGPTL4 protein exacerbated psoriasiform inflammation and epidermal hyperproliferation <i>in vivo</i>. Mechanismly, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathways were involved in ANGPTL4-mediated regulation of proliferation and inflammation. <b>Conclusion</b>: We found ANGPTL4 was significantly increased in IMQ-induced psoriasiform skin of mice. ANGPTL4 could promote keratinocyte proliferation and inflammatory response <i>via</i> ERK1/2 and STAT3 dependent signaling pathways in psoriasis.
Project description:We previously showed that exposure to a high-sugar and moderate-fat diet (i.e., Western diet [WD]) in mice induces appreciable skin inflammation and enhances the susceptibility to imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis, suggesting that dietary components may render the skin susceptible to psoriatic inflammation. In this study, utilizing an IL-23 minicircle-based model with features of both psoriasiform dermatitis and psoriatic arthritis, we showed that intake of WD for 10 weeks predisposed mice not only to skin but also to joint inflammation. Both WD-induced skin and joint injuries were associated with an expansion of IL-17A‒producing γδ T cells and increased expression of T helper type 17 cytokines. After IL-23 minicircle delivery, WD-fed mice had reduced microbial diversity and pronounced dysbiosis. Treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics suppressed IL-23‒mediated skin and joint inflammation in the WD-fed mice. Strikingly, reduced skin and joint inflammation with a partial reversion of the gut microbiota were noted when mice switched from a WD to a standard diet after IL-23 minicircle delivery. These findings reveal that a short-term WD intake‒induced dysbiosis is accompanied by enhanced psoriasis-like skin and joint inflammation. Modifications toward a healthier dietary pattern should be considered in patients with psoriatic skin and/or joint disease.
Project description:Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease resulting from an interplay of keratinocytes and immune cells. Previous studies have identified an essential role of autophagy in the maintenance of epidermal homeostasis including proliferation and differentiation. However, much less is known about the role of autophagy-related proteins in the cutaneous immune response. Herein, we showed that ULK1, the key autophagic initiator, and its phosphorylation at Ser556 were distinctively decreased in the epidermis from lesional skin of psoriasis patients. Topical application of SBI0206965, a selective ULK1 inhibitor, significantly attenuated epidermal hyperplasia, infiltration of neutrophils, and transcripts of the psoriasis-related markers in imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasiform dermatitis (PsD). <i>In vitro</i>, ULK1 impairment by siRNA and SBI0206965 arrested cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis of keratinocytes but had a marginal effect on the expression of proinflammatory mediators under steady status. Surprisingly, SBI0206965 blocked the production of chemokines and cytokines in keratinocytes stimulated by neutrophils. Of interest, the pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of ULK1 inhibition cannot be fully replicated by autophagic inhibitors. Our findings suggest a self-regulatory process by downregulating ULK1 to maintain the immune homeostasis of psoriatic skin <i>via</i> regulating keratinocytes and their crosstalk with neutrophils, possibly through both autophagy-dependent and independent mechanisms. ULK1 might be a potential target for preventing or treating psoriasis.
Project description:Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) is a secreted serine protease hypothesized to promote inflammation via cleavage of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) and PAR2. KLK6 levels are elevated in multiple inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, but no definitive role in pathogenesis has been established. Here, we show that skin-targeted overexpression of KLK6 causes generalized, severe psoriasiform dermatitis with spontaneous development of debilitating psoriatic arthritis-like joint disease. The psoriatic skin and joint phenotypes are reversed by normalization of skin KLK6 levels and attenuated following genetic elimination of PAR1 but not PAR2. Conservation of this regulatory pathway was confirmed in human psoriasis using vorapaxar, an FDA-approved PAR1 antagonist, on explanted lesional skin from patients with psoriasis. Beyond defining a critical role for KLK6/PAR1 signaling in promoting psoriasis, our results demonstrate that KLK6/PAR1-mediated inflammation in the skin alone is sufficient to drive inflammatory joint disease. Further, we identify PAR1 as a promising cytokine-independent target in therapy of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
Project description:Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is well known as the most potent vasoconstrictor, and can evoke histamine-independent pruritus. Recently, its involvement in cutaneous inflammation has begun to draw attention. The upregulation of ET-1 expression in the epidermis of human psoriasis patients has been reported. It was also demonstrated that ET-1 can stimulate dendritic cells to induce Th17/1 immune responses. However, the role of the interaction between ET-1 and ET-1 receptors in the pathogenesis of psoriasis remains elusive. Here, we investigated the effects of ET-1 receptor antagonist on imiquimod (IMQ) -induced psoriasiform dermatitis in mouse. Psoriasis-related cytokines such as IL-17A and TNF-? induced ET-1 expression in human keratinocytes. Topical application of selective endothelin A receptor (ETAR) antagonist ambrisentan significantly attenuated the development of IMQ-induced psoriasiform dermatitis and also significantly inhibited the histological inflammation and cytokine expression (TNF-?, IL-12p40, IL-12 p19, and IL-17) in the lesional skin of the mouse model. Furthermore, topical application of ambrisentan suppressed phenotypic and functional activation of dendritic cells in lymph nodes. Our findings indicate that the ET-1 and ETAR axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and is a potential therapeutic target for treating psoriasis.
Project description:Psoriasis patients have relatively infrequent cutaneous viral infections compared to atopic dermatitis patients. Increased expression of four antiviral proteins (MX1, BST2, ISG15 and OAS2) has been reported in psoriatic skin and genetic studies of psoriasis have identified susceptibility genes in antiviral pathways.To determine if psoriasis is associated with pervasive expression of antiviral genes in skin and blood.We performed RNA sequencing on skin samples of 18 subjects with chronic plaque psoriasis and 16 healthy controls. We examined the expression of a predefined set of 42 antiviral genes, each of which has been shown in previous studies to inhibit viral replication. In parallel, we examined antiviral gene expression in atopic dermatitis, non-lesional psoriatic skin and psoriatic blood. We performed HIV-1 infectivity assays in CD4+ peripheral blood T cells from psoriatic and healthy individuals.We observed significant overexpression of 16 antiviral genes in lesional psoriatic skin, with a greater than two-fold increase in ISG15, RSAD2, IRF7, MX2 and TRIM22 (P < 1E-07). None of these genes was overexpressed in atopic dermatitis skin (P < 0.0001) or non-lesional psoriatic skin. In contrast to the skin compartment, no differences in antiviral gene expression were detected in the peripheral blood of psoriasis cases compared to healthy controls. CD4+ T cells from both psoriatic and healthy patients supported HIV-1 infection at a similar rate.Our findings highlight psoriasis as an inflammatory disease with cutaneous but not systemic immune activation against viral pathogens.
Project description:Emerging evidence has demonstrated that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are associated with autoimmune diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR2 in psoriasis using imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis. Although TLR2 signaling is known to play a critical role in the induction of proinflammatory cytokines by immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and monocytes, TLR2 deficiency unexpectedly exacerbated psoriasiform skin inflammation. Importantly, messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Foxp-3 and IL-10 in the lesional skin were significantly decreased in TLR2 KO mice compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis of the lymph nodes revealed that the frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs) among CD4-positive cells was decreased. Notably, stimulation with Pam3CSK4 (TLR2/1 ligand) or Pam2CSK4 (TLR2/6 ligand) increased IL-10 production from Tregs and DCs and the proliferation of Tregs. Finally, adoptive transfer of Tregs from wild-type mice reduced imiquimod-induced skin inflammation in TLR2 KO mice. Taken together, our results suggest that TLR2 signaling directly enhances Treg proliferation and IL-10 production by Tregs and DCs, suppressing imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation. Enhancement of TLR2 signaling may be a new therapeutic strategy for psoriasis.
Project description:Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects 2-3% of the global population, and there is still no known possibility of a cure. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4), an endogenous lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoid mediator, has potent dual pro-resolving and anti-inflammatory properties. BML-111 (5(S)-6(R)-7-trihydroxyheptanoic acid methyl ester), a lipoxin receptor agonist, has been previously confirmed to be equivalent to LXA4 in the anti-inflammatory processes. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) serves as an inflammatory cytokine when secreted extracellularly in psoriatic lesions and is involved in the development of psoriasis. Therefore, we investigated the effects of LXA4 and BML-111 on the HMGB1 signaling cascade and inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced keratinocytes and imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasiform dermatitis in mice. In the present study, we found that treatment with BML-111 attenuated the development of IMQ-induced psoriasiform dermatitis. Furthermore, treatment with BML-111 and LXA4 inhibited HMGB1 translocation from the nucleus to cytoplasm and downregulated the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), p-ERK1/2, nuclear NF-?B p65, and proinflammatory cytokines in vivo and in vitro. Our findings indicate that LXA4 and its analog may be potential therapeutic candidates for psoriasis because of their ability to modulate the translocation and expression of HMGB1.