Centrin is necessary for the formation of the motile apparatus in spermatids of Marsilea.
ABSTRACT: During spermiogenesis in the water fern, Marsilea vestita, basal bodies are synthesized de novo in cells that lack preexisting centrioles, in a particle known as a blepharoplast. We have focused on basal body assembly in this organism, asking what components are required for blepharoplast formation. Spermiogenesis is a rapid process that is activated by placing dry microspores into water. Dry microspores contain large quantities of stored protein and stored mRNA, and inhibitors reveal that certain proteins are translated from stored transcripts at specific times during development. Centrin translation accompanies blepharoplast appearance, while beta-tubulin translation occurs later, during axonemal formation. In asking whether centrin is an essential component of the blepharoplast, we used antisense, sense, and double-stranded RNA probes made from the Marsilea centrin cDNA, MvCen1, to block centrin translation. We employed a novel method to introduce these RNAs directly into the cells. Antisense and sense both arrest spermiogenesis when blepharoplasts should appear, and dsRNA made from the same cDNA is an effective inhibitor at concentrations at least 10 times lower than either of the single-stranded RNA used in these experiments. Blepharoplasts are undetectable and basal bodies fail to form. Antisense, sense, and dsRNA probes made from Marsilea beta-tubulin permitted normal development until axonemes form. In controls, antisense, sense, and dsRNA, made from a segment of HIV, had no effect on spermiogenesis. Immunoblots suggest that translational blocks induced by centrin-based RNA are gene specific and concentration dependent, since neither beta-tubulin- nor HIV-derived RNAs affects centrin translation. The disruption of centrin translation affects microtubule distributions in spermatids, since centrin appears to control formation of the cytoskeleton and motile apparatus. These results show that centrin plays an essential role in the formation of a motile apparatus during spermiogenesis of M. vestita.
Project description:Spermatogenesis in Marsilea vestita is a rapid process that is activated by placing dry microspores into water. Nine division cycles produce seven somatic cells and 32 spermatids, where size and position define identity. Spermatids undergo de novo formation of basal bodies in a particle known as a blepharoplast. We are interested in mechanisms responsible for spermatogenous initial formation. Mago nashi (Mv-mago) is a highly conserved gene present as stored mRNA and stored protein in the microspore. Mv-mago protein increases in abundance during development and it localizes at discrete cytoplasmic foci (Mago-dots). RNA interference experiments show that new Mv-mago protein is required for development. With Mv-mago silenced, asymmetric divisions become symmetric, cell fate is disrupted, and development stops. The alpha-tubulin protein distribution, centrin translation, and Mv-PRP19 mRNA distribution are no longer restricted to the spermatogenous cells. Centrin aggregations, resembling blepharoplasts, occur in jacket cells. Mago-dots are undetectable after the silencing of Mv-mago, Mv-Y14, or Mv-eIF4AIII, three core components of the exon junction complex (EJC), suggesting that Mago-dots are either EJCs in the cytoplasm, or Mv-mago protein aggregations dependent on EJCs. Mv-mago protein and other EJC components apparently function in cell fate determination in developing male gametophytes of M. vestita.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Many rapidly developing systems rely on the regulated translation of stored transcripts for the formation of new proteins essential for morphogenesis. The microspores of the water fern Marsilea vestita dehydrate as they mature. During this process both mRNA and proteins required for subsequent development are stored within the microspores as they become fully desiccated and enter into senescence. At this point microspores become transcriptionally silent and remain so upon rehydration and for the remainder of spermatogenesis. Transcriptional silencing coupled with the translation of preformed RNA makes the microspore of M. vestita a useful system in which to study post-transcriptional regulation of RNA.<h4>Results</h4>We have characterized the distribution of mRNA as well as several conserved markers of subnuclear bodies within the nuclei of desiccating spores. During this period, nuclear speckles containing RNA were seen to aggregate forming a single large coalescence. We found that aggregated speckles contain several masked mRNA species known to be essential for spermatogenesis. During spermatogenesis masked mRNA and associated speckle proteins were shown to fragment and asymmetrically localize to spermatogenous but not sterile cells. This asymmetric localization was disrupted by RNAi knockdown of the Marsilea homolog of the Exon Junction Complex core component Mago nashi.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A subset of masked mRNA is stored in association with nuclear speckles during the dormant phase of microspore development in M. vestita. The asymmetric distribution of specific mRNAs to spermatogenous but not sterile cells mirrors their translational activities and appears to require the EJC or EJC components. This suggests a novel role for nuclear speckles in the post-transcriptional regulation of transcripts.
Project description:Spermatogenesis in the semi-aquatic fern, Marsilea vestita, is a rapid, synchronous process that is initiated when dry microspores are placed in water. Development is post-transcriptionally driven and can be divided into two phases. The first phase consists of nine mitotic division cycles that produce 7 sterile cells and 32 spermatids. During the second phase, each spermatid differentiates into a corkscrew-shaped motile spermatozoid with ~140 cilia.Analysis of the transcriptome from the male gametophyte of Marsilea revealed that one kinesin-2 (MvKinesin-2) and two kinesin-9 s (MvKinesin-9A and MvKinesin-9B) are present during spermatid differentiation and ciliogenesis. RNAi knockdowns show that MvKinesin-2 is required for mitosis and cytokinesis in spermatogenous cells. Without MvKinesin-2, most spermatozoids contain two or more coiled microtubule ribbons with attached cilia and very large cell bodies. MvKinesin-9A is required for the correct placement of basal bodies along the organelle coil. Knockdowns of MvKinesin-9A have basal bodies and cilia that are irregularly positioned. Spermatozoid swimming behavior in MvKinesin-2 and -9A knockdowns is altered because of defects in axonemal placement or ciliogenesis. MvKinesin-2 knockdowns only quiver in place while MvKinesin-9A knockdowns swim erratically compared to controls. In contrast, spermatozoids produced after the silencing of MvKinesin-9B exhibit normal morphology and swimming behavior, though development is slower than normal for these gametes.Our results show that MvKinesin-2 and MvKinesin-9A are required for ciliogenesis and motility in the Marsilea male gametophyte; however, these kinesins display atypical roles during these processes. MvKinesin-2 is required for cytokinesis, a role not typically associated with this protein, as well as for ciliogenesis during rapid development and MvKinesin-9A is needed for the correct orientation of basal bodies. Our results are the first to investigate the kinesin-linked mechanisms that regulate ciliogenesis in a land plant.
Project description:We observed that heat shock of Caenorhabditis elegans leads to the formation of nuclear double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) foci, detectable with a dsRNA-specific monoclonal antibody. These foci significantly overlap with nuclear HSF-1 granules. To investigate the molecular mechanism(s) underlying dsRNA foci formation, we used RNA-seq to globally characterize total RNA and immunoprecipitated dsRNA from control and heat shocked worms. We find a subset of both sense and antisense transcripts enriched in the dsRNA pool by heat shock overlap with dsRNA transcripts enriched by deletion of tdp-1, which encodes the C. elegans ortholog of TDP-43. Interestingly, transcripts involved in translation are over-represented in the dsRNAs induced by either heat shock or deletion of tdp-1. Also enriched in the dsRNA transcripts are sequences downstream of annotated genes (DoGs), which we globally quantified with a new algorithm. To validate these observations, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to confirm both antisense and downstream of gene transcription for eif-3.B, one of the affected loci we identified.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recently various studies have demonstrated the role of promoter associated non-coding RNAs (pRNA) in dsRNA induced transcriptional gene silencing and activation. However the exact mechanistic details of these processes with respect to the orientation of pRNAs are poorly defined.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>We have identified novel sense and antisense long control region (LCR) associated RNAs (pRNAs) in HPV18 positive cervical cancer cell lines HeLa, C-4 I and C-4 II. Using dsRNAs against these pRNAs, we were able to achieve upregulation or downregulation of the sense and antisense pRNAs and the downstream E6 and E7 oncogenes. We present evidence that knockdown of the sense pRNA is associated with reduction in E6 and E7 oncogenes and an upregulation of antisense pRNA. Conversely upregulation of sense pRNA is accompanied by an induction of the oncogenes and a concomitant reduction in antisense pRNA. Moreover, the exact role of sense and antisense pRNAs in dsRNA mediated gene modulation was confirmed by their selective degradation using antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). Degradation of sense pRNA with antisense ODN led to loss of dsRNA induced silencing and activation, suggesting that dsRNA mediated gene modulation requires sense pRNA. Both processes were accompanied with congruent changes in the methylation pattern of activating and repressive histones.<h4>Conclusion/significance</h4>Thus this data identifies and demonstrates the role of previously unknown important regulatory transcripts in HPV18 gene expression which can prove valuable targets in cervical cancer therapeutics. This mode of gene regulation by bidirectional transcription could be operational in other promoters as well and serve as a mechanism of regulating gene expression.
Project description:Antisense transcription is widespread in bacteria. By base pairing with overlapping sense RNAs, antisense RNAs (asRNA) can form double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA), which are cleaved by RNase III, a dsRNA endoribonuclease. The ectopic expression of plant Tombusvirus p19 in Escherichia coli stabilizes ?21-nucleotide (nt) dsRNA RNase III decay intermediates, which enabled us to characterize otherwise highly unstable asRNA by deep sequencing of p19-captured dsRNA. RNase III-produced small dsRNA were formed at most bacterial genes in the bacterial genome and in a plasmid. We classified the types of asRNA in genomic clusters producing the most abundant p19-captured dsRNA and confirmed RNase III regulation of asRNA and sense RNA decay at three type I toxin-antitoxin loci and at a coding gene, rsd Furthermore, we provide potential evidence for the RNase III-dependent regulation of CspD protein by asRNA. The analysis of p19-captured dsRNA revealed an RNase III sequence preference for AU-rich sequences 3 nucleotides on either side of the cleavage sites and for GC-rich sequences in the 2-nt overhangs. Unexpectedly, GC-rich sequences were enriched in the middle section of p19-captured dsRNA, suggesting some unexpected sequence bias in p19 protein binding. Nonetheless, the ectopic expression of p19 is a sensitive method for identifying antisense transcripts and RNase III cleavage sites in dsRNA formed by overlapping sense and antisense transcripts in bacteria.
Project description:Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a bisegmented double-strand RNA (dsRNA) virus of the Birnaviridae family. While IBDV genomic dsRNA lacks a 5' cap, the means by which the uncapped IBDV genomic RNA is translated effectively is unknown. In this study, we describe a cap-independent pathway of translation initiation of IBDV uncapped RNA that relies on VP1 and VP3. We show that neither purified IBDV genomic dsRNA nor the uncapped viral plus-sense RNA transcripts were directly translated and rescued into infectious viruses in host cells. This defect in translation of the uncapped IBDV genomic dsRNA was rescued by trans-supplementation of the viral proteins VP1 and VP3 which was dependent on both the intact polymerase activity of VP1 and the dsRNA binding activity of VP3. Deletion analysis showed that both 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of IBDV dsRNA were essential for VP1/VP3-dependent translation initiation. Significantly, VP1 and VP3 could also mediate the recovery of infectious IBDV from the authentic minus-sense strand of IBDV dsRNA. Moreover, downregulation or inhibition of the cap-binding protein eIF4E did not decrease but, rather, enhanced the VP1/VP3-mediated translation of the uncapped IBDV RNA. Collectively, our findings for the first time reveal that VP1 and VP3 compensate for the deficiency of the 5' cap and replace eIF4E to confer upon the uncapped IBDV RNA the ability to be translated and rescued into infectious viruses.IMPORTANCE A key point of control for virus replication is viral translation initiation. The current study shows that the uncapped IBDV RNA cannot be translated into viral proteins directly by host translation machinery and is thus noninfectious. Our results constitute the first direct experimental evidence that VP1 and VP3 are required and sufficient to initiate translation of uncapped IBDV genomic RNA by acting as a substitute for cap and replacing the cap-binding protein eIF4E. Significantly, VP1/VP3 mediate the recovery of infectious IBDV not only from the plus-sense strand but also from the minus-sense strand of the IBDV dsRNA. These findings provide not only new insights into the molecular mechanisms of the life cycle of IBDV but also a new tool for an alternative strategy for the recovery of IBDV from both the plus- and the minus-sense strands of the viral genomic dsRNA.
Project description:The Sho gene from Petunia hybrida encodes an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of plant cytokinins. The 3' region of the Sho gene contains a promoter in the opposite orientation that produces a partially overlapping antisense transcript. Although Sho expression varies significantly in individual cell types, the sense and antisense transcript levels maintain a stable ratio in most tissue types. In reporter lines for the antisense promoter, we observed a change in antisense promoter activity in newly formed tissue that had been induced by prolonged culture on cytokinins or following decapitation. We interpret these data as a reflection of tissue-specific threshold levels for activation of the antisense transcript. In all tissue types tested, we detect a pool of antisense RNA of approximately 35 nt, which derives from the region where Sho sense and antisense transcripts overlap. We detect a second pool of putative dsRNA breakdown products of approximately 24 nt in all tissues tested, except roots, which are the main source of cytokinin synthesis. Our data suggest that antisense transcription can be activated in a tissue-specific manner to adjust local cytokinin synthesis via degradation of Sho dsRNA. We therefore propose that, in addition to cytokinin transport and inactivation, regulation of local cytokinin synthesis via antisense transcription represents yet another device for the complex control of local cytokinin levels in plants.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Overlapping transcripts in antisense orientation have the potential to form double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a substrate for a number of different RNA-modification pathways. One prominent route for dsRNA is its breakdown by Dicer enzyme complexes into small RNAs, a pathway that is widely exploited by RNA interference technology to inactivate defined genes in transgenic lines. The significance of this pathway for endogenous gene regulation remains unclear. RESULTS: We have examined transcription data for overlapping gene pairs in Arabidopsis thaliana. On the basis of an analysis of transcripts with coding regions, we find the majority of overlapping gene pairs to be convergently overlapping pairs (COPs), with the potential for dsRNA formation. In all tissues, COP transcripts are present at a higher frequency compared to the overall gene pool. The probability that both the sense and antisense copy of a COP are co-transcribed matches the theoretical value for coexpression under the assumption that the expression of one partner does not affect the expression of the other. Among COPs, we observe an over-representation of spliced (intron-containing) genes (90%) and of genes with alternatively spliced transcripts. For loci where antisense transcripts overlap with sense transcript introns, we also find a significant bias in favor of alternative splicing and variation of polyadenylation. CONCLUSION: The results argue against a predominant RNA degradation effect induced by dsRNA formation. Instead, our data support alternative roles for dsRNAs. They suggest that at least for a subgroup of COPs, antisense expression may induce alternative splicing or polyadenylation.
Project description:In many eukaryotes, the introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into cells triggers the degradation of mRNAs through a post-transcriptional gene-silencing mechanism called RNA interference or RNAi. In the present study, we found that endogenous long-dsRNA was substantially more effective at producing interference than endogenous, or exogenous, short-dsRNA expression in Giardia lamblia . The effects of this interference were not evident in the highly expressed protein tubulin or the stage-specific cyst wall protein 2. However, long-dsRNA caused potent and specific interference in the medium subunits of adaptins, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and the exogenous green fluorescence protein. Our results suggest that the ability of dsRNA antisense to inhibit the expression of these specific types of proteins is indicative of a gene-specific mechanism.