OMP decarboxylase: phosphodianion binding energy is used to stabilize a vinyl carbanion intermediate.
ABSTRACT: Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) catalyzes the exchange for deuterium from solvent D(2)O of the C-6 proton of 1-(?-d-erythrofuranosyl)-5-fluorouracil (FEU), a phosphodianion truncated product analog. The deuterium exchange reaction of FEU is accelerated 1.8 × 10(4)-fold by 1 M phosphite dianion (HPO(3)(2-)). This corresponds to a 5.8 kcal/mol stabilization of the vinyl carbanion-like transition state, which is similar to the 7.8 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition state for OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of a truncated substrate analog by bound HPO(3)(2-). These results show that the intrinsic binding energy of phosphite dianion is used in the stabilization of the vinyl carbanion-like transition state common to the decarboxylation and deuterium exchange reactions.
Project description:Kinetic parameters kex (s-1) and kex/Kd (M-1 s-1) are reported for exchange for deuterium in D2O of the C-6 hydrogen of 5-fluororotidine 5'-monophosphate (FUMP) catalyzed by the Q215A, Y217F, and Q215A/Y217F variants of yeast orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ScOMPDC) at pD 8.1, and by the Q215A variant at pD 7.1-9.3. The pD rate profiles for wildtype ScOMPDC and the Q215A variant are identical, except for a 2.5 log unit downward displacement in the profile for the Q215A variant. The Q215A, Y217F and Q215A/Y217F substitutions cause 1.3-2.0 kcal/mol larger increases in the activation barrier for wildtype ScOMPDC-catalyzed deuterium exchange compared with decarboxylation, because of the stronger apparent side chain interaction with the transition state for the deuterium exchange reaction. The stabilization of the transition state for the OMPDC-catalyzed deuterium exchange reaction of FUMP is ca. 19 kcal/mol smaller than the transition state for decarboxylation of OMP, and ca. 8 kcal/mol smaller than for OMPDC-catalyzed deprotonation of FUMP to form the vinyl carbanion intermediate common to OMPDC-catalyzed reactions OMP/FOMP and UMP/FUMP. We propose that ScOMPDC shows similar stabilizing interactions with the common portions of decarboxylation and deprotonation transition states that lead to formation of this vinyl carbanion intermediate, and that there is a large ca. (19-8) = 11 kcal/mol stabilization of the former transition state from interactions with the nascent CO2 of product. The effects of Q215A and Y217F substitutions on kcat/Km for decarboxylation of OMP are expressed mainly as an increase in Km for the reactions catalyzed by the variant enzymes, while the effects on kex/Kd for deuterium exchange are expressed mainly as an increase in kex. This shows that the Q215 and Y217 side chains stabilize the Michaelis complex to OMP for the decarboxylation reaction, compared with the complex to FUMP for the deuterium exchange reaction. These results provide strong support for the conclusion that interactions which stabilize the transition state for ScOMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation at a nonpolar enzyme active site dominate over interactions that destabilize the ground-state Michaelis complex.
Project description:Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of 5-fluoroorotate (FO) with kcat/Km = 1.4 × 10-7 M-1 s-1. Combining this and related kinetic parameters shows that the 31 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition state for decarboxylation of OMP provided by OMPDC represents the sum of 11.8 and 10.6 kcal/mol stabilization by the substrate phosphodianion and the ribosyl ring, respectively, and an 8.6 kcal/mol stabilization from the orotate ring. The transition state for OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of FO is stabilized by 5.2, 7.2, and 9.0 kcal/mol, respectively, by 1.0 M phosphite dianion, d-glycerol 3-phosphate and d-erythritol 4-phosphate. The stabilization is due to the utilization of binding interactions of the substrate fragments to drive an enzyme conformational change, which locks the orotate ring of the whole substrate, or the substrate pieces in a caged complex. We propose that enzyme-activation is a possible, and perhaps probable, consequence of any substrate-induced enzyme conformational change.
Project description:The side chain cation of Arg235 provides a 5.6 and 2.6 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition states for orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) decarboxylase (OMPDC) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalyzed reactions of OMP and 5-fluoroorotidine 5'-monophosphate (FOMP), respectively, a 7.2 kcal/mol stabilization of the vinyl carbanion-like transition state for enzyme-catalyzed exchange of the C-6 proton of 5-fluorouridine 5'-monophosphate (FUMP), but no stabilization of the transition states for enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation of truncated substrates 1-(?-d-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid and 1-(?-d-erythrofuranosyl) 5-fluorouracil. These observations show that the transition state stabilization results from formation of a protein cation-phosphodianion pair, and that there is no detectable stabilization from an interaction between the side chain and the pyrimidine ring of substrate. The 5.6 kcal/mol side chain interaction with the transition state for the decarboxylation reaction is 50% of the total 11.2 kcal/mol transition state stabilization by interactions with the phosphodianion of OMP, whereas the 7.2 kcal/mol side chain interaction with the transition state for the deuterium exchange reaction is a larger 78% of the total 9.2 kcal/mol transition state stabilization by interactions with the phosphodianion of FUMP. The effect of the R235A mutation on the enzyme-catalyzed deuterium exchange is expressed predominantly as a change in the turnover number kex, whereas the effect on the enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP is expressed predominantly as a change in the Michaelis constant Km. These results are rationalized by a mechanism in which the binding of OMP, compared with that for FUMP, provides a larger driving force for conversion of OMPDC from an inactive open conformation to a productive, active, closed conformation.
Project description:The mystery associated with catalysis by what were once regarded as protein black boxes, diminished with the X-ray crystallographic determination of the three-dimensional structures of enzyme-substrate complexes. The report that several high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) failed to provide a consensus mechanism for enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP to form uridine 5'-monophosphate, therefore, provoked a flurry of controversy. This controversy was fueled by the enormous 1023-fold rate acceleration for this enzyme, which had " jolted many biochemists' assumptions about the catalytic potential of enzymes." Our studies on the mechanism of action of OMPDC provide strong evidence that catalysis by this enzyme is not fundamentally different from less proficient catalysts, while highlighting important architectural elements that enable a peak level of performance. Many enzymes undergo substrate-induced protein conformational changes that trap their substrates in solvent occluded protein cages, but the conformational change induced by ligand binding to OMPDC is incredibly complex, as required to enable the development of 22 kcal/mol of stabilizing binding interactions with the phosphodianion and ribosyl substrate fragments of OMP. The binding energy from these fragments is utilized to activate OMPDC for catalysis of decarboxylation at the orotate fragment of OMP, through the creation of a tight, catalytically active, protein cage from the floppy, open, unliganded form of OMPDC. Such utilization of binding energy for ligand-driven conformational changes provides a general mechanism to obtain specificity in transition state binding. The rate enhancement that results from the binding of carbon acid substrates to enzymes is partly due to a reduction in the carbon acid p Ka that is associated with ligand binding. The binding of UMP to OMPDC results in an unusually large >12 unit decrease in the p Ka = 29 for abstraction of the C-6 substrate hydrogen, due to stabilization of an enzyme-bound vinyl carbanion, which is also an intermediate of OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation. The protein-ligand interactions operate to stabilize the vinyl carbanion at the enzyme active site compared to aqueous solution, rather than to stabilize the transition state for the concerted electrophilic displacement of CO2 by H+ that avoids formation of this reaction intermediate. There is evidence that OMPDC induces strain into the bound substrate. The interaction between the amide side chain of Gln-215 from the phosphodianion gripper loop and the hydroxymethylene side chain of Ser-154 from the pyrimidine umbrella of ScOMPDC position the amide side chain to interact with the phosphodianion of OMP. There are no direct stabilizing interactions between dianion gripper protein side chains Gln-215, Tyr-217, and Arg-235 and the pyrimidine ring at the decarboxylation transition state. Rather these side chains function solely to hold OMPDC in the catalytically active closed conformation. The hydrophobic side chains that line the active site of OMPDC in the region of the departing CO2 product may function to stabilize the decarboxylation transition state by providing hydrophobic solvation of this product.
Project description:The exchange for deuterium of the C-6 protons of uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) and 5-fluorouridine 5'-monophosphate (F-UMP) catalyzed by yeast orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ScOMPDC) at pD 6.5-9.3 and 25 °C was monitored by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Deuterium exchange proceeds by proton transfer from C-6 of the bound nucleotide to the deprotonated side chain of Lys-93 to give the enzyme-bound vinyl carbanion. The pD-rate profiles for k(cat) give turnover numbers for deuterium exchange into enzyme-bound UMP and F-UMP of 1.2 × 10(-5) and 0.041 s(-1), respectively, so that the 5-fluoro substituent results in a 3400-fold increase in the first-order rate constant for deuterium exchange. The binding of UMP and F-UMP to ScOMPDC results in 0.5 and 1.4 unit decreases, respectively, in the pK(a) of the side chain of the catalytic base Lys-93, showing that these nucleotides bind preferentially to the deprotonated enzyme. We also report the first carbon acid pK(a) values for proton transfer from C-6 of uridine (pK(CH) = 28.8) and 5-fluorouridine (pK(CH) = 25.1) in aqueous solution. The stabilizing effects of the 5-fluoro substituent on C-6 carbanion formation in solution (5 kcal/mol) and at ScOMPDC (6 kcal/mol) are similar. The binding of UMP and F-UMP to ScOMPDC results in a greater than 5 × 10(9)-fold increase in the equilibrium constant for proton transfer from C-6, so that ScOMPDC stabilizes the bound vinyl carbanions, relative to the bound nucleotides, by at least 13 kcal/mol. The pD-rate profile for k(cat)/K(m) for deuterium exchange into F-UMP gives the intrinsic second-order rate constant for exchange catalyzed by the deprotonated enzyme as 2300 M(-1) s(-1). This was used to calculate a total rate acceleration for ScOMPDC-catalyzed deuterium exchange of 3 × 10(10) M(-1), which corresponds to a transition-state stabilization for deuterium exchange of 14 kcal/mol. We conclude that a large portion of the total transition-state stabilization for the decarboxylation of orotidine 5'-monophosphate can be accounted for by stabilization of the enzyme-bound vinyl carbanion intermediate of the stepwise reaction.
Project description:The mechanism for activation of orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) by interactions of side chains from Gln215 and Try217 at a gripper loop and R235, adjacent to this loop, with the phosphodianion of OMP was probed by determining the kinetic parameters k(cat) and K(m) for all combinations of single, double, and triple Q215A, Y217F, and R235A mutations. The 12 kcal/mol intrinsic binding energy of the phosphodianion is shown to be equal to the sum of the binding energies of the side chains of R235 (6 kcal/mol), Q215 (2 kcal/mol), Y217 (2 kcal/mol), and hydrogen bonds to the G234 and R235 backbone amides (2 kcal/mol). Analysis of a triple mutant cube shows small (ca. 1 kcal/mol) interactions between phosphodianion gripper side chains, which are consistent with steric crowding of the side chains around the phosphodianion at wild-type OMPDC. These mutations result in the same change in the activation barrier to the OMPDC-catalyzed reactions of the whole substrate OMP and the substrate pieces (1-?-D-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid (EO) and phosphite dianion. This shows that the transition states for these reactions are stabilized by similar interactions with the protein catalyst. The 12 kcal/mol intrinsic phosphodianion binding energy of OMP is divided between the 8 kcal/mol of binding energy, which is utilized to drive a thermodynamically unfavorable conformational change of the free enzyme, resulting in an increase in (k(cat))(obs) for OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP, and the 4 kcal/mol of binding energy, which is utilized to stabilize the Michaelis complex, resulting in a decrease in (K(m))(obs).
Project description:Kinetic analysis of decarboxylation catalyzed by S154A, Q215A, and S154A/Q215A mutant yeast orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylases with orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) and with a truncated nucleoside substrate (EO) activated by phosphite dianion shows (1) the side chain of Ser-154 stabilizes the transition state through interactions with the pyrimidine rings of OMP or EO, (2) the side chain of Gln-215 interacts with the phosphodianion group of OMP or with phosphite dianion, and (3) the interloop hydrogen bond between the side chains of Ser-154 and Gln-215 orients the amide side chain of Gln-215 to interact with the phosphodianion group of OMP or with phosphite dianion.
Project description:A product deuterium isotope effect (PIE) of 1.0 was determined as the ratio of the yields of [6-(1)H]-uridine 5'-monophosphate (50%) and [6-(2)H]-uridine 5'-monophosphate (50%) from the decarboxylation of orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) in 50/50 (v/v) HOH/DOD catalyzed by orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, and Escherichia coli. This unitary PIE eliminates a proposed mechanism for enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation in which proton transfer from Lys-93 to C-6 of OMP provides electrophilic push to the loss of CO(2) in a concerted reaction. We propose that the complete lack of selectivity for the reaction of solvent H and D, which is implied by the value of PIE = 1.0, is enforced by restricted C-N bond rotation of the -CH(2)-NL(3)(+) group of the side chain of Lys-93. A smaller PIE of 0.93 was determined as the ratio of the product yields for OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of 5-fluoroorotidine 5'-monophosphate (5-FOMP) in 50/50 (v/v) HOH/DOD. Mutations on the following important active-site residues of OMPDC from S. cerevisiae have no effect on the PIE on OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP or decarboxylation of 5-FOMP: R235A, Y217A, Q215A, S124A, and S154A/Q215A.
Project description:The reaction catalyzed by orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) involves a stabilized anionic intermediate, although the structural basis for the rate acceleration (k(cat)/k(non), 7.1 x 10(16)) and proficiency [(k(cat)/K(M))/k(non), 4.8 x 10(22) M(-1)] is uncertain. That the OMPDCs from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (MtOMPDC) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScOMPDC) catalyze the exchange of H6 of the UMP product with solvent deuterium allows an estimate of a lower limit on the rate acceleration associated with stabilization of the intermediate and its flanking transition states (>or=10(10)). The origin of the "missing" contribution, <or=10(7) ( approximately 10(17) total - >or=10(10)), is of interest. Based on structures of liganded complexes, unfavorable electrostatic interactions between the substrate carboxylate group and a proximal Asp (Asp 70 in MtOMPDC and Asp 91 in ScOMPDC) have been proposed to contribute to the catalytic efficiency [Wu, N., Mo, Y., Gao, J., and Pai, E. F. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 2017-2022]. We investigated that hypothesis by structural and functional characterization of the D70N and D70G mutants of MtOMPDC and the D91N mutant of ScOMPDC. The substitutions for Asp 70 in MtOMPDC significantly decrease the value of k(cat) for decarboxylation of FOMP (a more reactive substrate analogue) but have little effect on the value of k(ex) for exchange of H6 of FUMP with solvent deuterium; the structures of wild-type MtOMPDC and its mutants are superimposable when complexed with 6-azaUMP. In contrast, the D91N mutant of ScOMPDC does not catalyze exchange of H6 of FUMP; the structures of wild-type ScOMPDC and its D91N mutant are not superimposable when complexed with 6-azaUMP, with differences in both the conformation of the active site loop and the orientation of the ligand vis a vis the active site residues. We propose that the differential effects of substitutions for Asp 70 of MtOMPDC on decarboxylation and exchange provide additional evidence for a carbanionic intermediate as well as the involvement of Asp 70 in substrate destabilization.
Project description:The L232A mutation in triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) from Trypanosoma brucei brucei results in a small 6-fold decrease in k(cat)/K(m) for the reversible enzyme-catalyzed isomerization of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to give dihydroxyacetone phosphate. In contrast, this mutation leads to a 17-fold increase in the second-order rate constant for the TIM-catalyzed proton transfer reaction of the truncated substrate piece [1-(13)C]glycolaldehyde ([1-(13)C]-GA) in D(2)O, a 25-fold increase in the third-order rate constant for the reaction of the substrate pieces GA and phosphite dianion (HPO(3)(2-)), and a 16-fold decrease in K(d) for binding of HPO(3)(2-) to the free enzyme. Most significantly, the mutation also results in an 11-fold decrease in the extent of activation of the enzyme toward turnover of GA by bound HPO(3)(2-). The data provide striking evidence that the L232A mutation leads to a ca. 1.7 kcal/mol stabilization of a catalytically active loop-closed form of TIM (E(c)) relative to an inactive open form (E(o)). We propose that this is due to the relief, in L232A mutant TIM, of unfavorable steric interactions between the bulky hydrophobic side chain of Leu-232 and the basic carboxylate side chain of Glu-167, the catalytic base, which destabilize E(c) relative to E(o).