Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase is a stress response protein regulated by the heat shock factor/hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha pathway.
ABSTRACT: Stress responses are cellular processes essential for maintenance of cellular integrity and defense against environmental and intracellular insults. Neurodegenerative conditions are linked with inadequate stress responses. Several stress-responsive genes encoding neuroprotective proteins have been identified, and among them, the heat shock proteins comprise an important group of molecular chaperones that have neuroprotective functions. However, evidence for other critical stress-responsive genes is lacking. Recent studies on the NAD synthesis enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT) have uncovered a novel neuronal maintenance and protective function against activity-, injury-, or misfolded protein-induced degeneration in Drosophila and in mammalian neurons. Here, we show that NMNAT is also a novel stress response protein required for thermotolerance and mitigation of oxidative stress-induced shortened lifespan. NMNAT is transcriptionally regulated during various stress conditions including heat shock and hypoxia through heat shock factor (HSF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1? in vivo. HSF binds to nmnat promoter and induces NMNAT expression under heat shock. In contrast, under hypoxia, HIF1? up-regulates NMNAT indirectly through the induction of HSF. Our studies provide an in vivo mechanism for transcriptional regulation of NMNAT under stress and establish an essential role for this neuroprotective factor in cellular stress response.
Project description:The cellular heat stress response is well studied in Drosophila in respect to the role of heat shock proteins (Hsp). Hsps are molecular chaperones, highly expressed during and after exposure to numerous stress types. Hsps are all regulated by a common transcription factor, the heat shock factor (HSF), and it is known that HSF is controlling other, so far uncharacterised, heat-responsive genes. In this study, we investigate whether novel candidate genes for heat resistance, identified by microarray experiments, are regulated by HSF. The microarray experiments recently identified several strongly upregulated genes in response to a short, non-lethal heat treatment in Drosophila melanogaster. To test whether or not a subset of these genes are HSF-induced, we studied 11 currently unannotated genes using quantitative polymerase chain reaction on HSF mutant flies with a non-functional HSF at elevated temperatures. We found indication of HSF regulation in most of the studied genes, suggesting a role of these unknown genes in heat tolerance. Surprisingly, some of the genes seemed to be upregulated independent of HSF function. The high induction in response to heat, which mimics the expression profile of Hsps, implies a role in the cellular heat response of these genes as well.
Project description:Alu RNAs are present at elevated levels in stress conditions and, consequently, Alu repeats are increasingly being associated with the physiological stress response. Alu repeats are known to harbor transcription factor binding sites that modulate RNA pol II transcription and Alu RNAs act as transcriptional co-repressors through pol II binding in the promoter regions of heat shock responsive genes. An observation of a putative heat shock factor (HSF) binding site in Alu led us to explore whether, through HSF binding, these elements could further contribute to the heat shock response repertoire.Alu density was significantly enriched in transcripts that are down-regulated following heat shock recovery in HeLa cells. ChIP analysis confirmed HSF binding to a consensus motif exhibiting positional conservation across various Alu subfamilies, and reporter constructs demonstrated a sequence-specific two-fold induction of these sites in response to heat shock. These motifs were over-represented in the genic regions of down-regulated transcripts in antisense oriented Alus. Affymetrix Exon arrays detected antisense signals in a significant fraction of the down-regulated transcripts, 50% of which harbored HSF sites within 5 kb. siRNA knockdown of the selected antisense transcripts led to the over-expression, following heat shock, of their corresponding down-regulated transcripts. The antisense transcripts were significantly enriched in processes related to RNA pol III transcription and the TFIIIC complex.We demonstrate a non-random presence of Alu repeats harboring HSF sites in heat shock responsive transcripts. This presence underlies an antisense-mediated mechanism that represents a novel component of Alu and HSF involvement in the heat shock response.
Project description:Stress-response pathways have evolved to maintain cellular homeostasis and to ensure the survival of organisms under changing environmental conditions. Whereas severe stress is detrimental, mild stress can be beneficial for health and survival, known as hormesis. Although the universally conserved heat-shock response regulated by transcription factor HSF-1 has been implicated as an effector mechanism, the role and possible interplay with other cellular processes, such as autophagy, remains poorly understood. Here we show that autophagy is induced in multiple tissues of Caenorhabditis elegans following hormetic heat stress or HSF-1 overexpression. Autophagy-related genes are required for the thermoresistance and longevity of animals exposed to hormetic heat shock or HSF-1 overexpression. Hormetic heat shock also reduces the progressive accumulation of PolyQ aggregates in an autophagy-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that autophagy contributes to stress resistance and hormesis, and reveal a requirement for autophagy in HSF-1-regulated functions in the heat-shock response, proteostasis and ageing.
Project description:The ability of an organism to sense and adapt to environmental stressors is essential for proteome maintenance and survival. The highly conserved heat shock response is a survival mechanism employed by all organisms, including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, upon exposure to environmental extremes. Transcriptional control of the metazoan heat shock response is mediated by the heat shock transcription factor HSF-1. In addition to regulating global stress-responsive genes to promote stress-resistance and survival, HSF-1 has recently been shown to regulate stress-independent functions in controlling development, metabolism, and longevity. However, the indirect role of HSF-1 in coordinating stress-dependent and -independent processes through post-transcriptional regulation is largely unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of post-transcriptional regulators that control gene expression through translational repression or mRNA degradation. To determine the role of HSF-1 in regulating miRNA expression, we have performed high-throughput small RNA-sequencing in C. elegans grown in the presence and absence of hsf-1 RNAi followed by treatment with or without heat shock. This has allowed us to uncover the miRNAs regulated by HSF-1 via heat-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Integrated miRNA/mRNA target-prediction analyses suggest HSF-1 as a post-transcriptional regulator of development, metabolism, and longevity through regulating miRNA expression. This provides new insight into the possible mechanism by which HSF-1 controls these processes. We have also uncovered oxidative stress response factors and insulin-like signaling factors as a common link between processes affected by HSF-1-regulated miRNAs in stress-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. This may provide a role for miRNAs in regulating cross-talk between various stress responses. Our work therefore uncovers an interesting potential role for HSF-1 in post-transcriptionally controlling gene expression in C. elegans, and suggests a mechanism for cross-talk between stress responses.
Project description:Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF-1) is a key regulator of the heat shock response (HSR). Upon heat shock, HSF-1 binds well-conserved motifs, called Heat Shock Elements (HSEs), and drives expression of genes important for cellular protection during this stress. Remarkably, we found that substantial numbers of HSEs in multiple Caenorhabditis species reside within Helitrons, a type of DNA transposon. Consistent with Helitron-embedded HSEs being functional, upon heat shock they display increased HSF-1 and RNA polymerase II occupancy and up-regulation of nearby genes in C. elegans. Interestingly, we found that different genes appear to be incorporated into the HSR by species-specific Helitron insertions in C. elegans and C. briggsae and by strain-specific insertions among different wild isolates of C. elegans. Our studies uncover previously unidentified targets of HSF-1 and show that Helitron insertions are responsible for rewiring and diversifying the Caenorhabditis HSR.
Project description:Osmoregulation, the cellular response to environmental changes of osmolarity and ionic strength, is important for the survival of living organisms. We have demonstrated previously that an exposure of mammalian cells to hypo-osmotic stress, either in growth medium (30% growth medium and 70% water) or in binary solution containing sorbitol and water, prominently induced the DNA-binding activity of the heat-shock transcription factor (HSF1) [Huang, Caruccio, Liu and Chen (1995) Biochem. J. 307, 347-352]. Since hyperosmotic and hypo-osmotic stress usually elicit opposite biological responses, we wondered what would be the effect of hyperosmotic stress on HSF activation. In this study we have examined the HSF DNA-binding activity in HeLa cells maintained in the sorbitol/water binary solution over a wide concentration range (0.1-0.9 M) and in Dulbecco's medium supplemented with sorbitol or NaCl. We found that HSF-binding activity could be induced prominently under both hypo-osmotic (0.1-0.25 M) and hyperosmotic conditions (0.50-0.90 M). In both cases, HSF activation was observed within 5 min after changing the osmotic pressure. The activation was accompanied by both HSF trimerization and nuclear translocation, and appeared to be independent of protein synthesis. The effects of hypo- or hyper-osmotic stress on HSF activation could be reversed once the cells were returned to iso-osmotic conditions (0.30M) with a half-life (t12) of 25 min or less. This rapid turnover of the osmotic-stress-induced HSF-binding activity was inhibited by cycloheximide, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis. Unlike heat shock, activation of HSF by either hypo- or hyper-osmotic stress did not lead to an accumulation of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA in HeLa cells. We propose that HSF activation during osmotic stress may serve physiological functions independent of the synthesis of heat-shock proteins.
Project description:Integrating stress responses across tissues is essential for the survival of multicellular organisms. The metazoan nervous system can sense protein-misfolding stress arising in different subcellular compartments and initiate cytoprotective transcriptional responses in the periphery. Several subcellular compartments possess a homotypic signal whereby the respective compartment relies on a single signaling mechanism to convey information within the affected cell to the same stress-responsive pathway in peripheral tissues. In contrast, we find that the heat shock transcription factor, HSF-1, specifies its mode of transcellular protection via two distinct signaling pathways. Upon thermal stress, neural HSF-1 primes peripheral tissues through the thermosensory neural circuit to mount a heat shock response. Independent of this thermosensory circuit, neural HSF-1 activates the FOXO transcription factor, DAF-16, in the periphery and prolongs lifespan. Thus a single transcription factor can coordinate different stress response pathways to specify its mode of protection against changing environmental conditions.
Project description:Neurodegeneration can be triggered by genetic or environmental factors. Although the precise cause is often unknown, many neurodegenerative diseases share common features such as protein aggregation and age dependence. Recent studies in Drosophila have uncovered protective effects of NAD synthase nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT) against activity-induced neurodegeneration and injury-induced axonal degeneration. Here we show that NMNAT overexpression can also protect against spinocerebellar ataxia 1 (SCA1)-induced neurodegeneration, suggesting a general neuroprotective function of NMNAT. It protects against neurodegeneration partly through a proteasome-mediated pathway in a manner similar to heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70). NMNAT displays chaperone function both in biochemical assays and cultured cells, and it shares significant structural similarity with known chaperones. Furthermore, it is upregulated in the brain upon overexpression of poly-glutamine expanded protein and recruited with the chaperone Hsp70 into protein aggregates. Our results implicate NMNAT as a stress-response protein that acts as a chaperone for neuronal maintenance and protection. Our studies provide an entry point for understanding how normal neurons maintain activity, and offer clues for the common mechanisms underlying different neurodegenerative conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The heat shock response of Arabidopsis thaliana is dependent upon a complex regulatory network involving twenty-one known transcription factors and four heat shock protein families. It is known that heat shock proteins (Hsps) and transcription factors (Hsfs) are involved in cellular response to various forms of stress besides heat. However, the role of Hsps and Hsfs under cold and non-thermal stress conditions is not well understood, and it is unclear which types of stress interact least and most strongly with Hsp and Hsf response pathways. To address this issue, we have analyzed transcriptional response profiles of Arabidopsis Hsfs and Hsps to a range of abiotic and biotic stress treatments (heat, cold, osmotic stress, salt, drought, genotoxic stress, ultraviolet light, oxidative stress, wounding, and pathogen infection) in both above and below-ground plant tissues. RESULTS: All stress treatments interact with Hsf and Hsp response pathways to varying extents, suggesting considerable cross-talk between heat and non-heat stress regulatory networks. In general, Hsf and Hsp expression was strongly induced by heat, cold, salt, and osmotic stress, while other types of stress exhibited family or tissue-specific response patterns. With respect to the Hsp20 protein family, for instance, large expression responses occurred under all types of stress, with striking similarity among expression response profiles. Several genes belonging to the Hsp20, Hsp70 and Hsp100 families were specifically upregulated twelve hours after wounding in root tissue, and exhibited a parallel expression response pattern during recovery from heat stress. Among all Hsf and Hsp families, large expression responses occurred under ultraviolet-B light stress in aerial tissue (shoots) but not subterranean tissue (roots). CONCLUSION: Our findings show that Hsf and Hsp family member genes represent an interaction point between multiple stress response pathways, and therefore warrant functional analysis under conditions apart from heat shock treatment. In addition, our analysis revealed several family and tissue-specific heat shock gene expression patterns that have not been previously described. These results have implications regarding the molecular basis of cross-tolerance in plant species, and raise new questions to be pursued in future experimental studies of the Arabidopsis heat shock response network.
Project description:Proctor2005 - Actions of chaperones and their
role in ageing
This model is described in the article:
Modelling the actions of
chaperones and their role in ageing.
Proctor CJ, Soti C, Boys RJ,
Gillespie CS, Shanley DP, Wilkinson DJ, Kirkwood TB.
Mech. Ageing Dev. 2005 Jan; 126(1):
Many molecular chaperones are also known as heat shock
proteins because they are synthesised in increased amounts
after brief exposure of cells to elevated temperatures. They
have many cellular functions and are involved in the folding of
nascent proteins, the re-folding of denatured proteins, the
prevention of protein aggregation, and assisting the targeting
of proteins for degradation by the proteasome and lysosomes.
They also have a role in apoptosis and are involved in
modulating signals for immune and inflammatory responses.
Stress-induced transcription of heat shock proteins requires
the activation of heat shock factor (HSF). Under normal
conditions, HSF is bound to heat shock proteins resulting in
feedback repression. During stress, cellular proteins undergo
denaturation and sequester heat shock proteins bound to HSF,
which is then able to become transcriptionally active. The
induction of heat shock proteins is impaired with age and there
is also a decline in chaperone function. Aberrant/damaged
proteins accumulate with age and are implicated in several
important age-related conditions (e.g. Alzheimer's disease,
Parkinson's disease, and cataract). Therefore, the balance
between damaged proteins and available free chaperones may be
greatly disturbed during ageing. We have developed a
mathematical model to describe the heat shock system. The aim
of the model is two-fold: to explore the heat shock system and
its implications in ageing; and to demonstrate how to build a
model of a biological system using our simulation system
(biology of ageing e-science integration and simulation
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