PME-1, an extended-spectrum ?-lactamase identified in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
ABSTRACT: A novel extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) was identified in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate obtained from a patient admitted to a hospital in Pennsylvania in 2008. The patient had a prolonged hospitalization in a hospital in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, before being transferred to the United States. The novel ESBL, designated PME-1 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ESBL 1), is a molecular class A, Bush-Jacoby-Medeiros group 2be enzyme and shared 50, 43, and 41% amino acid identity with the L2 ?-lactamase of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, CTX-M-9, and KPC-2, respectively. PME-1 conferred clinically relevant resistance to ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefepime, and aztreonam in P. aeruginosa PAO1 but not to carbapenems. Purified PME-1 showed good hydrolytic activity against ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and aztreonam, while activity against carbapenems and cefepime could not be measured. PME-1 was inhibited well by ?-lactamase inhibitors, including clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam. The bla(PME-1) gene was carried by an approximately 9-kb plasmid and flanked by tandem ISCR24 elements.
Project description:Minibacterium massiliensis strain CIP107820 is a recently discovered waterborne Gram-negative rod isolated from hospital water samples. It harbors a chromosomally located gene encoding an Ambler class A extended-spectrum ?-lactamase termed MIN-1, sharing 56%, 54%, and 51% amino acid identities with ?-lactamases LUT-1, KPC-2, and CTX-M-2, respectively. ?-Lactamase MIN-1 hydrolyzes penicillins, narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, cefotaxime, and, less efficiently, cefepime, while ceftazidime and carbapenems are very poor substrates, and cephamycins and aztreonam are not hydrolyzed.
Project description:Enterobacter aerogenes clinical isolate LOR was resistant to penicillins and ceftazidime but susceptible to cefuroxime, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and cefepime. PCR and cloning experiments from this strain identified a novel TEM-type beta-lactamase (TEM-121) differing by five amino acid substitutions from beta-lactamase TEM-2 (Glu104Lys, Arg164Ser, Ala237Thr, Glu240Lys, and Arg244Ser) and by only one amino acid change from the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) TEM-24 (Arg244Ser), with the last substitution also being identified in the inhibitor-resistant beta-lactamase IRT-2. Kinetic parameters indicated that TEM-121 hydrolyzed ceftazidime and aztreonam (like TEM-24) and was inhibited weakly by clavulanic acid and strongly by tazobactam. Thus, TEM-121 is a novel complex mutant TEM beta-lactamase (CMT-4) combining the kinetic properties of an ESBL and an inhibitor-resistant TEM enzyme.
Project description:Resistance to ?-lactams is constantly increasing due to the emergence of totally new enzymes but also to the evolution of preexisting ?-lactamases. GES-1 is a clinically relevant extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) that hydrolyzes penicillins and broad-spectrum cephalosporins but spares monobactams and carbapenems. However, several GES-1 variants (i.e., GES-2 and GES-5) previously identified among clinical isolates display an extended spectrum of activity toward carbapenems. To study the evolution potential of the GES-1 ?-lactamase, this enzyme was submitted to in vitro-directed evolution, with selection on increasing concentrations of the cephalosporin cefotaxime, the monobactam aztreonam, or the carbapenem imipenem. The highest resistance levels were conferred by a combination of up to four substitutions. The A6T-E104K-G243A variant selected on cefotaxime and the A6T-E104K-T237A-G243A variant selected on aztreonam conferred high resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam. Conversely, the A6T-G170S variant selected on imipenem conferred high resistance to imipenem and cefoxitin. Of note, the A6T substitution involved in higher MICs for all ?-lactams is located in the leader peptide of the GES enzyme and therefore is not present in the mature protein. Acquired cross-resistance was not observed, since selection with cefotaxime or aztreonam did not select for resistance to imipenem, and vice versa. Here, we demonstrate that the ?-lactamase GES-1 exhibits peculiar properties, with a significant potential to gain activity against broad-spectrum cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems.
Project description:In 2010 the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) lowered the susceptibility breakpoints of some cephalosporins and aztreonam for Enterobacteriaceae and eliminated the need to perform screening for extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) and confirmatory tests. The aim of this study was to determine how many ESBL-producing strains of three common species of Enterobacteriaceae test susceptible using the new breakpoints. As determined with the CLSI screening and confirmatory tests, 382 consecutive ESBL-producing strains were collected at Huashan Hospital between 2007 and 2008, including 158 strains of Escherichia coli, 164 of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 60 of Proteus mirabilis. Susceptibility was determined by the CLSI agar dilution method. CTX-M-, TEM-, and SHV-specific genes were determined by PCR amplification and sequencing. bla(CTX-M) genes alone or in combination with bla(SHV) were present in 92.7% (354/382) of these ESBL-producing strains. Forty-two (25.6%) strains of K. pneumoniae harbored SHV-type ESBLs alone or in combination. No TEM ESBLs were found. Utilizing the new breakpoints, all 382 strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone, while 85.0 to 96.7% of P. mirabilis strains tested susceptible to ceftazidime, cefepime, and aztreonam, 41.8 to 45.6% of E. coli strains appeared to be susceptible to ceftazidime and cefepime, and 20.1% of K. pneumoniae were susceptible to cefepime. In conclusion, all ESBL-producing strains of Enterobacteriaceae would be reported to be resistant to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone by using the new CLSI breakpoints, but a substantial number of ESBL-containing P. mirabilis and E. coli strains would be reported to be susceptible to ceftazidime, cefepime, and aztreonam, which is likely due to the high prevalence of CTX-M type ESBLs.
Project description:A serious concern is arising on the coexistence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) producing bacteria in animal husbandry, which could be transferred to humans, especially in strains that may not be routinely screened for resistance. This study therefore tested the prevalence of ESBL and PMQR genes in selected bacteria isolated from poultry faeces. Faecal droppings of birds were collected from 11 farms in five states in South Western Nigeria. Bacteria were isolated from the samples on cefotaxime supplemented plates and identified with MALDI-TOF. The MIC was determined using VITEK system and resistance genes were detected with PCR. A total of 350 strains were isolated from different samples and selected strains were identified as 23 Klebsiella pneumonia, 12 Morganella morganii, seven Leclercia adecarboxylata and one Citrobacter freundii. All the species were resistant to gentamycin, trimethoprim/sulphamethaxole, tobramycin, piperacillin, cefotaxime and aztreonam (except Morganella morganii strains which were mostly susceptible to aztreonam). All the tested strains were susceptible to imipenem, meropenem and amikacin. All Leclercia adecarboxylata strains were resistant to ceftazidime, cefepime and fosfomycin while all Morganella morganii strains were resistant to fosfomycin, moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin. All tested species were generally sensitive to ciprofloxacin except Morganella morganii strains which were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The resistance to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, cefepime, tigercylin, colistin and fosfomycin were 65%, 40%, 23%,, 7%, 33%, 48% respectively while the prevalence of SHV, TEM and CTX genes were 42%, 63%, 35% respectively. 9.3% of the isolates had the three ESBL genes, 2.33% had qnrA gene, 4.65% had qnr B gene while none had qnrS gene. The most prevalent PMQR gene is Oqxb (25.58%) while 6.98% had the qep gene. Klebsiella pneumoniae generally had both ESBL and PMQR genes. The high prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase genes in the studied strains calls for caution in the use of beta lactam antibiotics in poultry feeds. This is the first report of the occurrence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance genes in Morganella morganii and Leclercia adecarboxylata strains isolated from poultry faeces.
Project description:Serratia marcescens Rio-5, one of 18 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains isolated in several hospitals in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in 1996 and 1997, exhibited a high level of resistance to aztreonam (MIC, 512 microgram/ml) and a distinctly higher level of resistance to cefotaxime (MIC, 64 microgram/ml) than to ceftazidime (MIC, 8 microgram/ml). The strain produced a plasmid-encoded ESBL with a pI of 7.5 whose bla gene was not related to those of other plasmid-mediated Ambler class A ESBLs. Cloning and sequencing revealed a bla gene encoding a novel class A beta-lactamase in functional group 2be, designated BES-1 (Brazil extended-spectrum beta-lactamase). This enzyme had 51% identity with chromosomal class A penicillinase of Yersinia enterocolitica Y56, which was the most closely related enzyme and 47 to 48% identity with CTX-M-type beta-lactamases, which were the most closely related ESBLs. In common with CTX-M enzymes, BES-1 exhibited high cefotaxime-hydrolyzing activity (k(cat), 425 s(-1)). However, BES-1 differed from CTX-M enzymes by its significant ceftazidime-hydrolyzing activity (k(cat), 25 s(-1)), high affinity for aztreonam (K(i), 1 microM), and lower susceptibility to tazobactam (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)], 0.820 microM) than to clavulanate (IC(50), 0.045 microM). Likewise, certain characteristic structural features of CTX-M enzymes, such as Phe-160, Ser-237, and Arg-276, were observed for BES-1, which, in addition, harbored different residues (Ala-104, Ser-171, Arg-220, Gly-240) and six additional residues at the end of the sequence. BES-1, therefore, may be an interesting model for further investigations of the structure-function relationships of class A ESBLs.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa AH, isolated in Ankara, Turkey, was highly resistant to ceftazidime (MIC, 128 microg/ml) and produced a beta-lactamase that gave a doublet of bands at pIs 8.7 and 8.9. beta-Lactamase production was transferable to P. aeruginosa PU21 by conjugation and was determined by a ca. 450-kb plasmid, pMLH54. The transconjugant and Escherichia coli transformed with the cloned gene showed increased resistance to ceftazidime (especially) and to cefpirome, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, moxalactam, and aztreonam, but not to carbapenems. Resistance was not reversed by clavulanic acid or tazobactam. Sequencing revealed that the beta-lactamase responsible for this resistance was identical to OXA-2 except that glycine replaced aspartate at position 150. Compared to OXA-2, the new enzyme, named OXA-15, had greater cephalosporinase activity, with increased relative hydrolysis rates for cephaloridine and cephalothin and, most dramatically, for ceftazidime. Cefotaxime and carbapenems remained stable to hydrolysis. Thus, as in the TEM, SHV, and OXA-10 (PSE-2) beta-lactamase families, a minor sequence change in OXA-2 gave a major extension of cephalosporinase activity and contingent resistance. The gene encoding the new beta-lactamase, bla(OXA-15), lay close to the highly conserved 3' end of an integron and had flanking sequences typical of an integron-associated gene cassette. Restriction mapping and partial sequence data indicated that pMLH54 carries an integron with three putative gene cassettes: bla(OXA-15) itself, aadB [coding aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferase (2")-1a], and an uncharacterized cassette.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common pathogen causing nosocomial infections. Resistance of P. aeruginosa strains to broad-spectrum cephalosporins may be mediated by extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs). OBJECTIVES:We intended to investigate the prevalence of ESBLs and antimicrobial susceptibilities of P. aeruginosa isolated from patients in Zahedan, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this cross-sectional study, during 2012-2013, 116 P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from a teaching hospital in Zahedan, Iran. Susceptibility to eight antimicrobial agents was carried out by disk diffusion method. The ESBL producing strains were detected by combination disk test (CDT). ESBL positive isolates as well as other isolates showing minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ? 4 ?g/mL for ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and aztreonam, were screened for the presence of the genes encoding blaTEM, blaSHV, blaPER-1 and blaVEB-1, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS:Ciprofloxacin and piperacillin were the most efficient antipseudomonal agents. The results disclosed that 19 (16.37%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant and 8 (6.89%) were ESBL-positive. Of the 116 isolates, 30 (25.86%) were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime or aztreonam and among these 30 (100%), 4 (13.3%), 2 (6.6%) and 2 (6.6%), amplified blaTEM, blaVEB-1, blaPER-1 and blaSHV, respectively. From the 30 TEM-positive isolates, 22 were ESBL-negative. Sequencing of the ESBL genes verified the accuracy of the PCR products. CONCLUSIONS:According to our results, blaTEM-116 was the most frequent isolated ESBL gene among the P. aeruginosa strains isolated from patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) production is the major resistance mechanism to ?-lactam antibiotics in Enterobacteriaceae. In addition, emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) in ESBL-producing isolates has become a global threat for treatment of these infections. OBJECTIVES:We investigated the association between ESBL production and quinolone resistance in urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae. PATIENTS AND METHODS:A total of 196 urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae were collected from Imam Hussein Hospital in Tehran during a four year period (2008-2012). Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disc diffusion and ESBL production was screened using the phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT). RESULTS:All isolates were susceptible to imipenem. Resistance to piperacillin and cefotaxime were 66.3% and 50.5%, respectively. Resistance to ceftazidime, amoxiclave, aztreonam, ceftriaxone, cefepime, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, levofloxacin, amikacin and pipracilin/tazobactam were less than 50%. ESBL production was detected in 92 isolates (46.9%) of which, 61.9% were resistant to nalidixic acid and 65.2% to ciprofloxacin. Multidrug-resistance was observed in 96.7% of ESBL producers. CONCLUSIONS:Our results showed coexistence of ESBL and quinolone resistance in the majority of the uropathogenic K. pneumoniae test isolates suggesting that care should be taken for the choice of antibiotic therapy.
Project description:We developed a rapid high-throughput PCR test and evaluated highly antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates of Escherichia coli (n?= 2,919), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n?= 1,974), Proteus mirabilis (n?= 1,150), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n?= 1,484) for several antibiotic resistance genes for comparison with phenotypic resistance across penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones, and macrolides. The isolates originated from hospitals in North America (34%), Europe (23%), Asia (13%), South America (12%), Africa (7%), or Oceania (1%) or were of unknown origin (9%). We developed statistical methods to predict phenotypic resistance from resistance genes for 49 antibiotic-organism combinations, including gentamicin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ertapenem, imipenem, cefazolin, cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ampicillin, and aztreonam. Average positive predictive values for genotypic prediction of phenotypic resistance were 91% for E. coli, 93% for K. pneumoniae, 87% for P. mirabilis, and 92% for P. aeruginosa across the various antibiotics for this highly resistant cohort of bacterial isolates.