Ethnic differences in the self-recognition of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities: a cross-sectional analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Obesity and its related co-morbidities place a huge burden on the health care system. Patients who know they are obese may better control their weight or seek medical attention. Self-recognition may be affected by race/ethnicity, but little is known about racial/ethnic differences in knowledge of obesity's health risks. OBJECTIVE: To examine awareness of obesity and attendant health risks among US whites, Hispanics and African-Americans. DESIGN: Cross-sectional self-administered survey. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients at three general medical clinics and one cardiology clinic. MAIN MEASURES: Thirty-one questions regarding demographics, height and weight, and perceptions and attitudes regarding obesity and associated health risks. Multiple logistic regression was used to quantify the association between ethnicity and obesity awareness, controlling for socio-demographic confounders. KEY RESULTS: Of 1,090 patients who were offered the survey, 1,031 completed it (response rate 95%); a final sample size of 970 was obtained after exclusion for implausible BMI, mixed or Asian ethnicity. Mean age was 47 years; 64% were female, 39% were white, 39% Hispanic and 22% African-American; 48% were obese (BMI??30 kg/m(2)). Among obese subjects, whites were more likely to self-report obesity than minorities (adjusted proportions: 95% of whites vs. 84% of African-American and 86% of Hispanics, P?=?0.006). Ethnic differences in obesity recognition disappeared when BMI was?>35 kg/m(2). African-Americans were significantly less likely than whites or Hispanics to view obesity as a health problem (77% vs. 90% vs. 88%, p?
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Asian Americans have low prevalence of overweight/obesity based on standard BMI cut points yet have higher rates of diabetes. We examined the prevalence of overweight/obesity, using lower BMI cut points recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for Asians, and diabetes in Asian American subgroups in California. METHOD:Secondary analysis of the 2009 adult California Health Interview Survey (n=45,946) of non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), African Americans, Hispanics and Asians (Vietnamese, Chinese, Korean, Filipino, South Asian and Japanese). WHO Asian BMI cut points (overweight=23-27.5kg/m(2); obese?27.5kg/m(2)) were used for Asian subgroups. Standard BMI cut points (overweight=25-29.9kg/m(2); obese?30kg/m(2)) were applied for other groups. RESULTS:Among Asian subgroups, overweight/obesity was highest among Filipinos (78.6%), which was higher than NHWs (p<0.001) but similar to African Americans and Hispanics. Compared to NHW, diabetes prevalence was higher for Vietnamese, Koreans, Filipinos and South Asians with BMI=23-24.9kg/m(2) and Koreans, Filipinos and Japanese with BMI=27.5-29.9kg/m(2), the ranges WHO recommends as overweight or obese for Asians but not for other groups. CONCLUSIONS:Filipinos should be a priority population for overweight/obesity screening. Filipinos, Vietnamese, Korean, South Asians and Japanese have higher diabetes prevalence at lower BMI cut points. WHO Asian BMI cut points may have clinical utility to identify at-risk Asian Americans.
Project description:Obesity is a major risk factor for several chronic diseases including diabetes, fatty liver disease and cancer. Despite similar propensities for obesity, Hispanics and African Americans exhibit unique and distinct differences in obesity related outcomes such as greater risk of, obesity-related cancers in AA and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Hispanics. This study was aimed to determine whether differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression in obese, Hispanic and AA young adults might explain ethnic differences in obesity-related phenotypes. cross-sectional study design to compare subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression profiles of 19 Hispanic and 17 African American young adults
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To compare infant race/ethnicity based on birth certificates with parent report of infant race/ethnicity in a survey. DATA SOURCES: The 2007 Oklahoma birth certificates and SEED for Oklahoma Kids baseline survey. STUDY DESIGN: Using sensitivity scores and positive predictive values, we examined consistency of infant race/ethnicity across two data sources (N = 2,663). DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: We compared conventional measures of infant race/ethnicity from birth certificate and survey data. We also tested alternative measures that allow biracial classification, determined from parental information on the infant's birth certificate or parental survey report. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sensitivity of conventional measures is highest for whites and African Americans and lowest for Hispanics; positive predictive value is highest for Hispanics and African Americans and lowest for American Indians. Alternative measures improve values among whites but yield mostly low values among minority and biracial groups. CONCLUSIONS: Health disparities research should consider the source and validity of infant race/ethnicity data when creating sampling frames or designing studies that target infants by race/ethnicity. The common practice of assigning the maternal race/ethnicity as infant race/ethnicity should continue to be challenged.
Project description:Obesity is a major risk factor for several chronic diseases including diabetes, fatty liver disease and cancer. Despite similar propensities for obesity, Hispanics and African Americans exhibit unique and distinct differences in obesity related outcomes such as greater risk of, obesity-related cancers in AA and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Hispanics. This study was aimed to determine whether differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression in obese, Hispanic and AA young adults might explain ethnic differences in obesity-related phenotypes. Overall design: cross-sectional study design to compare subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression profiles of 19 Hispanic and 17 African American young adults
Project description:Previous studies in adult hemodialysis patients have shown that African-American and Hispanic patients have a lower risk of mortality in addition to a lower likelihood of kidney transplantation. However, studies of the association between race and outcomes in pediatric dialysis are sparse and often do not examine outcomes in Hispanic children. The objective was to determine if racial-ethnic disparities in mortality and kidney transplantation outcomes exist in pediatric dialysis patients.This was a retrospective cohort analysis of 2,697 pediatric dialysis patients (aged 0-20 years) from a large national dialysis organization (entry period 2001-2011) of non-Hispanic white, African-American, and Hispanic race-ethnicity. Associations between race-ethnicity with mortality and kidney transplantation outcomes were examined separately using competing risks methods. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between race-ethnicity, with outcomes within 1 year of dialysis initiation.Of the 2,697 pediatric patients in this cohort, 895 were African-American, 778 were Hispanic, and 1,024 were non-Hispanic white. After adjusting for baseline demographics, competing risk survival analysis revealed that compared with non-Hispanic whites, African-Americans had a 64 % higher mortality risk (hazards ratio [HR]?=?1.64; 95 % CI 1.24-2.17), whereas Hispanics had a 31 % lower mortality risk (HR?=?0.69; 95 % CI 0.47-1.01) that did not reach statistical significance. African-Americans also had higher odds of 1-year mortality after starting dialysis (odds ratio [OR]?=?2.08; 95 % CI 0.95-4.58), whereas both African-Americans and Hispanics had a lower odds of receiving a transplant within 1 year of starting dialysis (OR?=?0.28; 95 % CI 0.19-0.41 and OR?=?0.43; 95 % CI 0.31-0.59 respectively).In contrast to adults, African-American pediatric dialysis patients have worse survival than their non-Hispanic white counterparts, whereas Hispanics have a similar to lower mortality risk. Both African-American and Hispanic pediatric dialysis patients had a lower likelihood of kidney transplantation than non-Hispanic whites, similar to observations in the adult dialysis population.
Project description:Research on racial/ethnic health disparities and socioeconomic position has not fully considered occupation. However, because occupations are racially patterned, certain occupational characteristics may explain racial/ethnic difference in health. This study examines the role of occupational characteristics in racial/ethnic disparities in all-cause mortality. Data are from a U.S. community-based cohort study (n=6342, median follow-up: 12.2 years), in which 893 deaths (14.1%) occurred. We estimated mortality hazard ratios (HRs) for African Americans, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans compared with whites. We also estimated the proportion of the HR mediated by each of two occupational characteristics, substantive complexity of work (e.g., problem solving, inductive/deductive reasoning on the job) and hazardous conditions (e.g., noise, extreme temperature, chemicals), derived from the Occupational Information Network database (O*NET). Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, nativity, working status at baseline, and study sites. African Americans had a higher rate of all-cause death (HR 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-1.66) than whites. Chinese-American ethnicity was protective (HR 0.59, CI: 0.40-0.85); Hispanic ethnicity was not significantly different from whites (HR 0.88; CI: 0.67-1.17). Substantive complexity of work mediated 30% of the higher rate of death for African Americans compared with whites. For other groups, mediation was not significant. Hazardous conditions did not significantly mediate mortality in any racial/ethnic group. Lower levels of substantive complexity of work mediate a substantial part of the health disadvantage in African Americans. This job characteristic may be an important factor in explaining racial health disparities.
Project description:BACKGROUND: It is widely claimed that racial and ethnic minorities, especially in the US, are less willing than non-minority individuals to participate in health research. Yet, there is a paucity of empirical data to substantiate this claim. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify all published health research studies that report consent rates by race or ethnicity. We found 20 health research studies that reported consent rates by race or ethnicity. These 20 studies reported the enrollment decisions of over 70,000 individuals for a broad range of research, from interviews to drug treatment to surgical trials. Eighteen of the twenty studies were single-site studies conducted exclusively in the US or multi-site studies where the majority of sites (i.e., at least 2/3) were in the US. Of the remaining two studies, the Concorde study was conducted at 74 sites in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and France, while the Delta study was conducted at 152 sites in Europe and 23 sites in Australia and New Zealand. For the three interview or non-intervention studies, African-Americans had a nonsignificantly lower overall consent rate than non-Hispanic whites (82.2% versus 83.5%; odds ratio [OR] = 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-1.02). For these same three studies, Hispanics had a nonsignificantly higher overall consent rate than non-Hispanic whites (86.1% versus 83.5%; OR = 1.37; 95% CI 0.94-1.98). For the ten clinical intervention studies, African-Americans' overall consent rate was nonsignificantly higher than that of non-Hispanic whites (45.3% versus 41.8%; OR = 1.06; 95% CI 0.78-1.45). For these same ten studies, Hispanics had a statistically significant higher overall consent rate than non-Hispanic whites (55.9% versus 41.8%; OR = 1.33; 95% CI 1.08-1.65). For the seven surgery trials, which report all minority groups together, minorities as a group had a nonsignificantly higher overall consent rate than non-Hispanic whites (65.8% versus 47.8%; OR = 1.26; 95% CI 0.89-1.77). Given the preponderance of US sites, the vast majority of these individuals from minority groups were African-Americans or Hispanics from the US. CONCLUSIONS: We found very small differences in the willingness of minorities, most of whom were African-Americans and Hispanics in the US, to participate in health research compared to non-Hispanic whites. These findings, based on the research enrollment decisions of over 70,000 individuals, the vast majority from the US, suggest that racial and ethnic minorities in the US are as willing as non-Hispanic whites to participate in health research. Hence, efforts to increase minority participation in health research should focus on ensuring access to health research for all groups, rather than changing minority attitudes.
Project description:Neighborhood characteristics have been associated with obesity, but less is known whether relationships vary by race/ethnicity. This study examined the relationship between soda consumption - a behavior strongly associated with obesity - and weight status with neighborhood sociodemographic, social, and built environments by race/ethnicity. We merged data on adults from the 2011-2013 California Health Interview Survey, U.S. Census data, and InfoUSA (n=62,396). Dependent variables were soda consumption and weight status outcomes (body mass index and obesity status). Main independent variables were measures of three neighborhood environments: social (social cohesion and safety), sociodemographic (neighborhood socioeconomic status, educational attainment, percent Asian, percent Hispanic, and percent black), and built environments (number of grocery stores, convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and gyms in neighborhood). We fit multi-level linear and logistic regression models, stratified by individual race/ethnicity (NH (non-Hispanic) Whites, NH African Americans, Hispanics, and NH Asians) controlling for individual-level characteristics, to estimate neighborhood contextual effects on study outcomes. Lower neighborhood educational attainment was associated with higher odds of obesity and soda consumption in all racial/ethnic groups. We found fewer associations between study outcomes and the neighborhood, especially the built environment, among NH African Americans and NH Asians. While improvements to neighborhood environment may be promising to reduce obesity, null associations among minority subgroups suggest that changes, particularly to the built environment, may alone be insufficient to address obesity in these groups.
Project description:To describe ethnic and sex differences in the prevalence and determinants of fatty liver in a multiethnic cohort.We studied participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who underwent baseline noncontrast cardiac computed tomography between July 17, 2000, and August 29, 2002, and had adequate hepatic and splenic imaging for fatty liver determination (n=4088). Fatty liver was defined as a liver/spleen attenuation ratio of less than 1. We compared the prevalence and severity of fatty liver, in 4 ethnicities (white, Asian, African American, and Hispanic), and the factors associated with fatty liver in each ethnicity, stratifying by obesity and metabolic syndrome. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression was used to determine the effect of cardiometabolic risk factors on the prevalence of fatty liver in different ethnicities.The prevalence of fatty liver varied significantly by ethnicity (African American, 11%; white, 15%; Asian, 20%; and Hispanic, 27%; P<.001). Although African Americans had the highest prevalence of obesity, a smaller percentage of obese African Americans received a diagnosis of fatty liver than did other ethnicities (African American, 17%; white, 31%; Asian, 37%; and Hispanic 39%; P<.001). Hispanics had the highest prevalence of fatty liver, including the obese and metabolic syndrome population. An increase in insulin resistance predicted a 2-fold increased prevalence of fatty liver in all ethnicities after multivariable adjustment.African Americans have a lower prevalence and Hispanics have a higher prevalence of fatty liver than do other ethnicities. There are distinct ethnic variations in the prevalence of fatty liver even in patients with the metabolic syndrome or obesity, suggesting that genetic factors may play a substantial role in the phenotypic expression of fatty liver.
Project description:Robust interindividual variation in pain sensitivity has been observed, and recent evidence suggests that some of the variability may be genetically mediated. Our previous data revealed significantly higher pressure pain thresholds among individuals possessing the minor G allele of the A118G SNP of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) compared with those with 2 consensus alleles. Moreover, ethnic differences in pain sensitivity have been widely reported. Yet, little is known about the potential interactive associations of ethnicity and genotype with pain perception. This study aimed to identify ethnic differences in OPRM1 allelic associations with experimental pain responses. A total of 247 healthy young adults from three ethnic groups (81 African Americans; 79 non-white Hispanics; and 87 non-Hispanic whites) underwent multiple experimental pain modalities (thermal, pressure, ischemic, cold pressor). Few African Americans (7.4%) expressed the rare allele of OPRM1 compared to non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics (28.7% vs. 27.8%, respectively). Across the entire sample, OPRM1 genotype did not significantly affect pain sensitivity. However, analysis in each ethnic group separately revealed significant genotype effects for most pain modalities among non-Hispanic-whites (P<.05) but not Hispanics or African Americans. The G allele was associated with decreased pain sensitivity among whites only; a trend in the opposite direction emerged in Hispanics. The reasons for this dichotomy are unclear; they may involve ethnic differences in haplotypic structure, or A118G may be a tag-SNP linked to other functional polymorphisms. These findings demonstrate an ethnicity-dependent association of OPRM1 genotype with pain sensitivity. Additional research is warranted to uncover the mechanisms influencing these relationships.