Mechanisms of pseudosubstrate inhibition of the anaphase promoting complex by Acm1.
ABSTRACT: The anaphase promoting complex (APC) is a ubiquitin ligase that promotes the degradation of cell-cycle regulators by the 26S proteasome. Cdc20 and Cdh1 are WD40-containing APC co-activators that bind destruction boxes (DB) and KEN boxes within substrates to recruit them to the APC for ubiquitination. Acm1 is an APC(Cdh1) inhibitor that utilizes a DB and a KEN box to bind Cdh1 and prevent substrate binding, although Acm1 itself is not a substrate. We investigated what differentiates an APC substrate from an inhibitor. We identified the Acm1 A-motif that interacts with Cdh1 and together with the DB and KEN box is required for APC(Cdh1) inhibition. A genetic screen identified Cdh1 WD40 domain residues important for Acm1 A-motif interaction and inhibition that appears to reside near Cdh1 residues important for DB recognition. Specific lysine insertion mutations within Acm1 promoted its ubiquitination by APC(Cdh1) whereas lysine removal from the APC substrate Hsl1 converted it into a potent APC(Cdh1) inhibitor. These findings suggest that tight Cdh1 binding combined with the inaccessibility of ubiquitinatable lysines contributes to pseudosubstrate inhibition of APC(Cdh1).
Project description:The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) regulates sister chromatid segregation and the exit from mitosis. Selection of most APC/C substrates is controlled by coactivator subunits (either Cdc20 or Cdh1) that interact with substrate destruction motifs--predominantly the destruction (D) box and KEN box degrons. How coactivators recognize D box degrons and how this is inhibited by APC/C regulatory proteins is not defined at the atomic level. Here, from the crystal structure of S. cerevisiae Cdh1 in complex with its specific inhibitor Acm1, which incorporates D and KEN box pseudosubstrate motifs, we describe the molecular basis for D box recognition. Additional interactions between Acm1 and Cdh1 identify a third protein-binding site on Cdh1 that is likely to confer coactivator-specific protein functions including substrate association. We provide a structural rationalization for D box and KEN box recognition by coactivators and demonstrate that many noncanonical APC/C degrons bind APC/C coactivators at the D box coreceptor.
Project description:The completion of mitosis depends on protein ubiquitination by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). The APC is activated by association with Cdc20 in midmitosis and Cdh1 in late mitosis and G1. Here, we show that in budding yeast the activation of APC(Cdh1) is controlled in part by destruction of the Cdh1 inhibitor Acm1. We find that Acm1 uses pseudosubstrate and other sequence motifs to bind and inhibit Cdh1, but not Cdc20. Acm1 also contains a destruction sequence that promotes its ubiquitination by APC(Cdc20), resulting in the disappearance of Acm1 in early anaphase. Later in mitosis, Acm1 destruction is also promoted by APC(Cdh1). Finally, Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation of Acm1 modulates its localization and destruction. We conclude that ubiquitination of a Cdh1 inhibitor by APC(Cdc20) helps establish the order of activation of the two APC isoforms. We also speculate that the ability of APC(Cdh1) to target its own inhibitor enhances the bistability of the late mitotic regulatory system.
Project description:The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is tightly regulated during cell division, often by pseudosubstrate binding to its coactivators Cdh1 and Cdc20. Budding yeast Acm1 is a Cdh1 pseudosubstrate inhibitor whose biological function is unknown. We show here that cells lacking Acm1 have defects in nuclear positioning and spindle morphology during mitosis. However, Cdh1 substrates are not destabilized in the absence of Acm1 and expression of inactive Cdh1 mutants that retain substrate binding is sufficient for the acm1 phenotype. We conclude that Acm1 is not required to inhibit APC(Cdh1) activity but rather prevents untimely Cdh1-substrate interactions. We further provide evidence suggesting that the substrate primarily responsible for the acm1 phenotype is the bud neck-localized kinase, Hsl1. Our results imply that at least some coactivator-substrate interactions require regulation. Several unrelated APC pseudosubstrates have been identified in diverse eukaryotes and their ability to simultaneously inhibit enzymatic activity and substrate binding may partly explain why this regulatory mechanism has been selected repeatedly during evolution.
Project description:The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) promotes anaphase onset and mitotic exit through ubiquitinating securin and cyclin B1. The mitotic APC/C activator, the cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) protein, directly interacts with APC/C degrons--the destruction (D) and KEN boxes. APC/C(Cdc20) is the target of the spindle checkpoint. Checkpoint inhibition of APC/C(Cdc20) requires the binding of a BubR1 KEN box to Cdc20. How APC/C recognizes substrates is not understood. We report the crystal structures of human Cdc20 alone or bound to a BubR1 KEN box. Cdc20 has a disordered N-terminal region and a C-terminal WD40 ? propeller with a preformed KEN-box-binding site at its top face. We identify a second conserved surface at the side of the Cdc20 ? propeller as a D-box-binding site. The D box of securin, but not its KEN box, is critical for securin ubiquitination by APC/C(Cdc20). Although both motifs contribute to securin ubiquitination by APC/C(Cdh1), securin mutants lacking either motif are efficiently ubiquitinated. Furthermore, D-box peptides diminish the ubiquitination of KEN-box substrates by APC/C(Cdh1), suggesting possible competition between the two motifs. Our results indicate the lack of strong positive cooperativity between the two degrons of securin. We propose that low-cooperativity, multisite target recognition enables APC/C to robustly ubiquitinate diverse substrates and helps to drive cell cycle oscillations.
Project description:Cdh1 is a coactivator of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and contributes to mitotic exit and G1 maintenance by facilitating the polyubiquitination and subsequent proteolysis of specific substrates. Here, we report that budding yeast Cdh1 is a component of a cell cycle-regulated complex that includes the 14-3-3 homologs Bmh1 and Bmh2 and a previously uncharacterized protein, which we name Acm1 (APC/CCdh1 modulator 1). Association of Cdh1 with Bmh1 and Bmh2 requires Acm1, and the Acm1 protein is cell cycle regulated, appearing late in G1 and disappearing in late M. In acm1Delta strains, Cdh1 localization to the bud neck and association with two substrates, Clb2 and Hsl1, were strongly enhanced. Several lines of evidence suggest that Acm1 can suppress APC/CCdh1-mediated proteolysis of mitotic cyclins. First, overexpression of Acm1 fully restored viability to cells expressing toxic levels of Cdh1 or a constitutively active Cdh1 mutant lacking inhibitory phosphorylation sites. Second, overexpression of Acm1 was toxic in sic1Delta cells. Third, ACM1 deletion exacerbated a low-penetrance elongated-bud phenotype caused by modest overexpression of Cdh1. This bud elongation was independent of the morphogenesis checkpoint, and the combination of acm1Delta and hsl1Delta resulted in a dramatic enhancement of bud elongation and G2/M delay. Effects on bud elongation were attenuated when Cdh1 was replaced with a mutant lacking the C-terminal IR dipeptide, suggesting that APC/C-dependent proteolysis is required for this phenotype. We propose that Acm1 and Bmh1/Bmh2 constitute a specialized inhibitor of APC/CCdh1.
Project description:The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large, multisubunit ubiquitin ligase involved in regulation of cell division. APC/C substrate specificity arises from binding of short degron motifs in its substrates to transient activator subunits, Cdc20 and Cdh1. The destruction box (D-box) is the most common APC/C degron and plays a crucial role in substrate degradation by linking the activator to the Doc1/Apc10 subunit of core APC/C to stabilize the active holoenzyme and promote processive ubiquitylation. Degrons are also employed as pseudosubstrate motifs by APC/C inhibitors, and pseudosubstrates must bind their cognate activators tightly to outcompete substrate binding while blocking their own ubiquitylation. Here we examined how APC/C activity is suppressed by the small pseudosubstrate inhibitor Acm1 from budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Mutation of a conserved D-box converted Acm1 into an efficient ABBA (cyclin A, BubR1, Bub1, Acm1) motif-dependent APC/CCdh1 substrate in vivo, suggesting that this D-box somehow inhibits APC/C. We then identified a short conserved sequence at the C terminus of the Acm1 D-box that was necessary and sufficient for APC/C inhibition. In several APC/C substrates, the corresponding D-box region proved to be important for their degradation despite poor sequence conservation, redefining the D-box as a 12-amino acid motif. Biochemical analysis suggested that the Acm1 D-box extension inhibits reaction processivity by perturbing the normal interaction with Doc1/Apc10. Our results reveal a simple, elegant mode of pseudosubstrate inhibition that combines high-affinity activator binding with specific disruption of Doc1/Apc10 function in processive ubiquitylation.
Project description:Regulated proteolysis mediated by the ubiquitin proteasome system is a fundamental and essential feature of the eukaryotic cell division cycle. Most proteins with cell cycle-regulated stability are targeted for degradation by one of two related ubiquitin ligases, the Skp1-cullin-F box protein (SCF) complex or the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). Here we describe an unconventional cell cycle-regulated proteolytic mechanism that acts on the Acm1 protein, an inhibitor of the APC activator Cdh1 in budding yeast. Although Acm1 can be recognized as a substrate by the Cdc20-activated APC (APCCdc20) in anaphase, APCCdc20 is neither necessary nor sufficient for complete Acm1 degradation at the end of mitosis. An APC-independent, but 26S proteasome-dependent, mechanism is sufficient for complete Acm1 clearance from late mitotic and G1 cells. Surprisingly, this mechanism appears distinct from the canonical ubiquitin targeting pathway, exhibiting several features of ubiquitin-independent proteasomal degradation. For example, Acm1 degradation in G1 requires neither lysine residues in Acm1 nor assembly of polyubiquitin chains. Acm1 was stabilized though by conditional inactivation of the ubiquitin activating enzyme Uba1, implying some requirement for the ubiquitin pathway, either direct or indirect. We identified an amino terminal predicted disordered region in Acm1 that contributes to its proteolysis in G1. Although ubiquitin-independent proteasome substrates have been described, Acm1 appears unique in that its sensitivity to this mechanism is strictly cell cycle-regulated via cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) phosphorylation. As a result, Acm1 expression is limited to the cell cycle window in which Cdk is active. We provide evidence that failure to eliminate Acm1 impairs activation of APCCdh1 at mitotic exit, justifying its strict regulation by cell cycle-dependent transcription and proteolytic mechanisms. Importantly, our results reveal that strict cell-cycle expression profiles can be established independent of proteolysis mediated by the APC and SCF enzymes.
Project description:The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) controls a variety of cellular processes through its ability to target numerous protein substrates for timely degradation. Substrate selection by this ubiquitin ligase depends on related activator proteins, Cdc20 and Cdh1, which bind and activate the APC/C at distinct cell cycle stages. Biochemical and structural studies revealed that Cdc20 and Cdh1 carry conserved receptor domains to recognize specific sequence motifs in substrates, such as D and KEN boxes. The mechanisms for ordered degradation of APC/C substrates, however, remain incompletely understood. Here we describe minimal degradation sequences (degrons) sufficient for rapid APC/C-Cdh1-specific in vivo degradation. The polo kinase Cdc5-derived degron contained an essential KEN motif, whereas a single RxxL-type D box was the relevant signal in the Cdc20-derived degradation domain, indicating that either motif may support specific recognition by Cdh1. In both degrons, the APC/C recognition motif was flanked by a nuclear localization sequence. Forced localization of the degron constructs revealed that proteolysis mediated by APC/C-Cdh1 is restricted to the nucleus and maximally active in the nucleoplasm. Levels of Iqg1, a cytoplasmic Cdh1 substrate, decreased detectably later than the nucleus-localized Cdh1 substrate Ase1, indicating that confinement to the nucleus may allow for temporal control of APC/C-Cdh1-mediated proteolysis.
Project description:Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), an E3 ubiquitin ligase incorporated with Cdh1 and/or Cdc20 recognizes and interacts with specific substrates, and faithfully orchestrates the proper cell cycle events by targeting proteins for proteasomal degradation. Experimental identification of APC/C substrates is largely dependent on the discovery of APC/C recognition motifs, e.g., the D-box and KEN-box. Although a number of either stringent or loosely defined motifs proposed, these motif patterns are only of limited use due to their insufficient powers of prediction. We report the development of a novel GPS-ARM software package which is useful for the prediction of D-boxes and KEN-boxes in proteins. Using experimentally identified D-boxes and KEN-boxes as the training data sets, a previously developed GPS (Group-based Prediction System) algorithm was adopted. By extensive evaluation and comparison, the GPS-ARM performance was found to be much better than the one using simple motifs. With this powerful tool, we predicted 4,841 potential D-boxes in 3,832 proteins and 1,632 potential KEN-boxes in 1,403 proteins from H. sapiens, while further statistical analysis suggested that both the D-box and KEN-box proteins are involved in a broad spectrum of biological processes beyond the cell cycle. In addition, with the co-localization information, we predicted hundreds of mitosis-specific APC/C substrates with high confidence. As the first computational tool for the prediction of APC/C-mediated degradation, GPS-ARM is a useful tool for information to be used in further experimental investigations. The GPS-ARM is freely accessible for academic researchers at: http://arm.biocuckoo.org.
Project description:Ordered progression of mitosis requires precise control in abundance of mitotic regulators. The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase plays a key role by directing ubiquitin-mediated destruction of targets in a temporally and spatially defined manner. Specificity in APC/C targeting is conferred through recognition of substrate D-box and KEN degrons, while the specificity of ubiquitination sites, as another possible regulated dimension, has not yet been explored. Here, we present the first analysis of ubiquitination sites in the APC/C substrate ubiquitome. We show that KEN is a preferred ubiquitin acceptor in APC/C substrates and that acceptor sites are enriched in predicted disordered regions and flanked by serine residues. Our experimental data confirm a role for the KEN lysine as an ubiquitin acceptor contributing to substrate destruction during mitotic progression. Using Aurora A and Nek2 kinases as examples, we show that phosphorylation on the flanking serine residue could directly regulate ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of substrates. We propose a novel layer of regulation in substrate ubiquitination, via phosphorylation adjacent to the KEN motif, in APC/C-mediated targeting.