Rtt107 phosphorylation promotes localisation to DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) and recombinational repair between sister chromatids.
ABSTRACT: Efficient repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSB) requires a coordinated response at the site of lesion. Nucleolytic resection commits repair towards homologous recombination, which preferentially occurs between sister chromatids. DSB resection promotes recruitment of the Mec1 checkpoint kinase to the break. Rtt107 is a target of Mec1 and serves as a scaffold during repair. Rtt107 plays an important role during rescue of damaged replication forks, however whether Rtt107 contributes to the repair of DSBs is unknown. Here we show that Rtt107 is recruited to DSBs induced by the HO endonuclease. Rtt107 phosphorylation by Mec1 and its interaction with the Smc5-Smc6 complex are both required for Rtt107 loading to breaks, while Rtt107 regulators Slx4 and Rtt101 are not. We demonstrate that Rtt107 has an effect on the efficiency of sister chromatid recombination (SCR) and propose that its recruitment to DSBs, together with the Smc5-Smc6 complex is important for repair through the SCR pathway.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) can arise during DNA replication, or after exposure to DNA-damaging agents, and their correct repair is fundamental for cell survival and genomic stability. Here, we show that the Smc5-Smc6 complex is recruited to DSBs de novo to support their repair by homologous recombination between sister chromatids. In addition, we demonstrate that Smc5-Smc6 is necessary to suppress gross chromosomal rearrangements. Our findings show that the Smc5-Smc6 complex is essential for genome stability as it promotes repair of DSBs by error-free sister-chromatid recombination (SCR), thereby suppressing inappropriate non-sister recombination events.
Project description:Meiosis is a specialized cell division used by diploid organisms to form haploid gametes for sexual reproduction. Central to this reductive division is repair of endogenous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by the meiosis-specific enzyme Spo11. These DSBs are repaired in a process called homologous recombination using the sister chromatid or the homologous chromosome as a repair template, with the homolog being the preferred substrate during meiosis. Specific products of inter-homolog recombination, called crossovers, are essential for proper homolog segregation at the first meiotic nuclear division in budding yeast and mice. This study identifies an essential role for the conserved Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) 5/6 protein complex during meiotic recombination in budding yeast. Meiosis-specific smc5/6 mutants experience a block in DNA segregation without hindering meiotic progression. Establishment and removal of meiotic sister chromatid cohesin are independent of functional Smc6 protein. smc6 mutants also have normal levels of DSB formation and repair. Eliminating DSBs rescues the segregation block in smc5/6 mutants, suggesting that the complex has a function during meiotic recombination. Accordingly, smc6 mutants accumulate high levels of recombination intermediates in the form of joint molecules. Many of these joint molecules are formed between sister chromatids, which is not normally observed in wild-type cells. The normal formation of crossovers in smc6 mutants supports the notion that mainly inter-sister joint molecule resolution is impaired. In addition, return-to-function studies indicate that the Smc5/6 complex performs its most important functions during joint molecule resolution without influencing crossover formation. These results suggest that the Smc5/6 complex aids primarily in the resolution of joint molecules formed outside of canonical inter-homolog pathways.
Project description:Duplication of the genome poses one of the most significant threats to genetic integrity, cellular fitness, and organismal health. Therefore, numerous mechanisms have evolved that maintain replication fork stability in the face of DNA damage and allow faithful genome duplication. The fission yeast BRCT-domain-containing protein Brc1, and its budding yeast orthologue Rtt107, has emerged as a "hub" factor that integrates multiple replication fork protection mechanisms. Notably, the cofactors and pathways through which Brc1, Rtt107, and their human orthologue (PTIP) act have appeared largely distinct. This either represents true evolutionary functional divergence, or perhaps an incomplete genetic and biochemical analysis of each protein. In this regard, we recently showed that like Rtt107, Brc1 supports key functions of the Smc5-Smc6 complex, including its recruitment into DNA repair foci, chromatin association, and SUMO ligase activity. Furthermore, fission yeast cells lacking the Nse5-Nse6 genome stability factor were found to exhibit defects in Smc5-Smc6 function, similar to but more severe than those in cells lacking Brc1. Here, we place these findings in context with the known functions of Brc1, Rtt107, and Smc5-Smc6, present data suggesting a role for acetylation in Smc5-Smc6 chromatin loading, and discuss wider implications for genome stability.
Project description:During meiosis, Spo11-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) are processed into crossovers, ensuring segregation of homologous chromosomes (homologs). Meiotic DSB processing entails 5' end resection and preferred strand exchange with the homolog rather than the sister chromatid (homolog bias). In many organisms, DSBs appear gradually along the genome. Here we report unexpected effects of global DSB levels on local recombination events. Early-occurring, low-abundance "scout" DSBs lack homolog bias. Their resection and interhomolog processing are controlled by the conserved checkpoint proteins Tel1(ATM) kinase and Pch2(TRIP13) ATPase. Processing pathways controlled by Mec1(ATR) kinase take over these functions only above a distinct DSB threshold, resulting in progressive strengthening of the homolog bias. We conclude that Tel1(ATM)/Pch2 and Mec1(ATR) DNA damage response pathways are sequentially activated during wild-type meiosis because of their distinct sensitivities to global DSB levels. Moreover, relative DSB order controls the DSB repair pathway choice and, ultimately, recombination outcome.
Project description:Genome stability involves accurate replication and DNA repair. Broken replication forks, such as those encountering a nick, lead to double strand breaks (DSBs), which are preferentially repaired by sister-chromatid recombination (SCR). To decipher the role of chromatin in eukaryotic DSB repair, here we analyze a collection of yeast chromatin-modifying mutants using a previously developed system for the molecular analysis of repair of replication-born DSBs by SCR based on a mini-HO site. We confirm the candidates through FLP-based systems based on a mutated version of the FLP flipase that causes nicks on either the leading or lagging DNA strands. We demonstrate that Rpd3L and Hda1 histone deacetylase (HDAC) complexes contribute to the repair of replication-born DSBs by facilitating cohesin loading, with no effect on other types of homology-dependent repair, thus preventing genome instability. We conclude that histone deacetylation favors general sister chromatid cohesion as a necessary step in SCR.
Project description:High-resolution imaging shows that persistent DNA damage in budding yeast localizes in distinct perinuclear foci for repair. The signals that trigger DNA double-strand break (DSB) relocation or determine their destination are unknown. We show here that DSB relocation to the nuclear envelope depends on SUMOylation mediated by the E3 ligases Siz2 and Mms21. In G1, a polySUMOylation signal deposited coordinately by Mms21 and Siz2 recruits the SUMO targeted ubiquitin ligase Slx5/Slx8 to persistent breaks. Both Slx5 and Slx8 are necessary for damage relocation to nuclear pores. When targeted to an undamaged locus, however, Slx5 alone can mediate relocation in G1-phase cells, bypassing the requirement for polySUMOylation. In contrast, in S-phase cells, monoSUMOylation mediated by the Rtt107-stabilized SMC5/6-Mms21 E3 complex drives DSBs to the SUN domain protein Mps3 in a manner independent of Slx5. Slx5/Slx8 and binding to pores favor repair by ectopic break-induced replication and imprecise end-joining.
Project description:Smc5 and Smc6 proteins form a heterodimeric SMC (structural maintenance of chromosome) protein complex like SMC1-SMC3 cohesin and SMC2-SMC4 condensin, and they associate with non-SMC proteins Nse1 and Nse2 stably and Rad60 transiently. This multiprotein complex plays an essential role in maintaining chromosome integrity and repairing DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). This study characterizes a Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutant rad62-1, which is hypersensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and synthetically lethal with rad2 (a feature of recombination mutants). rad62-1 is hypersensitive to UV and gamma rays, epistatic with rhp51, and defective in repair of DSBs. rad62 is essential for viability and genetically interacts with rad60, smc6, and brc1. Rad62 protein physically associates with the Smc5-6 complex. rad62-1 is synthetically lethal with mutations in the genes promoting recovery from stalled replication, such as rqh1, srs2, and mus81, and those involved in nucleotide excision repair like rad13 and rad16. These results suggest that Rad62, like Rad60, in conjunction with the Smc5-6 complex, plays an essential role in maintaining chromosome integrity and recovery from stalled replication by recombination.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are harmful lesions that arise mainly during replication. The choice of the sister chromatid as the preferential repair template is critical for genome integrity, but the mechanisms that guarantee this choice are unknown. Here we identify new genes with a specific role in assuring the sister chromatid as the preferred repair template. Physical analyses of sister chromatid recombination (SCR) in 28 selected mutants that increase Rad52 foci and inter-homolog recombination uncovered 8 new genes required for SCR. These include the SUMO/Ub-SUMO protease Wss1, the stress-response proteins Bud27 and Pdr10, the ADA histone acetyl-transferase complex proteins Ahc1 and Ada2, as well as the Hst3 and Hst4 histone deacetylase and the Rtt109 histone acetyl-transferase genes, whose target is histone H3 Lysine 56 (H3K56). Importantly, we use mutations in H3K56 residue to A, R, and Q to reveal that H3K56 acetylation/deacetylation is critical to promote SCR as the major repair mechanism for replication-born DSBs. The same phenotype is observed for a particular class of rad52 alleles, represented by rad52-C180A, with a DSB repair defect but a spontaneous hyper-recombination phenotype. We propose that specific Rad52 residues, as well as the histone H3 acetylation/deacetylation state of chromatin and other specific factors, play an important role in identifying the sister as the choice template for the repair of replication-born DSBs. Our work demonstrates the existence of specific functions to guarantee SCR as the main repair event for replication-born DSBs that can occur by two pathways, one Rad51-dependent and the other Pol32-dependent. A dysfunction can lead to genome instability as manifested by high levels of homolog recombination and DSB accumulation.
Project description:The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) protein complexes shape and regulate the structure and dynamics of chromatin, thereby controlling many chromosome-based processes such as cell cycle progression, differentiation, gene transcription and DNA repair. The SMC5/6 complex is previously described to promote DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair by sister chromatid recombination, and found to be essential for resolving recombination intermediates during meiotic recombination. Moreover, in budding yeast, SMC5/6 provides structural organization and topological stress relief during replication in mitotically dividing cells. Despite the essential nature of the SMC5/6 complex, the versatile mechanisms by which SMC5/6 functions and its molecular regulation in mammalian cells remain poorly understood. By using a human osteosarcoma cell line (U2OS), we show that after the CRISPR-Cas9-mediated removal of the SMC5/6 subunit NSMCE2, treatment with the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide triggered an increased sensitivity in cells lacking NSMCE2. In contrast, NSMCE2 appeared not essential for a proper DNA damage response or cell survival after DSB induction by ionizing irradiation (IR). Interestingly, by way of immunoprecipitations (IPs) and mass spectrometry, we found that the SMC5/6 complex physically interacts with the DNA topoisomerase II ? (TOP2A). We therefore propose that the SMC5/6 complex functions in resolving TOP2A-mediated DSB-repair intermediates generated during replication.
Project description:Most spontaneous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) arise during replication and are repaired by homologous recombination (HR) with the sister chromatid. Many proteins participate in HR, but it is often difficult to determine their in vivo functions due to the existence of alternative pathways. Here we take advantage of an in vivo assay to assess repair of a specific replication-born DSB by sister chromatid recombination (SCR). We analyzed the functional relevance of four structure-selective endonucleases (SSEs), Yen1, Mus81-Mms4, Slx1-Slx4, and Rad1, on SCR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Physical and genetic analyses showed that ablation of any of these SSEs leads to a specific SCR decrease that is not observed in general HR. Our work suggests that Yen1, Mus81-Mms4, Slx4, and Rad1, but not Slx1, function independently in the cleavage of intercrossed DNA structures to reconstitute broken replication forks via HR with the sister chromatid. These unique effects, which have not been detected in other studies unless double mutant combinations were used, indicate the formation of distinct alternatives for the repair of replication-born DSBs that require specific SSEs.