Rapid and enhanced proteolytic digestion using electric-field-oriented enzyme reactor.
ABSTRACT: We have created a novel enzyme reactor using electric field-mediated orientation and immobilization of proteolytic enzymes (trypsin/chymotrypsin) on biocompatible PVDF membranes in a continuous flow-through chamber. Using less than 5min, this reactor in various enzyme combinations can produce enhanced rapid digestion for standardized prototypic proteins, hydrophilic proteins and hydrophobic transmembrane proteins when compared to in-solution techniques. With improved digestive efficiency, our reactor improved the overall functional analysis of lipid raft proteomes by identifying more closely functionally linked proteins and elucidated a richer set of biological processes and pathways linked to the proteins than traditional in-solution methods.
Project description:The high hydrophobicity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane remains an obstacle to be applied in some purification processes of water or wastewater. Herein, a highly hydrophilic hybrid mesoporous titania membrane composed of mesoporous anatase titania (meso-TiO2) materials inside the three-dimensional (3D) macropores of PVDF membrane was successfully prepared by using the dual-templated synthesis method combined with solvent extraction and applied as the photocatalytic membrane reactor for the photodegredation of organic dye in water. The structure and the properties of as-prepared hybrid membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption and contact angle measurements. It was found that the hydrophilicity of PVDF membrane can be significantly improved by filling mesoporous TiO2 inside the 3D macropores of PVDF membrane. Moreover, such a PVDF/meso-TiO2 hybrid membrane exhibits promising photocatalytic degradation of dye in water due to the existence of mesoporous anatase TiO2 materials inside PVDF membrane. This study provides a new strategy to simultaneously introduce hydrophilicity and some desirable properties into PVDF and other hydrophobic membranes.
Project description:A study was initiated to construct a micro-reactor for protein digestion based on trypsin-coated fused-silica capillaries. Initially, surface plasmon resonance was used both for optimization of the surface chemistry applied in the preparation and for monitoring the amount of enzyme that was immobilized. The highest amount of trypsin was immobilized on dextran-coated SPR surfaces which allowed the covalent coupling of 11 ng mm(-2) trypsin. Fused-silica capillaries were modified in a similar manner and the resulting open-tubular trypsin-reactors having a pH optimum of pH 8.5, display a high activity when operated at 37 degrees C and are stable for at least two weeks when used continuously. Trypsin auto-digestion fragments, sample carry-over, and loss of signal due to adsorption of the protein were not observed. On-line digestion without prior protein denaturation, followed by micro-LC separation and photodiode array detection, was tested with horse-heart cytochrome C and horse skeletal-muscle myoglobin. The complete digestion of 20 pmol microL(-1) horse cytochrome C was observed when the average residence time of the protein sample in a 140 cm x 50 microm capillary immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) was 165 s. Mass spectrometric identification of the injected protein on the basis of the tryptic peptides proved possible. Protein digestion was favorable with respect to reaction time and fragments formed when compared with other on-line and off-line procedures. These results and the easy preparation of this micro-reactor provide possibilities for miniaturized enzyme-reactors for on-line peptide mapping and inhibitor screening.
Project description:The process of noble metals ions recovery and the removal small fraction of nanoparticles from waste solution is an urgent topic not only from the economic but also ecology point of view. In this paper, the use of activated carbon fibers (ACF) as a "trap" for gold nanoparticles obtained by a chemical reduction method is described. The synthesized nanoparticles were stabilized either electrostatically or electrosterically and then deposited on carbon fibers or activated carbon fibers. Moreover, the deposition of metal on fibers was carried out in a batch reactor and a microreactor system. It is shown, that process carried out in the microreactor system is more efficient (95%) as compared to the batch reactor and allows for effective gold nanoparticles removal from the solution. Moreover, for similar conditions, the adsorption time of the AuNPs on ACF is shortened from 11 days for the process carried out in the batch reactor to 2.5 min in the microreactor system.
Project description:Biocatalytic synthesis in continuous-flow microreactors is of increasing interest for the production of specialty chemicals. However, the yield of production achievable in these reactors can be limited by the adverse effects of high substrate concentration on the biocatalyst, including inhibition and denaturation. Fed-batch reactors have been developed in order to overcome this problem, but no continuous-flow solution exists. We present the design of a novel multi-input microfluidic reactor, capable of substrate feeding at multiple points, as a first step towards overcoming these problems in a continuous-flow setting. Using the transketolase-(TK) catalysed reaction of lithium hydroxypyruvate (HPA) and glycolaldehyde (GA) to l-erythrulose (ERY), we demonstrate the transposition of a fed-batch substrate feeding strategy to our microfluidic reactor. We obtained a 4.5-fold increase in output concentration and a 5-fold increase in throughput compared with a single input reactor.
Project description:The goal of this paper was to develop an in-line immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) integrated into a capillary electrophoresis platform. In our research, we created the IMER by adsorbing trypsin onto the inner surface of a capillary in a short section. Enzyme immobilization was possible due to the electrostatic attraction between the oppositely charged fused silica capillary surface and trypsin. The reactor was formed by simply injecting and removing trypsin solution from the capillary inlet (~1-2 cms). We investigated the factors affecting the efficiency of the reactor. The main advantages of the proposed method are the fast, cheap, and easy formation of an IMER with in-line protein digestion capability. Human tear samples were used to test the efficiency of the digestion in the microreactor.
Project description:The development of green synthesis methods for supported noble metal catalysts remains important challenges to improve their sustainability. Here we first synthesized carbon-supported Pd catalysts in a green Leidenfrost droplet reactor without reducing agents, high-temperature calcination and reduction procedures. When the aqueous solution containing Pd nitrate precursor, carbon support, and water is dripped on a hot plate, vapor layer is formed between a solution droplet and hot surface, which allow the solution droplet to be levitated on the hot surface (Leidenfrost phenomena). Subsequently, Pd nanoparticles can be prepared without reducing agents in a weakly basic droplet reactor created by the Leidenfrost phenomena, and then the as-prepared Pd nanoparticles are loaded on carbon supports during boiling down the droplet on hot surface. Compared to conventional incipient wetness and chemical synthetic methods, the Leidenfrost droplet reactor does not need energy-consuming, time-consuming, and environmentally unfriendly procedures, which leads to much shorter synthesis time, lower carbon dioxide emission, and more ecofriendly process in comparison with conventional synthesis methods. Moreover, the catalysts synthesized in the Leidenfrost droplet reactor provided much better catalytic activity for room-temperature formic acid decomposition than those prepared by the incipient wetness method.
Project description:The very first microfluidic device used for the production of (18)F-labeled tracers for clinical research is reported along with the first human Positron Emission Tomography scan obtained with a microfluidically produced radiotracer. The system integrates all operations necessary for the transformation of [(18)F]fluoride in irradiated cyclotron target water to a dose of radiopharmaceutical suitable for use in clinical research. The key microfluidic technologies developed for the device are a fluoride concentration system and a microfluidic batch reactor assembly. Concentration of fluoride was achieved by means of absorption of the fluoride anion on a micro ion-exchange column (5 ?L of resin) followed by release of the radioactivity with 45 ?L of the release solution (95 ± 3% overall efficiency). The reactor assembly includes an injection-molded reactor chip and a transparent machined lid press-fitted together. The resulting 50 ?L cavity has a unique shape designed to minimize losses of liquid during reactor filling and liquid evaporation. The cavity has 8 ports for gases and liquids, each equipped with a 2-way on-chip mechanical valve rated for pressure up to 20.68 bar (300 psi). The temperature is controlled by a thermoelectric heater capable of heating the reactor up to 180 °C from RT in 150 s. A camera captures live video of the processes in the reactor. HPLC-based purification and reformulation units are also integrated in the device. The system is based on "split-box architecture", with reagents loaded from outside of the radiation shielding. It can be installed either in a standard hot cell, or as a self-shielded unit. Along with a high level of integration and automation, split-box architecture allowed for multiple production runs without the user being exposed to radiation fields. The system was used to support clinical trials of [(18)F]fallypride, a neuroimaging radiopharmaceutical under IND Application #109,880.
Project description:Some aqueous reactions in biological or chemical fields are accomplished at a high temperature. When the reaction temperature is higher than 100 °C, an autoclave reactor is usually required to elevate the boiling point of the water by creating a high-pressure environment in a closed system. This work presented an alternative continuous flowing microfluidic solution for aqueous reaction with a reaction temperature higher than 100 °C. The pressure regulating function was successfully fulfilled by a small microchannel based on a delicate hydrodynamic design. Combined with micro heater and temperature sensor that integrated in a single chip by utilizing silicon-based microfabrication techniques, this pressure regulating microchannel generated a high-pressure/high-temperature environment in the upstream reaction zone when the reagents continuously flow through the chip. As a preliminary demonstration, thermal digestion of aqueous total phosphorus sample was achieved in this continuous flowing micro-reactor at a working pressure of 990 kPa (under the working flow rate of 20 nl/s) along with a reaction temperature of 145 °C. This continuous flowing microfluidic solution for high-temperature reaction may find applications in various micro total analysis systems.
Project description:Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have a variety of biomedical, biotechnology, agricultural and environmental applications. As such, a great need has risen for the fabrication of these NPs in large scales. In this study, we used a high throughput fiber reactor for the preparation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs via nanoprecipitation. The fiber reactor provided a high surface area for the controlled interaction of an organic phase containing the PLGA solution with an aqueous phase, containing poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as a stabilizer. This interaction led to the self-assembly of the polymer into the form of NPs. We studied operational parameters to identify the factors that have the greatest influence on the properties of the resulting PLGA NPs. We found that the concentration of the PLGA solution is the factor that has the greatest effect on NP size, polydispersity index (PDI), and production rate. Increasing PLGA concentration increased NP sizes significantly, while at the same time decreasing the PDI value. The second factor that was found to affect NP properties was the concentration of PVA solution, which resulted in increased NP sizes and decreased production rates. Flowrates of the feed streams also affected NP size to a lesser extent, while changing the operational temperature did not change the product's features. In general, the results demonstrate that fiber reactors are a suitable method for the large-scale, continuous preparation of polymeric NPs suitable for biomedical applications.
Project description:Microorganisms play a key role in biological wastewater treatment. The form in which biomass develops determines the efficiency and mechanisms of organic compound conversion, due to different conditions in various microbial structures. However, the results of studies comparing the microbial communities in biofilm and activated sludge have often conflicted. Therefore, this study compared the composition and development of the bacterial communities in biofilm and activated sludge in a hybrid reactor, employing 16S rRNA sequencing. Statistical analysis of the sequencing data included the identification of taxa characteristic to the biofilm and activated sludge, alpha and beta diversity analysis, and network analysis. These analyses indicated that the biofilm bacterial community was richer and more diverse than the activated sludge community. The mean numbers of OTU were 1614 in the biofilm and 993 in the activated sludge, and the mean values of the Chao1 (1735 vs. 1105) and Shannon (5.3 vs. 4.3) biodiversity indices were significantly higher for the biofilm. The biofilm was a better environment for development of nitrifiers (e.g., Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira) and phosphorus accumulating organisms (Candidatus Accumulibacter). Bacteria in the biofilm co-occurrence network had more connections (based on Spearman's rank correlation coefficient) with each other, indicating that they interact more than those in the activated sludge.