ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main site of protein and lipid synthesis, membrane biogenesis, xenobiotic detoxification and cellular calcium storage, and perturbation of ER homeostasis leads to stress and the activation of the unfolded protein response. Chronic activation of ER stress has been shown to have an important role in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes in obesity. However, the mechanisms that lead to chronic ER stress in a metabolic context in general, and in obesity in particular, are not understood. Here we comparatively examined the proteomic and lipidomic landscape of hepatic ER purified from lean and obese mice to explore the mechanisms of chronic ER stress in obesity. We found suppression of protein but stimulation of lipid synthesis in the obese ER without significant alterations in chaperone content. Alterations in ER fatty acid and lipid composition result in the inhibition of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) activity and ER stress. Correcting the obesity-induced alteration of ER phospholipid composition or hepatic Serca overexpression in vivo both reduced chronic ER stress and improved glucose homeostasis. Hence, we established that abnormal lipid and calcium metabolism are important contributors to hepatic ER stress in obesity.
Project description:A portion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients undergoing protease inhibitor (PI) therapy concomitantly consume or abuse alcohol leading to hepatic injury. The underling mechanisms are not known. We hypothesize that HIV PIs aggravate alcohol-induced liver injury through an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mechanism. To address this, we treated mice, primary mouse hepatocytes (PMHs), and primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) with alcohol and the HIV PIs ritonavir (RIT) and lopinavir (LOP). In mice, RIT and LOP induced mild ER stress and inhibition of sarco/ER calcium-ATPase (SERCA) without significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. However, a single dose of alcohol plus the two HIV PIs caused a more than five-fold increase in serum ALT, a synergistic increase in alcohol-induced liver lipid accumulation and ER stress response, and a decrease of SERCA. Mice treated with chronic HIV PIs and alcohol developed moderate liver fibrosis. In PMHs, the HIV drugs plus alcohol also inhibited SERCA expression and increased expression of glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2, which were accompanied by a synergistic increase in cell death compared with alcohol or the HIV drugs alone. In PHHs, treatment with RIT and LOP or alcohol alone increased messenger RNA of spliced X box-binding protein 1 and decreased SERCA, which were accompanied by reduced levels of intracellular calcium. Alcohol combined with the HIV drugs significantly reduced intracellular calcium levels and potentiated cell death, which was comparable to the cell death caused by the SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin.Our findings suggest the possibility that HIV PIs potentiate alcohol-induced ER stress and injury through modulation of SERCA and maintaining calcium homeostasis could be a therapeutic aim for better care of HIV patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which can promote lipid metabolism disorders and steatohepatitis, contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis is considered to play a key role in ER stress. Matrine (Mat) has been applied for the treatment of hepatitis B, but its effect on NAFLD is still unknown, and there is no unified view of Mat on the regulation of ER stress in the previous literature. METHODS:The pharmacological effects were studied in high-fat-diet or methionine-choline-deficient diet induced C57BL/6J mice models and in palmitic acid (PA) induced L02 human liver cell model. Calcium fluorescence experiments, computational virtual docking analysis and biochemical assays were used in identifying the locus of Mat. RESULTS:The results showed that Mat-treated mice were more resistant to steatosis in the liver than vehicle-treated mice and that Mat significantly reduced hepatic inflammation, lipid peroxides. The beneficial effect of Mat was associated with suppressing ER stress and restoring mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, Mat decreased the PA-induced lipid accumulation, ER stress and cytosolic calcium level ([Ca2+]c) in hepatocyte cell lines in low and middle dose. However, the high dose Mat did not show satisfactory results in cell model. Calcium fluorescence experiments showed that Mat was able to regulate [Ca2+]c. By computational virtual docking analysis and biochemical assays, Mat was shown to influence [Ca2+]c via direct inhibition of SERCA. CONCLUSIONS:The results showed that the bi-directional regulation of Mat to endoplasmic reticulum at different doses was based on the inhibition of SERCA. In addition, the results also provide a theoretical basis for Mat as a potential therapeutic strategy in NAFLD/NASH.
Project description:Increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is one of the central mechanisms that lead to dysregulated metabolic homeostasis in obesity. It is thus crucial to understand the underpinnings of the mechanisms that lead to the development of ER stress. A high level of ER Ca(2+) is imperative for maintenance of normal ER function and this high Ca(2+) concentration of ER is maintained by sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA). Here, we show that SERCA2b protein and mRNA levels are dramatically reduced in the liver of obese mice and restoration of SERCA2b in the liver of obese and diabetic mice alleviates ER stress, increases glucose tolerance, and significantly reduces the blood glucose levels. Furthermore, overexpression of SERCA2b in the liver of obese mice significantly reduces the lipogenic gene expression and the triglyceride content in the liver. Our results document the importance of SERCA2b in dysregulated glucose and lipid homeostasis in the liver of obese mice and suggest development of drugs to increase SERCA2b activity for treatment of type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
Project description:Disregulation of fatty acid oxidation, one of the major mechanisms for maintaining hepatic lipid homeostasis under fasting conditions, leads to hepatic steatosis. Although obesity and type 2 diabetes-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contribute to hepatic steatosis, it is largely unknown how ER stress regulates fatty acid oxidation. Here we show that fasting glucagon stimulates the dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5), where it interacts with PPAR? and promotes transcriptional activity of PPAR?. As a result, overexpression of HDAC5 but not PPAR? binding-deficient HDAC5 in liver improves lipid homeostasis, whereas RNAi-mediated knockdown of HDAC5 deteriorates hepatic steatosis. ER stress inhibits fatty acid oxidation gene expression via calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of HDAC5. Most important, hepatic overexpression of a phosphorylation-deficient mutant HDAC5 2SA promotes hepatic fatty acid oxidation gene expression and protects against hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-fat diet. We have identified HDAC5 as a novel mediator of hepatic fatty acid oxidation by fasting and ER stress signals, and strategies to promote HDAC5 dephosphorylation could serve as new tools for the treatment of obesity-associated hepatic steatosis.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in metabolic diseases like obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), although the underlying mechanisms and regulatory pathways remain to be elucidated. Here, we induced chronic low-grade ER stress in lean mice to levels similar to those in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice and found that it promoted hyperglycemia due to enhanced hepatic gluconeogenesis. Mechanistically, sustained ER stress up-regulated the deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin-specific peptidase 14 (USP14), which increased the stability and levels of 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate-responsive element binding (CREB) protein (CBP) to enhance glucagon action and hepatic gluconeogenesis. Exogenous overexpression of USP14 in the liver significantly increased hepatic glucose output. Consistent with this, liver-specific knockdown of USP14 abrogated the effects of ER stress on glucose metabolism, and also improved hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in obese mice. In conclusion, our findings show a mechanism underlying ER stress-induced disruption of glucose homeostasis, and present USP14 as a potential therapeutic target against T2DM.
Project description:Erythropoietin (EPO), known primarily for its role in erythropoiesis, was recently reported to play a beneficial role in regulating lipid metabolism; however, the underlying mechanism through which EPO decreases hepatic lipid accumulation requires further investigation. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may contribute to the progression of hepatic steatosis. The present study investigated the effects of EPO on regulating ER stress in fatty liver. It was demonstrated that EPO inhibited hepatic ER stress and steatosis in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, these beneficial effects were abrogated in liver?specific sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)?knockout mice compared with wild?type littermates. In addition, in palmitate?treated hepatocytes, small interfering RNA?mediated SIRT1 silencing suppressed the effects of EPO on lipid?induced ER stress. Additionally, EPO stimulated hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression and secretion in a SIRT1?dependent manner in mice. Furthermore, the sensitivity of hepatocytes from obese mice to FGF21 was restored following treatment with EPO. Collectively, the results of the present study revealed a new mechanism underlying the regulation of hepatic ER stress and FGF21 expression induced by EPO; thus, EPO may be considered as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of fatty liver and obesity.
Project description:Proper function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria is crucial for cellular homeostasis, and dysfunction at either site has been linked to pathophysiological states, including metabolic diseases. Although the ER and mitochondria play distinct cellular roles, these organelles also form physical interactions with each other at sites defined as mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs), which are essential for calcium, lipid and metabolite exchange. Here we show that in the liver, obesity leads to a marked reorganization of MAMs resulting in mitochondrial calcium overload, compromised mitochondrial oxidative capacity and augmented oxidative stress. Experimental induction of ER-mitochondria interactions results in oxidative stress and impaired metabolic homeostasis, whereas downregulation of PACS-2 or IP3R1, proteins important for ER-mitochondria tethering or calcium transport, respectively, improves mitochondrial oxidative capacity and glucose metabolism in obese animals. These findings establish excessive ER-mitochondrial coupling as an essential component of organelle dysfunction in obesity that may contribute to the development of metabolic pathologies such as insulin resistance and diabetes.
Project description:The association between inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been observed in many diseases. However, if and how chronic inflammation regulates the unfolded protein response (UPR) and alters ER homeostasis in general, or in the context of chronic disease, remains unknown. Here, we show that, in the setting of obesity, inflammatory input through increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity causes S-nitrosylation of a key UPR regulator, IRE1?, which leads to a progressive decline in hepatic IRE1?-mediated XBP1 splicing activity in both genetic (ob/ob) and dietary (high-fat diet-induced) models of obesity. Finally, in obese mice with liver-specific IRE1? deficiency, reconstitution of IRE1? expression with a nitrosylation-resistant variant restored IRE1?-mediated XBP1 splicing and improved glucose homeostasis in vivo. Taken together, these data describe a mechanism by which inflammatory pathways compromise UPR function through iNOS-mediated S-nitrosylation of IRE1?, which contributes to defective IRE1? activity, impaired ER function, and prolonged ER stress in obesity.
Project description:Swiss Cheese (SWS) is the Drosophila orthologue of Neuropathy Target Esterase (NTE), a phospholipase that when mutated has been shown to cause a spectrum of disorders in humans that range from intellectual disabilities to ataxia. Loss of SWS in Drosophila also causes locomotion deficits, age-dependent neurodegeneration, and an increase in lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). SWS is localized to the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), and recently, it has been shown that perturbing the membrane lipid composition of the ER can lead to the activation of ER stress responses through the inhibition of the Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA). To investigate whether ER stress induction occurs in NTE-associated disorders, we used the fly sws null mutant as a model. sws flies showed an activated ER stress response as determined by elevated levels of the chaperone GRP78 and by increased splicing of XBP, an ER transcription factor that activates transcriptional ER stress responses. To address whether ER stress plays a role in the degenerative and behavioral phenotypes detected in sws1, we overexpressed XBP1, or treated the flies with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a chemical known to attenuate ER stress-mediated cell death. Both manipulations suppressed the locomotor deficits and neurodegeneration of sws1. In addition, sws1 flies showed reduced SERCA levels and expressing additional SERCA also suppressed the sws1-related phenotypes. This suggests that the disruption in lipid compositions and its effect on SERCA are inducing ER stress, aimed to ameliorate the deleterious effects of sws1. This includes the effects on lipid composition because XBP1 and SERCA expression also reduced the LPC levels in sws1. Promoting cytoprotective ER stress pathways may therefore provide a therapeutic approach to alleviate the neurodegeneration and motor symptoms seen in NTE-associated disorders.
Project description:Obesity, which is characteristic by chronic inflammation, is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissues. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is increased in adipose tissue of obese state and is known to be strongly associated with chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ER stress on adipokine secretion in obese mice and explore the potential mechanisms. In this study, we found high-fat diet induced-obesity contributed to strengthened ER stress and triggered chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. Chemical chaperones, 4-PBA and TUDCA, modified metabolic disorders and decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. The alleviation of ER stress is in accordance with the decrease of free cholesterol in adipose tissue. Furthermore chemical chaperones suppress NF-κB activity in adipose tissue of obese mice in vivo. In vitro studies showed IKK/NF-κB may be involved in the signal transduction of adipokine secretion dysfunction induced by ER stress. The present study revealed the possibility that inhibition of ER stress may be a novel drug target for metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. Further studies are now needed to characterize the initial incentive of sustained ER stress in obese.