Evaluation of the impact of genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes on the association between methylmercury or n-3 polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction: a case-control study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which are present in fish, are protective against myocardial infarction. However, fish also contains methylmercury, which influences the risk of myocardial infarction, possibly by generating oxidative stress. Methylmercury is metabolized by conjugation to glutathione, which facilitates elimination. Glutathione is also an antioxidant. Individuals with certain polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes may tolerate higher exposures to methylmercury, due to faster metabolism and elimination and/or better glutathione-associated antioxidative capacity. They would thus benefit more from the protective agents in fish, such as eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and selenium. The objective for this study was to elucidate whether genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes modify the association between eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or methylmercury and risk of first ever myocardial infarction. METHODS: Polymorphisms in glutathione-synthesizing (glutamyl-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, GCLC and glutamyl-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, GCLM) or glutathione-conjugating (glutathione S-transferase P, GSTP1) genes were genotyped in 1027 individuals from northern Sweden (458 cases of first-ever myocardial infarction and 569 matched controls). The impact of these polymorphisms on the association between erythrocyte-mercury (proxy for methylmercury) and risk of myocardial infarction, as well as between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and risk of myocardial infarction, was evaluated by conditional logistic regression. The effect of erythrocyte-selenium on risk of myocardial infarction was also taken into consideration. RESULTS: There were no strong genetic modifying effects on the association between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury and risk of myocardial infarction risk. When eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury were divided into tertiles, individuals with GCLM-588 TT genotype displayed a lower risk relative to the CC genotype in all but one tertile; in most tertiles the odds ratio was around 0.5 for TT. However, there were few TT carriers and the results were not statistically significant. The results were similar when taking plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid, erythrocyte-selenium and erythrocyte-mercury into account simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS: No statistically significant genetic modifying effects were seen for the association between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury and risk of myocardial infarction. Still, our results indicate that the relatively rare GCLM-588 TT genotype may have an impact, but a larger study is necessary for confirmation.
Project description:Kidney function gradually decreases with age, and myocardial infarction accelerates this deterioration. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids may slow down the decline of kidney function. The effect of marine and plant-derived n-3 fatty acids on kidney function in patients after myocardial infarction was examined.In the Alpha Omega Trial, 2344 patients with history of myocardial infarction ages 60-80 years old (81% men) were randomized to one of four trial margarines. The patients received an additional targeted amount of 400 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, 2 g/d ?-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid-docosahexaenoic acid plus ?-linolenic acid, or placebo for 40 months. Serum cystatin C and serum creatinine were assessed at baseline and after 40 months. Creatinine-cystatin C-based GFR was estimated with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation.Patients consumed 19.9 g margarine/d, providing an additional 239 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid with 159 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid, 1.99 g/d ?-linolenic acid, or both in the active treatment groups. After 40 months, compared with baseline, mean (±SD) creatinine-cystatin C-based GFR was -6.9 (±12.6), -4.8 (±13.4), -6.2 (±12.8), and -6.0 (±13.0) ml/min per 1.73 m(2) in the placebo, eicosapentaenoic acid-docosahexaenoic acid, ?-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid-docosahexaenoic acid plus ?-linolenic acid groups, respectively. After 40 months, in patients receiving eicosapentaenoic acid-docosahexaenoic acid compared with placebo, the decline in creatinine-cystatin C-based GFR was 2.1 less (95% confidence interval, 0.6 to 3.6; P<0.01) ml/min per 1.73 m(2); other comparisons were not statistical significant. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of incident CKD (<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and rapid decline of kidney function (?3 ml/min per year) for eicosapentaenoic acid-docosahexaenoic acid compared with placebo were 0.83 (0.58 to 1.18) and 0.85 (0.67 to 1.08), respectively.Long-term supplementation with 400 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid-docosahexaenoic acid provides a small beneficial effect on kidney function in patients with a history of myocardial infarction.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: Fish consumption has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), especially sudden cardiac death (SCD). Fish is the major source of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also a major source of methylmercury, which was associated with increased risk of CVD in this study population. Impact of interaction between long-chain n-3 PUFA and methylmercury on the SCD risk is unknown. METHODS: A total of 1857 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor study, aged 42-60 years and free of CVD at baseline in 1984-1989, were studied. Serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was used as the marker for long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and hair mercury as the marker for mercury exposure. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 91 SCD events occurred. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models, serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration was not associated with the risk of SCD until hair mercury was accounted for; then the hazard ratio (HR) in the highest vs. lowest tertile was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32 to 0.91, p for trend = 0.046]. When the analyses were stratified by hair mercury content, among those with lower hair mercury, each 0.5 percentage unit increase in the serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was associated with HR of 0.77 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.93), whereas no association was seen among those with higher hair mercury (p for interaction = 0.01). Among the individual long-chain n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid was most strongly associated with the risk. CONCLUSION: High exposure to mercury may reduce the benefits of long-chain n-3 PUFA on SCD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Some clinical studies have suggested that ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has neuroprotective effects on peripheral nerve function. However, few epidemiological studies have examined the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA intake from fish consumption on peripheral nerve function, and none have controlled for co-occurrence of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption.<h4>Objectives</h4>We evaluated the effect of estimated dietary n-3 PUFA intake on peripheral nerve function after adjusting for biomarkers of methylmercury and elemental mercury in a convenience sample of 515 dental professionals.<h4>Methods</h4>We measured sensory nerve conduction (peak latency and amplitude) of the median, ulnar and sural nerves and total mercury concentrations in hair and urine samples. We estimated daily intake (mg/day) of the total n-3 PUFA, n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) based on a self-administrated fish consumption frequency questionnaire. We also collected information on mercury exposure, demographics and other covariates.<h4>Results</h4>The estimated median intakes of total n-3 PUFA, n-3 EPA, and n-3 DHA were 447, 105, and 179 mg/day, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations in urine (1.05 ?g/L) and hair (0.49 ?g/g) were not significantly different from the US general population. We found no consistent association between n-3 PUFA intake and sensory nerve conduction after adjusting for mercury concentrations in hair and urine although some positive associations were observed with the sural nerve.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In a convenience sample of dental professionals, we found little evidence suggesting that dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs from fish has any impact on peripheral nerve function after adjustment for methylmercury exposure from fish and elemental mercury exposure from dental amalgam.
Project description:Erythrocytes endure constant exposure to oxidative stress. The major oxidative stress scavenger in erythrocytes is glutathione. The rate-limiting enzyme for glutathione synthesis is glutamate-cysteine ligase, which consists of a catalytic subunit (GCLC) and a modifier subunit (GCLM). Here, we examined erythrocyte survival in GCLM-deficient (gclm(-/-)) mice. Erythrocytes from gclm(-/-) mice showed greatly reduced intracellular glutathione. Prolonged incubation resulted in complete lysis of gclm(-/-) erythrocytes, which could be reversed by exogenous delivery of the antioxidant Trolox. To test the importance of GCLM in vivo, mice were treated with phenylhydrazine (PHZ; 0.07 mg/g b.w.) to induce oxidative stress. Gclm(-/-) mice showed dramatically increased hemolysis compared with gclm(+/+) controls. In addition, PHZ-treated gclm(-/-) mice displayed markedly larger accumulations of injured erythrocytes in the spleen than gclm(+/+) mice within 24 h of treatment. Iron staining indicated precipitations of the erythrocyte-derived pigment hemosiderin in kidney tubules of gclm(-/-) mice and none in gclm(+/+) controls. In fact, 24 h after treatment, kidney function began to diminish in gclm(-/-) mice as evident from increased serum creatinine and urea. Consequently, while all PHZ-treated gclm(+/+) mice survived, 90% of PHZ-treated gclm(-/-) mice died within 5 days of treatment. In vitro, upon incubation in the absence or presence of additional oxidative stress, gclm(-/-) erythrocytes exposed significantly more phosphatidylserine, a cell death marker, than gclm(+/+) erythrocytes, an effect at least partially due to increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Under resting conditions, gclm(-/-) mice exhibited reticulocytosis, indicating that the enhanced erythrocyte death was offset by accelerated erythrocyte generation. GCLM is thus indispensable for erythrocyte survival, in vitro and in vivo, during oxidative stress.
Project description:Experimental studies suggest that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may reduce the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Prior studies evaluating fish or n-3 PUFA consumption from dietary questionnaires and incident AF have been conflicting. Circulating levels of n-3 PUFAs provide an objective measurement of exposure.Among 3326 US men and women ?65 years of age and free of AF or heart failure at baseline, plasma phospholipid levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were measured at baseline by use of standardized methods. Incident AF (789 cases) was identified prospectively from hospital discharge records and study visit ECGs during 31 169 person-years of follow-up (1992-2006). In multivariable Cox models adjusted for other risk factors, the relative risk in the top versus lowest quartile of total n-3 PUFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid+docosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid) levels was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.89; P for trend=0.004) and of DHA levels was 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.96; P for trend=0.01). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid levels were not significantly associated with incident AF. Evaluated nonparametrically, both total n-3 PUFAs and docosahexaenoic acid showed graded and linear inverse associations with incidence of AF. Adjustment for intervening events such as heart failure or myocardial infarction during follow-up did not appreciably alter results.In older adults, higher circulating total long-chain n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid levels were associated with lower risk of incident AF. These results highlight the need to evaluate whether increased dietary intake of these fatty acids could be effective for the primary prevention of AF.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Marine polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may have cardioprotective effects and beneficial influence on the fibrotic process. We evaluated the associations between serum marine n-3 PUFA and selected biomarkers of fibrosis and cardiac remodeling in elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction. SETTING:From the ongoing OMega-3 fatty acids in Elderly patients with Myocardial Infarction (OMEMI) trial, 299 patients were investigated. Soluble ST2 (sST2), Galectin-3 (Gal-3) and the serum content of major marine n-3 and n-6 PUFA were analyzed 2-8 weeks after the index acute myocardial infarction. RESULTS:Gal-3 was inversely correlated to eicosapentaenoic acid (r?=?-.120, p?=?.039) and docosahexaenoic acid (r?=?-.125, p?=?.031) and positively correlated to the n-6/n-3 ratio (r?=?.131, p?=?.023). Gal-3 levels were significantly higher in diabetics vs non-diabetics (12.00 vs 9.61?ng/mL, p?=?.007) and in patients with NYHA class ?III for dyspnea at inclusion (11.33 vs 9.75?ng/mL, p?=?.006). CONCLUSIONS:The associations between the marine n-3 PUFA and levels of Gal-3 indicate beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA on cardiac remodeling in an elderly population with acute myocardial infarction.
Project description:Background Plasma omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) have been shown to be inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular death in primary prevention. The risk relationship in the setting of an acute coronary syndrome is less well established. Methods and Results Baseline plasma ω3-PUFA composition (α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) was assessed through gas chromatography with flame ionization detection in a case-cohort study involving 203 patients with cardiovascular death, 325 with myocardial infarction, 271 with ventricular tachycardia, and 161 with atrial fibrillation, and a random sample of 1612 event-free subjects as controls from MERLIN-TIMI 36 (Metabolic Efficiency With Ranolazine for Less Ischemia in Non-ST-Elevation-Acute Coronary Syndrome-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 36), a trial of patients hospitalized with non-ST-segment-elevation -acute coronary syndrome. After inverse-probability-weighted multivariable adjustment including all traditional risk factors, a higher relative proportion of long-chain ω3-PUFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid) were associated with 18% lower odds of cardiovascular death (adjusted [adj] odds ratio [OR] per 1 SD, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98) that was primarily driven by 27% lower odds of sudden cardiac death (adj OR per 1 SD, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.55-0.97). Long-chain ω3-PUFA levels in the top quartile were associated with 51% lower odds of cardiovascular death (adj OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27-0.86) and 63% lower odds of sudden cardiac death (adj OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.56). An attenuated relationship was seen for α-linolenic acid and subsequent odds of cardiovascular (adj OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.74-1.14) and sudden cardiac death (adj OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.67-1.25). No significant relationship was observed between any ω3-PUFAs and the odds of cardiovascular death unrelated to sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, or early post-acute coronary syndrome ventricular tachycardia. Conclusions In patients after non-ST-segment-elevation-acute coronary syndrome, plasma long-chain ω3-PUFAs are inversely associated with lower odds of sudden cardiac death, independent of traditional risk factors and lipids. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00099788.
Project description:This study aims to evaluate the effects of polymorphisms in glutathione (GSH-) related genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, GCLM, and GCLC) in the distribution of Hg in the blood compartments in humans exposed to methylmercury (MeHg). Subjects (n = 88), exposed to MeHg from fish consumption, were enrolled in the study. Hg species in the plasma compartment were determined by LC-ICP-MS, whereas genotyping was performed by PCR assays. Mean total Hg levels in plasma (THgP) and whole blood (THgB) were 10 ± 4.2 and 37 ± 21, whereas mean levels of plasmatic MeHg (MeHgP), inorganic Hg (IHgP), and HgP/HgB were 4.3 ± 2.9, 5.8 ± 2.3 µg/L, and 0.33 ± 0.15, respectively. GSTM1 and GCLC polymorphisms influence THgP and MeHgP (multivariate analyses, P < 0.050). Null homozygotes for GSTM1 showed higher THgP and MeHgP levels compared to subjects with GSTM1 (THgP ? = 0.22, P = 0.035; MeHgP ? = 0.30, P = 0.050) and persons carrying at least one T allele for GCLC had significant higher MeHgP (? = 0.59, P = 0.046). Also, polymorphic GCLM subjects had lower THgP/THgB than those with the nonvariant genotype. Taken together, data of this study suggest that GSH-related polymorphisms may change the metabolism of MeHg by modifying the distribution of mercury species iin plasma compartment and the HgP/HgB partitioning.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Exposure to toxic methylmercury (MeHg) through fish consumption is a large problem worldwide, and it has led to governmental recommendations of reduced fish consumption and blacklisting of mercury-contaminated fish. The elimination kinetics of MeHg varies greatly among individuals. Knowledge about the reasons for such variation is of importance for improving the risk assessment for MeHg. One possible explanation is hereditary differences in MeHg metabolism. MeHg is eliminated from the body as a glutathione (GSH) conjugate. OBJECTIVES: We conducted this study to assess the influence of polymorphisms in GSH-synthesizing [glutamyl-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM-588) and glutamyl-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC-129)] or GSH-conjugating [glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1-105 and GSTP1-114)] genes on MeHg retention. METHODS: Based on information obtained from questionnaires, 292 subjects from northern Sweden had a high consumption of fish (lean/fat fish two to three times per week or more). We measured total Hg in erythrocytes (Ery-Hg) and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma (P-PUFA; an exposure marker for fish intake). RESULTS: The GSTP1 genotype modified Ery-Hg; effects were seen for GSTP1-105 and -114 separately, and combining them resulted in stronger effects. We found evidence of effect modification: individuals with zero or one variant allele demonstrated a steeper regression slope for Ery-Hg (p=0.038) compared with individuals with two or more variant alleles. The GCLM-588 genotype also influenced Ery-Hg (p=0.035): Individuals with the GCLM-588 TT genotype demonstrated the highest Ery-Hg, but we saw no evidence of effect modification with increasing P-PUFA. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a role of GSH-related polymorphisms in MeHg metabolism.
Project description:Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione S-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n=515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06±1.24 microg/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49±0.63 microg/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5'), or both (SEPP1 3'UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption).