The growth factor progranulin binds to TNF receptors and is therapeutic against inflammatory arthritis in mice.
ABSTRACT: The growth factor progranulin (PGRN) has been implicated in embryonic development, tissue repair, tumorigenesis, and inflammation, but its receptors remain unidentified. We report that PGRN bound directly to tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs) and disturbed the TNF?-TNFR interaction. PGRN-deficient mice were susceptible to collagen-induced arthritis, and administration of PGRN reversed inflammatory arthritis. Atsttrin, an engineered protein composed of three PGRN fragments, exhibited selective TNFR binding. PGRN and Atsttrin prevented inflammation in multiple arthritis mouse models and inhibited TNF?-activated intracellular signaling. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that PGRN is a ligand of TNFR, an antagonist of TNF? signaling, and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis in mice. They also suggest new potential therapeutic interventions for various TNF?-mediated pathologies and conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis.
Project description:Atsttrin, a progranulin (PGRN)-derived molecule composed of three TNFR-binding domains of PGRN, binds to TNF receptors (TNFR) and is therapeutic against inflammatory arthritis. Here we screened the associations of Atsttrin and other members in TNFR subfamily, which led to the discovery of TNFRSF25 (DR3) as an additional Atsttrin-interacting member in TNFR family. Similar to TNFR1 and TNFR2, DR3 also directly bound to Atsttrin. The first three cysteine-rich domains (CRD) in the extracellular portion of DR3 were required for this interaction. Atsttrin inhibited the interaction between DR3 and its TNF-Like Ligand 1A (TL1A). In addition, Atsttrin inhibited TL1A-stimulated target gene expressions and neutralized TL1A-enhanced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Furthermore, Atsttrin ameliorated the pathology in dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis. Taken together, these findings not only provide the new insights into Atsttrin's therapeutic action in inflammatory arthritis, but may also present Atsttrin as a novel biological agent for treating various types of diseases associated with TL1A/DR3 pathway.
Project description:Atsttrin, an engineered protein composed of three tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-binding fragments of progranulin (PGRN), shows therapeutic effect in multiple murine models of inflammatory arthritis . Additionally, intra-articular delivery of PGRN protects against osteoarthritis (OA) progression. The purpose of this study is to determine whether Atsttrin also has therapeutic effects in OA and the molecular mechanisms involved.Surgically induced and noninvasive rupture OA models were established in mouse and rat, respectively. Cartilage degradation and OA were evaluated using Safranin O staining, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA. Additionally, expressions of pain-related markers, degenerative factors, and anabolic and catabolic markers known to be involved in OA were analyzed. Furthermore, the anabolic and anti-catabolic effects and underlying mechanisms of Atsttrin were determined using in-vitro assays with primary chondrocytes.Herein, we found Atsttrin effectively prevented the accelerated OA phenotype associated with PGRN deficiency. Additionally, Atsttrin exhibited a preventative effect in OA by protecting articular cartilage and reducing OA-associated pain in both nonsurgically induced rat and surgically induced murine OA models. Mechanistic studies revealed that Atsttrin stimulated TNFR2-Akt-Erk1/2-dependent chondrocyte anabolism, while inhibiting TNF?/TNFR1-mediated inflammatory catabolism.These findings not only provide new insights into the role of PGRN and its derived engineered protein Atsttrin in cartilage homeostasis as well as OA in vivo, but may also lead to new therapeutic alternatives for OA as well as other relative degenerative joint diseases.
Project description:Progranulin (PGRN), a pleiotrophic growth factor, is known to play an important role in the maintenance and regulation of the homeostatic dynamics of normal tissue development, proliferation, regeneration, and host-defense. PGRN also has potent anti-inflammatory functionality, and deregulated PGRN is associated with rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. We have previously reported that PGRN directly binds to TNFR and significantly enhances Treg population and stimulates IL-10 production. To further investigate PGRN's function in the immune system we performed a gene array analysis on CD4+ T cells from wild type B6 mice and PGRN -/- mice. We identified many chemokines and their receptors, among which CXCL9 and CXCL10 were most prominent, that were significantly induced in PGRN null mice. Administration of recombinant PGRN protein strongly inhibited TNF and IFN-γ-induced CXCL9 and CXCL10 expression. In addition, CXCL9 expression is strongly upregulated in PGRN KO mice and its level is correlated with severity of inflammation in a dermatitis model. Further, we have demonstrated that PGRN-mediated inhibition of chemokine expression largely depends on TNFR1. Taken together, this study provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying PGRN mediated regulation of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
Project description:Autoimmune disease encompasses an array of conditions with a variety of presentations and the involvement of multiple organs. Though the etiologies of many autoimmune conditions are unclear, uncontrolled inflammatory immune response is believed to be a major cause of disease development and progression. Progranulin (PGRN), an anti-inflammatory molecule with therapeutic effect in inflammatory arthritis, was identified as an endogenous antagonist of TNF? by competitively binding to TNFR. PGRN exerts its anti-inflammatory activity through multiple pathways, including induction of Treg differentiation and IL-10 expression and inhibition of chemokine release from macrophages. In addition, the protective role of PGRN has also been demonstrated in osteoarthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis. Intriguingly, PGRN was reported to contribute to development of insulin resistance in high-fat diet induced diabetes. Emerging evidences indicate that PGRN may also be associated with various autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematous, systemic sclerosis, multiple sclerosis and Sjogren's syndrome. This review summarizes recent studies of PGRN as a novel target molecule in the field of autoimmune disease, and provides updated information to inspire future studies.
Project description:Chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in the development/progression of diabetic kidney disease. The involvement of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related biomarkers [TNFα, progranulin (PGRN), TNF receptors (TNFR1 and TNFR2)] and uric acid (UA) in renal function decline was investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Serum TNF-related biomarkers and UA levels were measured in 594 Japanese patients with T2D and an eGFR ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Four TNF-related biomarkers and UA were negatively associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In a logistic multivariate model, each TNF-related biomarker and UA was associated with lower eGFR (eGFR <60mL /min/1.73 m2) after adjustment for relevant covariates (basic model). Furthermore, UA and TNF-related biomarkers other than PGRN added a significant benefit for the risk factors of lower eGFR when measured together with a basic model (UA, ΔAUC, 0.049, p < 0.001; TNFα, ΔAUC, 0.022, p = 0.007; TNFR1, ΔAUC, 0.064, p < 0.001; TNFR2, ΔAUC, 0.052, p < 0.001) in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. TNFR ligands were associated with lower eGFR, but the associations were not as strong as those with TNFRs or UA in patients with T2D and an eGFR ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m2.
Project description:Inflammation and an influx of macrophages are common elements in many diseases. Among pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) plays a central role by amplifying the cytokine network. Progranulin (PGRN) is a growth factor that binds to TNF receptors and interferes with TNF?-mediated signaling. Extracellular PGRN is processed into granulins by proteases released from immune cells. PGRN exerts anti-inflammatory effects, whereas granulins are pro-inflammatory. The factors coordinating these ambivalent functions remain unclear. In our study, we identify Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) as a candidate for this immune-modulating activity. Using a yeast-2-hybrid assay with YB-1 protein as bait, clones encoding for progranulin were selected using stringent criteria for strong interaction. We demonstrate that at physiological concentrations, YB-1 interferes with the binding of TNF? to its receptors in a dose-dependent manner using a flow cytometry-based binding assay. We show that YB-1 in combination with progranulin interferes with TNF?-mediated signaling, supporting the functionality with an NF-?B luciferase reporter assay. Together, we show that YB-1 displays immunomodulating functions by affecting the binding of TNF? to its receptors and influencing TNF?-mediated signaling via its interaction with progranulin.
Project description:Aseptic loosening is a major complication of prosthetic joint surgery, characterized by chronic inflammation, pain, and osteolysis surrounding the bone-implant interface. Progranulin (PGRN) is known to have anti-inflammatory action by binding to Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) receptors and antagonizing TNFα. Here we report that titanium particles significantly induced PGRN expression in RAW264.7 cells and also in a mouse air-pouch model of inflammation. PGRN-deficiency enhanced, whereas administration of recombinant PGRN effectively inhibited, titanium particle-induced inflammation in an air pouch model. In addition, PGRN also significantly inhibited titanium particle-induced osteoclastogenesis and calvarial osteolysis in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the inhibition of PGRN on titanium particle induced-inflammation is primarily via neutralizing the titanium particle-activated TNFα/NF-κB signaling pathway and this is evidenced by the suppression of particle-induced IκB phosphorylation, NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, and activity of the NF-κB-specific reporter gene. Collectively, these findings not only demonstrate that PGRN plays an important role in inhibiting titanium particle-induced inflammation, but also provide a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of wear debris-induced inflammation and osteolysis.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a distinctive inflammatory arthritis which may typically develop in a subgroup of individuals suffering from psoriasis. We recently described progranulin autoantibodies (PGRN-Abs) in the sera of patients with different autoimmune diseases including seronegative polyarthritis. In the present study we investigated the occurrence of PGRN-Abs in PsA. METHODS: PGRN-Abs were determined in 260 patients with PsA, 100 patients with psoriasis without arthritic manifestations (PsC) and 97 healthy controls using a recently described ELISA. PGRN plasma levels were determined from subgroups by a commercially available ELISA-kit. Possible functional effects of PGRN-antibodies were analysed in vitro by tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? mediated cytotoxicity assays using WEHI-S and HT1080 cells. RESULTS: PGRN-Abs were detected with relevant titres in 50/260 (19.23%) patients with PsA, but in 0/100 patients with psoriasis without arthritic manifestations (P = 0.0001). All PGRN-Abs belonged to immunoglobulin G (IgG). PGRN-Abs were significantly more frequent in PsA patients with enthesitis or dactylitis. PGRN-Abs were also more frequent in PsA patients receiving treatment with TNF-?-blockers than in patients treated without TNF-?-blockers (20.8% versus 17.4%; P = 0.016). PGRN plasma levels were significantly lower in PGRN-Ab-positive patients with PsA than in healthy controls and patients with psoriasis without arthritic manifestations (P < 0.001), indicating a neutralizing effect of PGRN-Abs. Moreover cytotoxicity assays comparing PGRN-antibody positive with negative sera from matched patients with PsA, clearly showed a proinflammatory effect of PGRN antibodies. CONCLUSION: Neutralizing PGRN-Abs occur with relevant titres in a subgroup of patients with PsA, but not in patients without arthritic manifestations (PsC). PGRN-Ab-positive patients had more frequent enthesitis or dactylitis. TNF-?-induced cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that the protective effects of progranulin were inhibited by serum containing PGRN-Abs. This suggests that PGRN-Ab might not only be useful as a diagnostic and prognostic marker, but may provide a proinflammatory environment in a subgroup of patients with PsA.
Project description:Progranulin (PGRN) was previously isolated as an osteoarthritis (OA)-associated growth factor. Additionally, PGRN was found to play a therapeutic role in inflammatory arthritis mice models through antagonising tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?). This study was aimed at investigating the role of PGRN in degradation of cartilage and progression of OA.Progression of OA was analysed in both spontaneous and surgically induced OA models in wild type and PGRN-deficient mice. Cartilage degradation and OA were evaluated using Safranin O staining, immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Additionally, mRNA expression of degenerative factors and catabolic markers known to be involved in cartilage degeneration in OA were analysed. Furthermore, the anabolic effects and underlying mechanisms of PGRN were investigated by in vitro experiments with primary chondrocytes.Here, we found that deficiency of PGRN led to spontaneous OA-like phenotype in 'aged' mice. Additionally, PGRN-deficient mice exhibited exaggerated breakdown of cartilage structure and OA progression, while local delivery of recombinant PGRN protein attenuated degradation of cartilage matrix and protected against OA development in surgically induced OA models. Furthermore, PGRN activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 signalling and elevated the levels of anabolic biomarkers in human chondrocyte, and the protective function of PGRN was mediated mainly through TNF receptor 2. Additionally, PGRN suppressed inflammatory action of TNF-? and inhibited the activation of ?-Catenin signalling in cartilage and chondrocytes.Collectively, this study provides new insight into the pathogenesis of OA, and also presents PGRN as a potential target for the treatment of joint degenerative diseases, including OA.
Project description:Progranulin (PGRN) mediates cell cycle progression and cell motility as a pleiotropic growth factor and acts as a universal regulator of cell growth, migration and transformation, cell cycle, wound healing, tumorigenesis, and cytotoxic drug resistance as a secreted glycoprotein. PGRN overexpression can induce the secretion of many inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-8, -6,-10, TNF-?. At the same time, this protein can promote tumor proliferation and the occurrence and development of many related diseases such as gastric cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, renal injury, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammatory, human atherosclerotic plaque, hepatocarcinoma, acute kidney injury, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In short, PGRN plays a very critical role in injury repair and tumorigenesis, it provides a new direction for succeeding research and serves as a target for clinical diagnosis and treatment, thus warranting further investigation. Here, we discuss the potential therapeutic utility and the effect of PGRN on the relationship between inflammation and cancer.