Explaining the varied glycosidic conformational, G-tract length and sequence preferences for anti-parallel G-quadruplexes.
ABSTRACT: Guanine-rich DNA sequences tend to form four-stranded G-quadruplex structures. Characteristic glycosidic conformational patterns along the G-strands, such as the 5'-syn-anti-syn-anti pattern observed with the Oxytricha nova telomeric G-quadruplexes, have been well documented. However, an explanation for these featured glycosidic patterns has not emerged. This work presents MD simulation and free energetic analyses for simplified two-quartet [d(GG)](4) models and suggests that the four base pair step patterns show quite different relative stabilities: syn-anti > anti-anti > anti-syn > syn-syn. This suggests the following rule: when folding, anti-parallel G-quadruplexes tend to maximize the number of syn-anti steps and avoid the unfavorable anti-syn and syn-syn steps. This rule is consistent with most of the anti-parallel G-quadruplex structures in the Protein Databank (PDB). Structural polymorphisms of G-quadruplexes relate to these glycosidic conformational patterns and the lengths of the G-tracts. The folding topologies of G2- and G4-tracts are not very polymorphic because each strand tends to populate the stable syn-anti repeat. G3-tracts, on the other hand, cannot present this repeating pattern on each G-tract. This leads to smaller energy differences between different geometries and helps explain the extreme structural polymorphism of the human telomeric G-quadruplexes.
Project description:Previously, it has been reported that human telomeric DNA sequences could adopt in different experimental conditions four different intramolecular G-quadruplexes each involving three G-tetrad layers, namely, Na(+) solution antiparallel-stranded basket form, K(+) crystal parallel-stranded propeller form, K(+) solution (3 + 1) Form 1, and K(+) solution (3 + 1) Form 2. Here we present a new intramolecular G-quadruplex adopted by a four-repeat human telomeric sequence in K(+) solution (Form 3). This structure is a basket-type G-quadruplex with only two G-tetrad layers: loops are successively edgewise, diagonal, and edgewise; glycosidic conformations of guanines are syn x syn x anti x anti around each tetrad. Each strand of the core has both a parallel and an antiparallel adjacent strands; there are one narrow, one wide, and two medium grooves. Despite the presence of only two G-tetrads in the core, this structure is more stable than the three-G-tetrad intramolecular G-quadruplexes previously observed for human telomeric sequences in K(+) solution. Detailed structural elucidation of Form 3 revealed extensive base pairing and stacking in the loops capping both ends of the G-tetrad core, which might explain the high stability of the structure. This novel structure highlights the conformational heterogeneity of human telomeric DNA. It establishes a new folding principle for G-quadruplexes and suggests new loop sequences and structures for targeting in human telomeric DNA.
Project description:In this article, we report a structural study, based on NMR and CD spectroscopies, and molecular modelling of all possible d(TG(3)T) and d(TG(4)T) analogues containing two 8-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine residues (M). Particularly, the potential ability of these modified residues to orientate the strands and then to affect the folding topology of tetramolecular quadruplex structures has been investigated. Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) TMMGT (T12) and TMMGGT (F12) form parallel tetramolecular quadruplexes, characterized by an all-syn M-tetrad at the 5'-side stacked to all-anti M- and G-tetrads. ODNs TMGMT (T13) and TMGGMT (F14) form parallel tetramolecular quadruplexes, in which an all-anti G core is sandwiched between two all-syn M-tetrads at the 5'- and the 3'-side. Notably, the quadruplex formed by T13 corresponds to an unprecedented structure in which the syn residues exceed in number the anti ones. Conversely, ODN TGMGMT (F24) adopts a parallel arrangement in which all-anti G-tetrads alternate with all-syn M-tetrads. Most importantly, all data strongly suggest that ODN TMGMGT (F13) forms an unprecedented anti-parallel tetramolecular quadruplex in which G and M residues adopt anti and syn glycosidic conformations, respectively. This article opens up new understandings and perspectives about the intricate relationship between the quadruplex strands orientation and the glycosidic conformation of the residues.
Project description:Guanine tracts of human telomeric DNA sequences are known to fold into eight different four-stranded structures that vary by the conformation of guanine nucleotides arranged in the stack of G-tetrads in their core and by different kinds and orders of connecting loops, called G-quadruplexes. Here, we present a novel G-quadruplex structure formed in K+ solution by a human telomeric variant d[(GGGTTA)2GGGTTTGGG], htel21T18. This variant DNA is located in the subtelomeric regions of human chromosomes 8, 11, 17, and 19 as well as in the DNase hypersensitive region and in the subcentromeric region of chromosome 5. Interestingly, single A18T substitution that makes htel21T18 different from the human telomeric sequence results in the formation of a three-layer chair-type G-quadruplex, a fold previously unknown among human telomeric repeats, with two loops interacting through the reverse Watson-Crick A6·T18 base pair. The loops are edgewise; glycosidic conformation of guanines is syn·anti·syn·anti around each tetrad, and each strand of the core has two antiparallel adjacent strands. Our results expand the repertoire of known G-quadruplex folding topologies and may provide a potential target for structure-based anticancer drug design.
Project description:G-Quadruplexes formed in the 3' telomere overhang (?200 nucleotides) have been shown to regulate biological functions of human telomeres. The mechanism governing the population pattern of multiple telomeric G-quadruplexes is yet to be elucidated inside the telomeric overhang in a time window shorter than thermodynamic equilibrium. Using a single-molecule force ramping assay, we quantified G-quadruplex populations in telomere overhangs over a full physiological range of 99-291 nucleotides. We found that G-quadruplexes randomly form in these overhangs within seconds, which leads to a population governed by a kinetic, rather than a thermodynamic, folding pattern. The kinetic folding gives rise to vacant G-tracts between G-quadruplexes. By targeting these vacant G-tracts using complementary DNA fragments, we demonstrated that binding to the telomeric G-quadruplexes becomes more efficient and specific for telomestatin derivatives.
Project description:We present an NMR study on the structure of a DNA fragment of the human telomere containing three guanine-tracts, d(GGGTTAGGGTTAGGGT). This sequence forms in Na(+) solution a unique asymmetric dimeric quadruplex, in which the G-tetrad core involves all three G-tracts of one strand and only the last 3'-end G-tract of the other strand. We show that a three-repeat human telomeric sequence can also associate with a single-repeat human telomeric sequence into a structure with the same topology that we name (3 + 1) quadruplex assembly. In this G-quadruplex assembly, there are one syn.syn.syn.anti and two anti.anti.anti.syn G-tetrads, two edgewise loops, three G-tracts oriented in one direction and the fourth oriented in the opposite direction. We discuss the possible implications of the new folding topology for understanding the structure of telomeric DNA, including t-loop formation, and for targeting G-quadruplexes in the telomeres.
Project description:In this work we studied the folding process of the hybrid-1 type human telomeric DNA G-quadruplex with solvent and K(+) ions explicitly modeled. Enabled by the powerful bias-exchange metadynamics and large-scale conventional molecular dynamic simulations, the free energy landscape of this G-DNA was obtained for the first time and four folding intermediates were identified, including a triplex and a basically formed quadruplex. The simulations also provided atomistic pictures for the structures and cation binding patterns of the intermediates. The results showed that the structure formation and cation binding are cooperative and mutually supporting each other. The syn/anti reorientation dynamics of the intermediates was also investigated. It was found that the nucleotides usually take correct syn/anti configurations when they form native and stable hydrogen bonds with the others, while fluctuating between two configurations when they do not. Misfolded intermediates with wrong syn/anti configurations were observed in the early intermediates but not in the later ones. Based on the simulations, we also discussed the roles of the non-native interactions. Besides, the formation process of the parallel conformation in the first two G-repeats and the associated reversal loop were studied. Based on the above results, we proposed a folding pathway for the hybrid-1 type G-quadruplex with atomistic details, which is new and more complete compared with previous ones. The knowledge gained for this type of G-DNA may provide a general insight for the folding of the other G-quadruplexes.
Project description:Recently, the two-repeat human telomeric d(TAGGGTTAGGGT) sequence has been shown to form interconverting parallel and antiparallel G-quadruplex structures in solution. Here, we examine the structures formed by the two-repeat Tetrahymena telomeric d(TGGGGTTGGGGT) sequence, which differs from the human sequence only by one G-for-A replacement in each repeat. We show by NMR that this sequence forms two novel G-quadruplex structures in Na+-containing solution. Both structures are asymmetric, dimeric G-quadruplexes involving a core of four stacked G-tetrads and two edgewise loops. The adjacent strands of the G-tetrad core are alternately parallel and antiparallel. All G-tetrads adopt syn.syn.anti.anti alignments, which occur with 5'-syn-anti-syn-anti-3' alternations along G-tracks. In the first structure (head-to-head), two loops are at one end of the G-tetrad core; in the second structure (head-to-tail), two loops are located on opposite ends of the G-tetrad core. In contrast to the human telomere counterpart, the proportions of the two forms here are similar for a wide range of temperatures; their unfolding rates are also similar, with an activation enthalpy of 153 kJ/mol.
Project description:We demonstrate by NMR that the two-repeat human telomeric sequence d(TAGGGTTAGGGT) can form both parallel and antiparallel G-quadruplex structures in K(+)-containing solution. Both structures are dimeric G-quadruplexes involving three stacked G-tetrads. The sequence d(TAGGGUTAGGGT), containing a single thymine-to-uracil substitution at position 6, formed a predominantly parallel dimeric G-quadruplex with double-chain-reversal loops; the structure was symmetric, and all guanines were anti. Another modified sequence, d(UAGGGT(Br)UAGGGT), formed a predominantly antiparallel dimeric G-quadruplex with edgewise loops; the structure was asymmetric with six syn guanines and six anti guanines. The two structures can coexist and interconvert in solution. For the latter sequence, the antiparallel form is more favorable at low temperatures (<50 degrees C), while the parallel form is more favorable at higher temperatures; at temperatures lower than 40 degrees C, the antiparallel G-quadruplex folds faster but unfolds slower than the parallel G-quadruplex.
Project description:The hTERT core promoter contains a G-rich region of 12 consecutive G-tracts, embracing 3 Sp1 binding sites, and has the potential to form multiple G-quadruplexes. From the 12 runs of guanines, 9 putative hTERT G-quadruplex-forming sequences were selected to assay for G-quadruplex formation and stability using circular dichroism and a Taq polymerase stop assay. Results from biophysical and chemical assays demonstrate an approximate inverse correlation between total loop size and structure stability. Investigation of the full-length hTERT G-rich sequence using a Taq polymerase stop assay and dimethyl sulfate footprinting revealed the formation of a unique end-to-end stacked G-quadruplex structure from this sequence. This structure consists of an all parallel G-quadruplex, formed by four consecutive G-tracts, linked to another, atypical G-quadruplex, formed by two pairs of consecutive G-tracts separated by a 26-base loop. This 26-base loop likely forms a stable hairpin structure, which would explain the unexpected stability of this G-quadruplex. Significantly, the formation of this tandem G-quadruplex structure in the full-length sequence masks all three Sp1 binding sites, which is predicted to produce significant inhibition of hTERT promoter activity. Furthermore, our study implies that inhibition of telomerase activity by some G-quadruplex ligands is not only produced by targeting telomeric G-quadruplexes but also by stabilization of the hTERT promoter G-quadruplexes.
Project description:We report the NMR solution structure of the intramolecular G-quadruplex formed in human telomeric DNA in K(+). The hybrid-type telomeric G-quadruplex consists of three G-tetrads linked with mixed parallel-antiparallel G-strands, with the bottom two G-tetrads having the same G-arrangement (anti:anti:syn:anti) and the top G-tetrad having the reversed G-arrangement (syn:syn:anti:syn). The three TTA loop segments adopt different conformations, with the first TTA assuming a double-chain-reversal loop conformation, and the second and third TTA assuming lateral loop conformations. The NMR structure is very well defined, including the three TTA loops and the two flanking sequences at 5'- and 3'-ends. Our study indicates that the three loop regions interact with the core G-tetrads in a specific way that defines and stabilizes the unique human telomeric G-quadruplex structure in K(+). Significantly, a novel adenine triple platform is formed with three naturally occurring adenine residues, A21, A3 and A9, capping the top tetrad of the hybrid-type telomeric G-quadruplex. This adenine triple is likely to play an important role in the formation of a stable human telomeric G-quadruplex structure in K(+). The unique human telomeric G-quadruplex structure formed in K(+) suggests that it can be specifically targeted for anticancer drug design.