Image-guided genomic analysis of tissue response to laser-induced thermal stress.
ABSTRACT: The cytoprotective response to thermal injury is characterized by transcriptional activation of "heat shock proteins" (hsp) and proinflammatory proteins. Expression of these proteins may predict cellular survival. Microarray analyses were performed to identify spatially distinct gene expression patterns responding to thermal injury. Laser injury zones were identified by expression of a transgene reporter comprised of the 70 kD hsp gene and the firefly luciferase coding sequence. Zones included the laser spot, the surrounding region where hsp70-luc expression was increased, and a region adjacent to the surrounding region. A total of 145 genes were up-regulated in the laser irradiated region, while 69 were up-regulated in the adjacent region. At 7 hours the chemokine Cxcl3 was the highest expressed gene in the laser spot (24 fold) and adjacent region (32 fold). Chemokines were the most common up-regulated genes identified. Microarray gene expression was successfully validated using qRT- polymerase chain reaction for selected genes of interest. The early response genes are likely involved in cytoprotection and initiation of the healing response. Their regulatory elements will benefit creating the next generation reporter mice and controlling expression of therapeutic proteins. The identified genes serve as drug development targets that may prevent acute tissue damage and accelerate healing.
Project description:Summer mortality, caused by thermal conditions, is the biggest threat to abalone aquaculture production industries. Various measures have been taken to mitigate this issue by adjusting the environment; however, the cellular processes of Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) have been overlooked due to the paucity of genetic information. The draft genome of H. discus hannai has recently been reported, prompting exploration of the genes responsible for thermal regulation in Pacific abalone. In this study, 413 proteins were systematically annotated as members of the heat shock protein (HSP) super families, and among them 26 HSP genes from four Pacific abalone tissues (hemocytes, gill, mantle, and muscle) were differentially expressed under cold and heat stress conditions. The co-expression network revealed that HSP expression patterns were tissue-specific and similar to those of other shellfish inhabiting intertidal zones. Finally, representative HSPs were selected at random and their expression patterns were identified by RNA sequencing and validated by qRT-PCR to assess expression significance. The HSPs expressed in hemocytes were highly similar in both analyses, suggesting that hemocytes could be more reliable samples for validating thermal condition markers compared to other tissues.
Project description:Mutations in >50 genes, including spastin and atlastin, lead to hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). We previously demonstrated that reduction of spastin leads to a deficit in axon regeneration in a Drosophila model. Axon regeneration was similarly impaired in neurons when HSP proteins atlastin, seipin, and spichthyin were reduced. Impaired regeneration was dependent on genetic background and was observed when partial reduction of HSP proteins was combined with expression of dominant-negative microtubule regulators, suggesting that HSP proteins work with microtubules to promote regeneration. Microtubule rearrangements triggered by axon injury were, however, normal in all genotypes. We examined other markers to identify additional changes associated with regeneration. Whereas mitochondria, endosomes, and ribosomes did not exhibit dramatic repatterning during regeneration, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was frequently concentrated near the tip of the growing axon. In atlastin RNAi and spastin mutant animals, ER accumulation near single growing axon tips was impaired. ER tip concentration was observed only during axon regeneration and not during dendrite regeneration. In addition, dendrite regeneration was unaffected by reduction of spastin or atlastin. We propose that the HSP proteins spastin and atlastin promote axon regeneration by coordinating concentration of the ER and microtubules at the growing axon tip.
Project description:We examined gene expression in the lumbar spinal cord and the specific response of motoneurons, intermediate gray and proprioceptive sensory neurons after spinal cord injury and exercise of hindlimbs to identify potential molecular processes involved in activity dependent plasticity. Adult female rats received a low thoracic transection and passive cycling exercise for 1 or 4weeks. Gene expression analysis focused on the neurotrophic factors: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), and their receptors because of their potential roles in neural plasticity. We also examined expression of genes involved in the cellular response to injury: heat shock proteins (HSP) -27 and -70, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and caspases -3, -7, and -9. In lumbar cord samples, injury increased the expression of mRNA for TrkB, all three caspases and the HSPs. Acute and prolonged exercise increased expression of mRNA for the neurotrophic factors BDNF and GDNF, but not their receptors. It also increased HSP expression and decreased caspase-7 expression, with changes in protein levels complimentary to these changes in mRNA expression. Motoneurons and intermediate gray displayed little change in mRNA expression following injury, but acute and prolonged exercise increased levels of mRNA for BDNF, GDNF and NT-4. In large DRG neurons, mRNA for neurotrophic factors and their receptors were largely unaffected by either injury or exercise. However, caspase mRNA expression was increased by injury and decreased by exercise. Our results demonstrate that exercise affects expression of genes involved in plasticity and apoptosis in a cell specific manner and that these change with increased post-injury intervals and/or prolonged periods of exercise.
Project description:The region upstream of the Escherichia coli bgl operon is an insertion hot spot for several transposons. Elements as distantly related as Tn1, Tn5, and phage Mu home in on this location. To see what characteristics result in a high-affinity site for transposition, we compared in vivo and in vitro Mu transposition patterns near the bgl promoter. In vivo, Mu insertions were focused in two narrow zones of DNA near bgl, and both zones exhibited a striking orientation bias. Five hot spots upstream of the bgl cyclic AMP binding protein (CAP) binding site had Mu insertions exclusively with the phage oriented left to right relative to the direction of bgl transcription. One hot spot within the CAP binding domain had the opposite (right-to-left) orientation of phage insertion. The DNA segment lying between these two Mu hot-spot clusters is extremely A/T rich (80%) and is an efficient target for insertion sequences during stationary phase. IS1 insertions that activate the bgl operon resulted in a decrease in Mu insertions near the CAP binding site. Mu transposition in vitro differed significantly from the in vivo transposition pattern, having a new hot-spot cluster at the border of the A/T-rich segment. Transposon hot-spot behavior and orientation bias may relate to an asymmetry of transposon DNA-protein complexes and to interactions with proteins that produce transcriptionally silenced chromatin.
Project description:Early stages of geographic atrophy (GA) age-related macular degeneration is characterised by the demise of photoreceptors, which precedes the loss of underlying retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Sight-loss due to GA has no effective treatment; reflecting both the complexity of the disease and the lack of suitable animal models for testing potential therapies. We report the development and characterisation of a laser-induced mouse model with early GA-like pathology. Retinas were lasered at adjacent sites using a 810 nm laser (1.9 J/spot), resulting in the development of confluent, hypopigmented central lesions with well-defined borders. Optical Coherence Tomography over 2-months showed progressive obliteration of photoreceptors with hyper-reflective outer plexiform and RPE/Bruch's membrane (BrM) layers within lesions, but an unaffected inner retina. Light/electron microscopy after 3-months revealed lesions without photoreceptors, leaving the outer plexiform layer apposed to the RPE. We observed outer segment debris, hypo/hyperpigmented RPE, abnormal apical-basal RPE surfaces and BrM thickening. Lesions had wedge-shaped margins, extended zones of damage, activated Müller cells, microglial recruitment and functional retinal deficits. mRNA studies showed complement and inflammasome activation, microglial/macrophage phagocytosis and oxidative stress providing mechanistic insights into GA. We propose this mouse model as an attractive tool for early GA studies and drug-discovery.
Project description:To examine the damage location distribution of five main body region injuries of maximum abbreviated injury score (MAIS) 3-6 injured occupants for nearside struck vehicle in front-to-side impact crashes.MAIS 3-6 injured occupants information was extracted from the US-National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System in the year 2007; it included the head/face/neck, chest, pelvis, upper extremity and lower extremity. Struck vehicle collision damage was classified in a three-dimensional system according to the J224 Collision Deformation Classification of SAE Surface Vehicle Standard.Nearside occupants seated directly adjacent to the struck side of the vehicle with MAIS 3-6 injured, in light truck vehicles-passenger cars (LTV-PC) side impact crashes.Distribution of MAIS 3-6 injured occupants by body regions and specific location of damage (lateral direction, horizontal direction and vertical direction) were examined. Injury risk ratio was also assessed.The lateral crush zone contributed to MAIS 3-6 injured occupants (n=705) and 50th centile injury risks when extended into zone 3. When the crush extended to zone 4, the injury risk ratio of MAIS 3-6 injured occupants approached 81%. The horizontal crush zones contributing to the highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3-6 occupants were zones 'D' and 'Y', and the injury risk ratios were 25.4% and 36.9%, respectively. In contrast, the lowest injury risk ratio was 5.67% caused by zone 'B'. The vertical crush zone which contributed to the highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3-6 occupants was zone 'E', whose injury risk ratio was 58%. In contrast, the lowest injury risk ratio was 0.14% caused by zone 'G+M'.The highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3-6 injured occupants caused by crush intrusion between 40 and 60 cm in LTV-PC nearside impact collisions and the damage region of the struck vehicle was in the zones 'E' and 'Y'.
Project description:Introduction: The Mechanism of laser therapy and also its safety are 2 important features of the application of different types of lasers in medicine. This study aims to investigate the critically affected genes after the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma patients. Methods: The gene expression profiles of 4 squamous cell carcinoma patients that were treated via chemoradiotherapy (CRT) plus the laser and 3 similar patients without laser exposure from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) were downloaded and were screened to find critical genes via network analysis. The STRING database, Cytoscape software, and the Clue GO plug-in of Cytoscape software were used. Results: The genes HSX70 and NCC27 were determined as neighbors and HSPA1B, CLIC1, RAB13, PPIF, and LCE3D as hub genes. The over-expression of LCE3D was interpreted as the side effect of laser therapy. Apoptosis and the cell cycle were the dominant biological processes regulated by the HSP molecules in the laser-treated patients. Conclusion: The laser affected the main biological processes and simultaneously issued side effects.
Project description:Disruption of the plasma membrane often accompanies cellular injury, and in muscle, plasma membrane resealing is essential for efficient recovery from injury. Muscle contraction, especially of lengthened muscle, disrupts the sarcolemma. To define the molecular machinery that directs repair, we applied laser wounding to live mammalian myofibers and assessed translocation of fluorescently tagged proteins using high-resolution microscopy. Within seconds of membrane disruption, annexins A1, A2, A5, and A6 formed a tight repair "cap." Actin was recruited to the site of damage, and annexin A6 cap formation was both actin dependent and Ca(2+) regulated. Repair proteins, including dysferlin, EHD1, EHD2, MG53, and BIN1, localized adjacent to the repair cap in a "shoulder" region enriched with phosphatidlyserine. Dye influx into muscle fibers lacking both dysferlin and the related protein myoferlin was substantially greater than control or individual null muscle fibers, underscoring the importance of shoulder-localized proteins. These data define the cap and shoulder as subdomains within the repair complex accumulating distinct and nonoverlapping components.
Project description:Precise regulation of neurogenesis is achieved in specific regions of the vertebrate nervous system by formation of distinct neurogenic and nonneurogenic zones. We have investigated how neurogenesis becomes confined to zones adjacent to rhombomere boundaries in the zebrafish hindbrain. The nonneurogenic zone at segment centers comprises a distinct progenitor population that expresses fibroblast growth factor (fgfr) 2, erm, sox9b, and the retinoic acid degrading enzyme, cyp26b1. FGF receptor activation upregulates expression of these genes and inhibits neurogenesis in segment centers. Cyp26 activity is a key effector inhibiting neuronal differentiation, suggesting antagonistic interactions with retinoid signaling. We identify the critical FGF ligand, fgf20a, which is expressed by specific neurons located in the mantle region at the center of segments, adjacent to the nonneurogenic zone. Fgf20a mutants have ectopic neurogenesis and lack the segment center progenitor population. Our findings reveal how signaling from neurons induces formation of a nonneurogenic zone of neural progenitors.
Project description:Background: REEP1 is a common cause of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) but is rare in China. The pathological mechanism of REEP1 is not fully understood. Methods: We screened for REEP1 mutations in 31 unrelated probands from Chinese HSP families using next-generation sequencing targeting pathogenic genes for HSP and other related diseases. All variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. The proband family members were also screened for variants for the segregation analysis. All previously reported REEP1 mutations and cases were reviewed to clarify the genetic and clinical features of REEP1-related HSP. Results: A pathogenic mutation, REEP1c. 125G>A (p.Trp42*), was detected in a pure HSP family from North China out of 31 HSP families (1/31). This locus, which is located in the second hydrophobic domain of REEP1, is detected in both Caucasian patients with complicated HSP phenotypes and Chinese pure HSP families. Conclusion: REEP1-related HSP can be found in the Chinese population. The 42nd residue is a novel transethnic mutation hotspot. Mutations in this spot can lead to both complicated and pure form of HSP. Identification of transethnic hotspot will contribute to clarify the underlying pathological mechanisms.