The prolyl hydroxylase enzymes are positively associated with hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and vascular endothelial growth factor in human breast cancer and alter in response to primary systemic treatment with epirubicin and tamoxifen.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship of expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1?-modifying enzymes prolyl hydroxylase (PHD)1, PHD2 and PHD3 to response of tumours and survival in breast cancer patients enrolled in a phase II trial of neoadjuvant anthracycline and tamoxifen therapy.The expression of PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3 together with HIF-1? and the HIF-inducible genes vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and carbonic anhydrase IX were assessed by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray approach in 211 patients with T2-4 N0-1 breast cancer enrolled in a randomised trial comparing single-agent epirubicin versus epirubicin and tamoxifen as the primary systemic treatment.PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3 were detected in 47/179 (26.7%), 85/163 (52.2%) and 69/177 (39%) of tumours at baseline. PHD2 and PHD3 expression was moderate/strong whereas PHD1 expression was generally weak. There was a significant positive correlation between HIF-1? and PHD1 (P = 0.002) and PHD3 (P < 0.05) but not PHD2 (P = 0.41). There was a significant positive relationship between VEGF and PHD1 (P < 0.008) and PHD3 (P = 0.001) but not PHD2 (P = 0.09). PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3 expression was significantly increased after epirubicin therapy (all P < 0.000) with no significant difference in PHD changes between the treatment arms. There was no significant difference in response in tumours that expressed PHDs and PHD expression was not associated with survival.Although expression of the PHDs was not related to response or survival in patients receiving neoadjuvant epirubicin, our data provide the first evidence that these enzymes are upregulated on therapy in breast cancer and that the biological effects independent of HIF make them therapeutic targets.
Project description:Adaptive response to hypoxia in nucleus pulposus cells of the intervertebral disc is regulated by the hypoxia-inducible factors, HIF-1? and HIF-2?. Moreover, oxygen-dependent turnover of HIF-1? in these cells is controlled by the prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) family of proteins. Whether HIF homologues control expression of PHDs and whether PHDs control hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) turnover and/or activity under hypoxia is not known. Here, we show that in nucleus pulposus cells, hypoxia robustly induces PHD3 expression and, to a lesser extent, of PHD2 and PHD1. Reporter analysis shows that the hypoxic induction of the PHD2 promoter is HIF-1? dependent, whereas PHD3 promoter/enhancer activity is dependent on both HIF-1? and HIF-2?. Lentiviral delivery of HIF-1?, ShHIF-1?, and ShHIF-1? confirmed these observations. Noteworthy, HIF-1? maintains basal expression of PHD1 in hypoxia at the posttranscriptional level. Finally, loss of function studies using lentiviral transduction of ShPHDs clearly shows that even at 1% O(2), PHD2 selectively degrades HIF-1?. In contrast, in hypoxia, PHD3 enhances HIF-1? transcriptional activity without affecting protein levels. To correlate these observations with disc disease, a condition characterized by tissue vascularization, we analyzed human tissues. Increased PHD1 mRNA expression but decreased PHD2 and PHD3 expression is observed in degenerate tissues. Interestingly, the hypoxic responsiveness of all the PHDs is maintained in isolated nucleus pulposus cells regardless of the disease state. We propose that PHD2 and PHD3 can be used as a biomarker of tissue oxygenation in the disc and that, as such, it may have important clinical implications.
Project description:Renal peritubular interstitial fibroblast-like cells are critical for adult erythropoiesis, as they are the main source of erythropoietin (EPO). Hypoxia-inducible factor 2 (HIF-2) controls EPO synthesis in the kidney and liver and is regulated by prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) dioxygenases PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3, which function as cellular oxygen sensors. Renal interstitial cells with EPO-producing capacity are poorly characterized, and the role of the PHD/HIF-2 axis in renal EPO-producing cell (REPC) plasticity is unclear. Here we targeted the PHD/HIF-2/EPO axis in FOXD1 stroma-derived renal interstitial cells and examined the role of individual PHDs in REPC pool size regulation and renal EPO output. Renal interstitial cells with EPO-producing capacity were entirely derived from FOXD1-expressing stroma, and Phd2 inactivation alone induced renal Epo in a limited number of renal interstitial cells. EPO induction was submaximal, as hypoxia or pharmacologic PHD inhibition further increased the REPC fraction among Phd2-/- renal interstitial cells. Moreover, Phd1 and Phd3 were differentially expressed in renal interstitium, and heterozygous deficiency for Phd1 and Phd3 increased REPC numbers in Phd2-/- mice. We propose that FOXD1 lineage renal interstitial cells consist of distinct subpopulations that differ in their responsiveness to Phd2 inactivation and thus regulation of HIF-2 activity and EPO production under hypoxia or conditions of pharmacologic or genetic PHD inactivation.
Project description:PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3 are prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins that regulate the stability of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha subunits (HIF-alpha). To determine the roles of individual PHDs during mouse development, we disrupted all three Phd genes and found that Phd2(-/-) embryos died between embryonic days 12.5 and 14.5 whereas Phd1(-/-) or Phd3(-/-) mice were apparently normal. In Phd2(-/-) mice, severe placental and heart defects preceded embryonic death. Placental defects included significantly reduced labyrinthine branching morphogenesis, widespread penetration of the labyrinth by spongiotrophoblasts, and abnormal distribution of trophoblast giant cells. The expression of several trophoblast markers was also altered, including an increase in the spongiotrophoblast marker Mash2 and decreases in the labyrinthine markers Tfeb and Gcm1. In the heart, trabeculae were poorly developed, the myocardium was remarkably thinner, and interventricular septum was incompletely formed. Surprisingly, while there were significant global increases in HIF-alpha protein levels in the placenta and the embryo proper, there was no specific HIF-alpha increase in the heart. Taken together, these data indicate that among all three PHD proteins, PHD2 is uniquely essential during mouse embryogenesis.
Project description:The Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) mediates cellular adaptations to low oxygen. Prolyl-4-hydroxylases are oxygen sensors that hydroxylate the HIF alpha-subunit, promoting its proteasomal degradation in normoxia. Three HIF-prolyl hydroxylases, encoded by independent genes, PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3, occur in mammals. PHD2, the longest PHD isoform includes a MYND domain, whose biochemical function is unclear. PHD2 and PHD3 genes are induced in hypoxia to shut down HIF dependent transcription upon reoxygenation, while expression of PHD1 is oxygen-independent. The physiologic significance of the diversity of the PHD oxygen sensors is intriguing.We have analyzed the Drosophila PHD locus, fatiga, which encodes 3 isoforms, FgaA, FgaB and FgaC that are originated through a combination of alternative initiation of transcription and alternative splicing. FgaA includes a MYND domain and is homologous to PHD2, while FgaB and FgaC are shorter isoforms most similar to PHD3. Through a combination of genetic experiments in vivo and molecular analyses in cell culture, we show that fgaB but not fgaA is induced in hypoxia, in a Sima-dependent manner, through a HIF-Responsive Element localized in the first intron of fgaA. The regulatory capacity of FgaB is stronger than that of FgaA, as complete reversion of fga loss-of-function phenotypes is observed upon transgenic expression of the former, and only partial rescue occurs after expression of the latter.Diversity of PHD isoforms is a conserved feature in evolution. As in mammals, there are hypoxia-inducible and non-inducible Drosophila PHDs, and a fly isoform including a MYND domain co-exists with isoforms lacking this domain. Our results suggest that the isoform devoid of a MYND domain has stronger regulatory capacity than that including this domain.
Project description:The heterodimeric hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) are central regulators of the response to low oxygenation. HIF-alpha subunits are constitutively expressed but rapidly degraded under normoxic conditions. Oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of two conserved prolyl residues by prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain-containing enzymes (PHDs) targets HIF-alpha for proteasomal destruction. We identified the peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase FK506-binding protein 38 (FKBP38) as a novel interactor of PHD2. Yeast two-hybrid, glutathione S-transferase pull-down, coimmunoprecipitation, colocalization, and mammalian two-hybrid studies confirmed specific FKBP38 interaction with PHD2, but not with PHD1 or PHD3. PHD2 and FKBP38 associated with their N-terminal regions, which contain no known interaction motifs. Neither FKBP38 mRNA nor protein levels were regulated under hypoxic conditions or after PHD inhibition, suggesting that FKBP38 is not a HIF/PHD target. Stable RNA interference-mediated depletion of FKBP38 resulted in increased PHD hydroxylation activity and decreased HIF protein levels and transcriptional activity. Reconstitution of FKBP38 expression abolished these effects, which were independent of the peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity. Downregulation of FKBP38 did not affect PHD2 mRNA levels but prolonged PHD2 protein stability, suggesting that FKBP38 is involved in PHD2 protein regulation.
Project description:Caloric restriction remains the most reproducible measure known to extend life span or diminish age-associated changes. Previously, we have described an elevated expression of the prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) 3 with increasing age in mouse and human heart. PHDs modulate the cellular response towards hypoxia by regulating the stability of the alpha-subunit of the transcriptional activator hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). In the present study we demonstrate that elevated PHD3, but not PHD1 or PHD2, expression is not restricted to the heart but does also occur in rat skeletal muscle and liver. Elevated expression of PHD3 is counteracted by a decrease in caloric intake (40% caloric restriction applied for 6 months) in all three tissues. Age-associated changes in PHD3 expression inversely correlated with the expression of the HIF-target gene macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which has been previously described to be involved in cellular HIF-mediated anti-ageing effects. These data give insight into the molecular consequences of caloric restriction, which influences hypoxia-mediated gene expression via PHD3.
Project description:Polycythemia is often associated with erythropoietin (EPO) overexpression and defective oxygen sensing. In normal cells, intracellular oxygen concentrations are directly sensed by prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD)-containing proteins, which tag hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha subunits for polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation by oxygen-dependent prolyl hydroxylation. Here we show that different PHD isoforms differentially regulate HIF-alpha stability in the adult liver and kidney and suppress Epo expression and erythropoiesis through distinct mechanisms. Although Phd1(-/-) or Phd3(-/-) mice had no apparent defects, double knockout of Phd1 and Phd3 led to moderate erythrocytosis. HIF-2alpha, which is known to activate Epo expression, accumulated in the liver. In adult mice deficient for PHD2, the prototypic Epo transcriptional activator HIF-1alpha accumulated in both the kidney and liver. Elevated HIF-1alpha levels were associated with dramatically increased concentrations of both Epo mRNA in the kidney and Epo protein in the serum, which led to severe erythrocytosis. In contrast, heterozygous mutation of Phd2 had no detectable effects on blood homeostasis. These findings suggest that PHD1/3 double deficiency leads to erythrocytosis partly by activating the hepatic HIF-2alpha/Epo pathway, whereas PHD2 deficiency leads to erythrocytosis by activating the renal Epo pathway.
Project description:PHD1-3 (prolyl hydroxylases 1-3) catalyse the hydroxylation of HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor)-alpha subunit that triggers the substrate ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. The RING (really interesting new gene) finger E3 ligase Siah2 preferentially targets PHD3 for degradation. Here, we identify the requirements for such selective targeting. Firstly, PHD3 lacks an N-terminal extension found in PHD1 and PHD2; deletion of this domain from PHD1 and PHD2 renders them susceptible to degradation by Siah2. Secondly, PHD3 can homo- and hetero-multimerize with other PHDs. Consequently, PHD3 is found in high-molecular-mass fractions that were enriched in hypoxia. Interestingly, within the lower-molecular-mass complex, PHD3 exhibits higher specific activity towards hydroxylation of HIF-1alpha and co-localizes with Siah2, suggesting that Siah2 limits the availability of the more active form of PHD3. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism underlying the regulation of PHD3 availability and activity in hypoxia by the E3 ligase Siah2.
Project description:The present study compares negative Ets transcription factor (Net) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF1alpha) regulation by hypoxia. Their protein stabilities are differently regulated by hypoxia, defining three periods in the kinetics: normoxia (high Net levels and low HIF1alpha levels), early hypoxia (high levels of Net and HIF1alpha), and late hypoxia (degradation of Net and HIF1alpha). Modulators of prolyl hydroxylase domain protein (PHD) activity induce a mobility shift of Net, similar to HIF1alpha, suggesting that post-translational modifications of both factors depend on PHD activity. The three PHDs have different roles in the regulation of Net protein levels; PHD1 and PHD3 are involved in the stabilization of Net, whereas PHD2 controls its degradation in late hypoxia. Net physically interacts with PHD2 in hypoxia, whereas PHD1 and PHD3 bind to Net in normoxia and hypoxia. Under the same conditions, PHD2 and PHD3 regulate both HIF1alpha stabilization in early hypoxia and its degradation at late hypoxia, whereas PHD1 is involved in HIF1alpha degradation in late hypoxia. We describe interconnections between the regulation of both Net and HIF1alpha at the protein level. Evidence is provided for a direct physical interaction between Net and HIF1alpha and indirect transcriptional regulation loops that involve the PHDs. Taken together our results indicate that Net and HIF1alpha are components of distinct signaling pathways that are intricately linked.
Project description:Intensive gene targeting studies in mice have revealed that prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs) play important roles in murine embryonic development; however, the expression patterns and function of these genes during embryogenesis of other vertebrates remain largely unknown. Here we report the molecular cloning of phd1 and systematic analysis of phd1, phd2, and phd3 expression in embryos as well as adult tissues of Xenopus laevis. All three phds are maternally provided during Xenopus early development. The spatial expression patterns of phds genes in Xenopus embryos appear to define a distinct synexpression group. Frog phd2 and phd3 showed complementary expression in adult tissues with phd2 transcription levels being high in the eye, brain, and intestine, but low in the liver, pancreas, and kidney. On the contrary, expression levels of phd3 are high in the liver, pancreas, and kidney, but low in the eye, brain, and intestine. All three phds are highly expressed in testes, ovary, gall bladder, and spleen. Among three phds, phd3 showed strongest expression in heart.