Design and validity of a clinic-based case-control study on the molecular epidemiology of lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: We present the design features and implementation of a clinic-based case-control study on the molecular epidemiology of lymphoma conducted at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota, USA), and then assess the internal and external validity of the study. Cases were newly diagnosed lymphoma patients from Minnesota, Iowa and Wisconsin seen at Mayo and controls were patients from the same region without lymphoma who had a pre-scheduled general medical examination, frequency matched on age, sex and residence. Overall response rates were 67% for cases and 70% for controls; response rates were lower for cases and controls over age 70 years, cases with more aggressive disease, and controls from the local area, although absolute differences were modest. Cases and controls were well-balanced on age, sex, and residence characteristics. Demographic and disease characteristics of NHL cases were similar to population-based cancer registry data. Control distributions were similar to population-based data on lifestyle factors and minor allele frequencies of over 500 SNPs, although smoking rates were slightly lower. Associations with NHL in the Mayo study for smoking, alcohol use, family history of lymphoma, autoimmune disease, asthma, eczema, body mass index, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in TNF (rs1800629), LTA (rs909253), and IL10 (rs1800896) were at a magnitude consistent with estimates from pooled studies in InterLymph, with history of any allergy the only directly discordant result in the Mayo study. These data suggest that this study should have strong internal and external validity. This framework may be useful to others who are designing a similar study.
Project description:Many common genetic variants have been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but individual study results are often conflicting. To confirm the role of putative risk alleles in B-cell NHL etiology, we performed a validation genotyping study of 67 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms within InterLymph, a large international consortium of NHL case-control studies. A meta-analysis was performed on data from 5633 B-cell NHL cases and 7034 controls from 8 InterLymph studies. rs3789068 in the proapoptotic BCL2L11 gene was associated with an increased risk for B-cell NHL (odds ratio = 1.21, P random = 2.21 × 10(-11)), with similar risk estimates for common B-cell subtypes. PRRC2A rs3132453 in the HLA complex class III region conferred a reduced risk of B-cell NHL (odds ratio = 0.68, P random = 1.07 × 10(-9)) and was likewise evident for common B-cell subtypes. These results are consistent with the known biology of NHL and provide insights into shared pathogenic components, including apoptosis and immune regulation, for the major B-cell lymphoma subtypes.
Project description:There is inconsistent evidence that increasing birth order may be associated with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The authors examined the association between birth order and related variables and NHL risk in a pooled analysis (1983-2005) of 13,535 cases and 16,427 controls from 18 case-control studies within the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph). Overall, the authors found no significant association between increasing birth order and risk of NHL (P-trend = 0.082) and significant heterogeneity. However, a significant association was present for a number of B- and T-cell NHL subtypes. There was considerable variation in the study-specific risks which was partly explained by study design and participant characteristics. In particular, a significant positive association was present in population-based studies, which had lower response rates in cases and controls, but not in hospital-based studies. A significant positive association was present in higher-socioeconomic-status (SES) participants only. Results were very similar for the related variable of sibship size. The known correlation of high birth order with low SES suggests that selection bias related to SES may be responsible for the association between birth order and NHL.
Project description:In an International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium pooled analysis, polymorphisms in 2 immune-system-related genes, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-10 (IL10), were associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. Here, 8,847 participants were added to previous data (patients diagnosed from 1989 to 2005 in 14 case-control studies; 7,999 cases, 8,452 controls) for testing of polymorphisms in the TNF -308G>A (rs1800629), lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) 252A>G (rs909253), IL10 -3575T>A (rs1800890, rs1800896), and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2) 3020insC (rs2066847) genes. Odds ratios were estimated for non-Hispanic whites and several ethnic subgroups using 2-sided tests. Consistent with previous findings, odds ratios were increased for "new" participant TNF -308A carriers (NHL: per-allele odds ratio (OR(allelic)) = 1.10, P(trend) = 0.001; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): OR(allelic) = 1.23, P(trend) = 0.004). In the combined population, odds ratios were increased for TNF -308A carriers (NHL: OR(allelic) = 1.13, P(trend) = 0.0001; DLBCL: OR(allelic) = 1.25, P(trend) = 3.7 x 10(-6); marginal zone lymphoma: OR(allelic) = 1.35, P(trend) = 0.004) and LTA 252G carriers (DLBCL: OR(allelic) = 1.12, P(trend) = 0.006; mycosis fungoides: OR(allelic) = 1.44, P(trend) = 0.015). The LTA 252A>G/TNF -308G>A haplotype containing the LTA/TNF variant alleles was strongly associated with DLBCL (P = 2.9 x 10(-8)). Results suggested associations between IL10 -3575T>A and DLBCL (P(trend) = 0.02) and IL10 -1082A>G and mantle cell lymphoma (P(trend) = 0.04). These findings strengthen previous results for DLBCL and the LTA 252A>G/TNF -308A locus and provide robust evidence that these TNF/LTA gene variants, or others in linkage disequilibrium, are involved in NHL etiology.
Project description:Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a cancer closely associated with immune function, and the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) G-308A promoter polymorphism, which influences immune function and regulation, was recently reported by the InterLymph Consortium to be associated with NHL risk. TNF signaling activates the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) canonical pathway, leading to transcriptional activation of multiple genes that influence inflammation and immune response. We hypothesized that, in addition to TNF signaling, common genetic variation in genes from the NF-kappaB canonical pathway may affect risk of NHL. We genotyped 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within TNF, lymphotoxin A LTA, and nine NF-kappaB genes from the canonical pathway (TNFRSF1A, TRADD, TRAF2, TRAF5, RIPK1, CHUK, IKBKB, NFKB1, and REL) in a clinic-based study of 441 incident cases and 475 frequency-matched controls. Tagging SNPs were selected from HapMap supplemented by putative functional SNPs for LTA/TNF. We used principal components and haplo.stats to model gene-level associations and logistic regression to model SNP-level associations. Compared with the wild-type (GG), the AA genotype for the TNF promoter polymorphism G-308A (rs1800629) was associated with increased risk of NHL [odds ratio (OR), 2.14; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.94-4.85], whereas the GA genotype was not (OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.74-1.34). This association was similar for follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A previously reported LTA/TNF haplotype was also associated with NHL risk. In gene-level analysis of the NF-kappaB pathway, only NFKB1 showed a statistically significant association with NHL (P = 0.049), and one NFKB1 tagSNP (rs4648022) was associated with NHL risk overall (ordinal OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.41-0.84; Ptrend = 0.0037) and for each of the common subtypes. In conclusion, we provide additional evidence for the role of genetic variation in TNF and LTA SNPs and haplotypes with risk of NHL and also provide some of the first preliminary evidence for an association of genetic variation in NFKB1, a downstream target of TNF signaling, with risk of NHL.
Project description:PURPOSE:To provide a comprehensive account of the association of five Lymphotoxin-? (LTA) gene polymorphisms (rs1041981, rs2229094, rs2239704, rs746868, rs909253) with susceptibility to cancer. METHODS:A literature search for eligible candidate gene studies published before 28 February 2020 was conducted in the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar and Web of Science. The following combinations of main keywords were used: (LTA OR Lymphotoxin alpha OR TNF-? OR tumor necrosis factor-beta) AND (polymorphism OR mutation OR variation OR SNP OR genotype) AND (cancer OR tumor OR neoplasm OR malignancy OR carcinoma OR adenocarcinoma). Potential sources of heterogeneity were sought out via subgroup and sensitivity analysis, and publication bias were estimated. RESULTS:Overall, a total of 24 articles with 24577 cases and 33351 controls for five polymorphisms of LTA gene were enrolled. We identified that rs2239704 was associated with a reduced risk of cancer. While for other polymorphisms, the results showed no significant association with cancer risk. In the stratified analysis of rs1041981, we found that Asians might have less susceptibility to cancer. At the same time, we found that rs2239704 was negatively correlated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). While, for rs909253, an increased risk of cancer for Caucasians and HCC susceptibility were uncovered in the stratified analysis of by ethnicity and cancer type. CONCLUSION:LTA rs2239704 polymorphism is inversely associated with the risk of cancer. LTA rs1041981 polymorphism is negatively associated with cancer risk in Asia. While, LTA rs909253 polymorphism is a risk factor for HCC in Caucasian population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) comprises biologically and clinically heterogeneous subtypes. Previously, study size has limited the ability to compare and contrast the risk factor profiles among these heterogeneous subtypes.<h4>Methods</h4>We pooled individual-level data from 17 471 NHL cases and 23 096 controls in 20 case-control studies from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph). We estimated the associations, measured as odds ratios, between each of 11 NHL subtypes and self-reported medical history, family history of hematologic malignancy, lifestyle factors, and occupation. We then assessed the heterogeneity of associations by evaluating the variability (Q value) of the estimated odds ratios for a given exposure among subtypes. Finally, we organized the subtypes into a hierarchical tree to identify groups that had similar risk factor profiles. Statistical significance of tree partitions was estimated by permutation-based P values (P NODE).<h4>Results</h4>Risks differed statistically significantly among NHL subtypes for medical history factors (autoimmune diseases, hepatitis C virus seropositivity, eczema, and blood transfusion), family history of leukemia and multiple myeloma, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and certain occupations, whereas generally homogeneous risks among subtypes were observed for family history of NHL, recreational sun exposure, hay fever, allergy, and socioeconomic status. Overall, the greatest difference in risk factors occurred between T-cell and B-cell lymphomas (P NODE < 1.0×10(-4)), with increased risks generally restricted to T-cell lymphomas for eczema, T-cell-activating autoimmune diseases, family history of multiple myeloma, and occupation as a painter. We further observed substantial heterogeneity among B-cell lymphomas (P NODE < 1.0×10(-4)). Increased risks for B-cell-activating autoimmune disease and hepatitis C virus seropositivity and decreased risks for alcohol consumption and occupation as a teacher generally were restricted to marginal zone lymphoma, Burkitt/Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and/or lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Using a novel approach to investigate etiologic heterogeneity among NHL subtypes, we identified risk factors that were common among subtypes as well as risk factors that appeared to be distinct among individual or a few subtypes, suggesting both subtype-specific and shared underlying mechanisms. Further research is needed to test putative mechanisms, investigate other risk factors (eg, other infections, environmental exposures, and diet), and evaluate potential joint effects with genetic susceptibility.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We hypothesized that carriage of presumably high Hsp70-producing gene variants on a specific human major histocompatibility complex haplotype, the 8.1 ancestral haplotype (8.1AH), may predispose HIV-infected individuals to AIDS-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). SETTING:We compared serum Hsp70 levels in the years preceding the diagnosis of AIDS-NHL in a matched case-control study (n = 151 pairs) nested in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. METHODS:We tested the impact of 8.1AH-specific single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and joint SNP-human leukocyte antigen extended haplotypes previously associated with AIDS-NHL in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study on the circulating Hsp70 levels in mixed linear models. RESULTS:We report elevated serum levels of Hsp70 in the 4 years preceding the diagnosis of AIDS-NHL in cases that carry 8.1AH, but not in noncarrier cases and not in carrier- or non-carrier-matched controls. The strongest predictor of higher serum Hsp70 was the haplotype A-G-A-C formed by SNPs rs537160(A) and rs1270942(G) in the complement factor CFB gene cluster, and rs2072633(A) and rs6467(C) in nearby RDBP and CYP21A2 located 70 Kb apart from the Hsp70 gene cluster. The association with A-G-A-C haplotype (beta = 0.718; standard error = 0.182; P = 0.0002) and with other 8.1AH-specific haplotypes including the high-producing tumor necrosis factor-alpha haplotype rs909253(G)-rs1800629(A) (beta = 0.308; standard error = 0.140; P = 0.032) were observed only with NHL identified as an AIDS-defining condition, but not as a post-AIDS condition, nor in combined AIDS and post-AIDS cases. CONCLUSION:Our combined genetic and functional approach suggests that the altered level of Hsp70 is a correlate of 8.1AH-mediated AIDS-NHL. Further investigation of the Hsp70 gene cluster and nearby loci that are tagged by A-G-A-C could better elucidate the genetic determinants of the malignancy.
Project description:PURPOSE:To conduct a pooled analysis assessing the association of blood transfusion with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). METHODS:We used harmonized data from 13 case-control studies (10,805 cases, 14,026 controls) in the InterLymph Consortium. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for study design variables. RESULTS:Among non-Hispanic whites (NHW), history of any transfusion was inversely associated with NHL risk for men (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.65-0.83) but not women (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.83-1.03), pheterogeneity?=?0.014. Transfusion history was not associated with risk in other racial/ethnic groups. There was no trend with the number of transfusions, time since first transfusion, age at first transfusion, or decade of first transfusion, and further adjustment for socioeconomic status, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, and HCV seropositivity did not alter the results. Associations for NHW men were stronger in hospital-based (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.45-0.70) but still apparent in population-based (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.72-0.98) studies. CONCLUSIONS:In the setting of a literature reporting mainly null and some positive associations, and the lack of a clear methodologic explanation for our inverse association restricted to NHW men, the current body of evidence suggests that there is no association of blood transfusion with risk of NHL.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adjacent genes, lymphotoxin alpha (LTA +252G, rs909253 A>G) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF -308A, rs1800629 G>A), form the G-A haplotype repeatedly associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in individuals uninfected with HIV-1. This association has been observed alone or in combination with human leukocyte antigens HLA-B*08 or HLA-DRB1*03 in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Which gene variant on this highly conserved extended haplotype (CEH 8.1) in whites most likely represents a true etiologic factor remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to determine whether the reported association of the G-A haplotype of LTA-TNF with non-AIDS NHL also occurs with AIDS-related NHL. METHODS:SNPs in LTA and TNF and in 6 other genes nearby were typed in 140 non-Hispanic European American pairs of AIDS-NHL cases and matched controls selected from HIV-infected men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. RESULTS:The G-A haplotype and a 4-SNP haplotype in the neighboring gene cluster (rs537160 (A) rs1270942 (G), rs2072633 (A), and rs6467 (C)) were associated with AIDS-NHL (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 4.8, P = 0.0009; and odds ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.6 to 6.6, P = 0.0008; respectively). These 2 haplotypes occur in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other on CEH 8.1. CONCLUSION:The CEH 8.1-specific haplotype association of MHC class III variants with AIDS-NHL closely resembles that observed for non-AIDS NHL. Corroboration of an MHC determinant of AIDS and non-AIDS NHL alike would imply an important pathogenetic mechanism common to both.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Excess adiposity has been associated with lymphomagenesis, possibly mediated by increased cytokine production causing a chronic inflammatory state. The relationship between obesity, cytokine polymorphisms, and selected mature B-cell neoplasms is reported. METHOD:Data on 4,979 cases and 4,752 controls from nine American/European studies from the InterLymph consortium (1988-2008) were pooled. For diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), joint associations of body mass index (from self-reported height and weight) and 12 polymorphisms in cytokines IL1A (rs1800587), IL1B (rs16944, rs1143627), IL1RN (rs454078), IL2 (rs2069762), IL6 (rs1800795, rs1800797), IL10 (rs1800890, rs1800896), TNF (rs1800629), LTA (rs909253), and CARD15 (rs2066847) were investigated using unconditional logistic regression. BMI-polymorphism interaction effects were estimated using the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). RESULTS:Obesity (BMI ? 30 kg/m(2)) was associated with DLBCL risk [OR = 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.73], as was TNF-308GA+AA (OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07-1.44). Together, being obese and TNF-308GA+AA increased DLBCL risk almost 2-fold relative to those of normal weight and TNF-308GG (OR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.27-2.94), with a RERI of 0.41 (95% CI, -0.05-0.84; Pinteraction = 0.13). For FL and CLL/SLL, no associations with obesity or TNF-308GA+AA, either singly or jointly, were observed. No evidence of interactions between obesity and the other polymorphisms were detected. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that cytokine polymorphisms do not generally interact with BMI to increase lymphoma risk but obesity and TNF-308GA+AA may interact to increase DLBCL risk. IMPACT:Studies using better measures of adiposity are needed to further investigate the interactions between obesity and TNF-308G>A in the pathogenesis of lymphoma.