The common African American polymorphism SCN5A-S1103Y interacts with mutation SCN5A-R680H to increase late Na current.
ABSTRACT: The common polymorphism SCN5A-S1103Y (?13% allelic frequency in African Americans) is a risk factor for arrhythmia, sudden unexplained death (SUD), and sudden infant death syndrome. Prompted by a case of autopsy-negative SUD in a 23-year-old African American man who collapsed while playing football, we hypothesized that S1103Y interacted with other SCN5A variants to pathologically modify sodium current (I(Na)). Mutational analysis of arrhythmia-associated genes in the victim revealed the variants SCN5A-R680H and SCN5A-S1103Y. These variants were made both separately and in the same cDNA construct of the alternative splice variant backgrounds (SCN5A-Q1077del and Q1077) and expressed in HEK293 cells. In the most abundant SCN5A-Q1077del, late I(Na) for S1103Y alone was not significantly different from wild type (WT). However, late I(Na) for R680H, R680H+S1103Y (coexpressed), and R680H/S1103Y (on the same cDNA) was increased 2.1-, 3.4-, and 3.6-fold, respectively, compared with WT. Intracellular acidosis (pH 6.7) increased late I(Na) for S1103Y, R680H, R680H+S1103Y, and R680H/S1103Y by 2.2-, 2.4-, 5.0-, and 5.5-fold, respectively, compared with WT at pH 6.7. Expression in the less abundant SCN5A-Q1077 showed no increased late I(Na). This is the initial report of a functional interaction for the common polymorphism S1103Y with another mutation in the major transcript Q1077del of SCN5A. The "double hit" and environmental factor of acidosis may have converged to cause arrhythmic sudden death in this case.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>SCN5A is a susceptibility gene for type 3 long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, and sudden infant death syndrome. INa dysfunction from mutated SCN5A can depend upon the splice variant background in which it is expressed and also upon environmental factors such as acidosis. S1787N was reported previously as a LQT3-associated mutation and has also been observed in 1 of 295 healthy white controls. Here, we determined the in vitro biophysical phenotype of SCN5A-S1787N in an effort to further assess its possible pathogenicity.<h4>Methods and results</h4>We engineered S1787N in the two most common alternatively spliced SCN5A isoforms, the major isoform lacking a glutamine at position 1077 (Q1077del) and the minor isoform containing Q1077, and expressed these two engineered constructs in HEK293 cells for electrophysiological study. Macroscopic voltage-gated INa was measured 24 hours after transfection with standard whole-cell patch clamp techniques. We applied intracellular solutions with pH7.4 or pH6.7. S1787N in the Q1077 background had WT-like INa including peak INa density, activation and inactivation parameters, and late INa amplitude in both pH 7.4 and pH 6.7. However, with S1787N in the Q1077del background, the percentages of INa late/peak were increased by 2.1 fold in pH 7.4 and by 2.9 fold in pH 6.7 when compared to WT.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The LQT3-like biophysical phenotype for S1787N depends on both the SCN5A splice variant and on the intracellular pH. These findings provide further evidence that the splice variant and environmental factors affect the molecular phenotype of cardiac SCN5A-encoded sodium channel (Nav1.5), has implications for the clinical phenotype, and may provide insight into acidosis-induced arrhythmia mechanisms.
Project description:Thousands die each year from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Neither the cause nor basis for varied prevalence in different populations is understood. While 2 cases have been associated with mutations in type Valpha, cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels (SCN5A), the "Back to Sleep" campaign has decreased SIDS prevalence, consistent with a role for environmental influences in disease pathogenesis. Here we studied SCN5A in African Americans. Three of 133 SIDS cases were homozygous for the variant S1103Y. Among controls, 120 of 1,056 were carriers of the heterozygous genotype, which was previously associated with increased risk for arrhythmia in adults. This suggests that infants with 2 copies of S1103Y have a 24-fold increased risk for SIDS. Variant Y1103 channels were found to operate normally under baseline conditions in vitro. As risk factors for SIDS include apnea and respiratory acidosis, Y1103 and wild-type channels were subjected to lowered intracellular pH. Only Y1103 channels gained abnormal function, demonstrating late reopenings suppressible by the drug mexiletine. The variant appeared to confer susceptibility to acidosis-induced arrhythmia, a gene-environment interaction. Overall, homozygous and rare heterozygous SCN5A missense variants were found in approximately 5% of cases. If our findings are replicated, prospective genetic testing of SIDS cases and screening with counseling for at-risk families warrant consideration.
Project description:<i><b>Background</b></i> : Mutations in SCN5A that decrease Na current underlie arrhythmia syndromes such as the Brugada syndrome (BrS). <i>SCN5A</i> in humans has two splice variants, one lacking a glutamine at position 1077 (Q1077del) and one containing Q1077. We investigated the effect of splice variant background on loss-of-function and rescue for R1512W, a mutation reported to cause BrS. <i><b>Methods and results</b></i> : We made the mutation in both variants and expressed them in HEK-293 cells for voltage-clamp study. After 24 hours of transfection, the current expression level of R1512W was reduced by ~50% in both Q1077del and Q1077 compared to the wild-type (WT) channel, respectively. The activation and inactivation midpoint were not different between WT and mutant channels in both splice variant backgrounds. However, slower time constants of recovery and enhanced intermediate inactivation were observed for R1512W/Q1077 compared with WT-Q1077, while the recovery and intermediate inactivation parameters of R1512W/Q1077del were similar to WT-Q1077del. Furthermore, both mexiletine and the common polymorphism H558R restored peak sodium current (<i>I</i> <sub>Na</sub>) amplitude of the mutant channel by increasing the cell surface expression of SCN5A. <i><b>Conclusion</b></i> : These findings provide further evidence that the splice variant affects the molecular phenotype with implications for the clinical phenotype, and they provide insight into the expression defect mechanisms and potential treatment in BrS.
Project description:Considering that approximately 2% of Caucasian controls host rare, nonsynonymous variants in the SCN5A-encoded cardiac sodium channel, caution must be exercised when interpreting SCN5A genetic test results for long QT syndrome (LQTS).The purpose of this study was to determine if A572D-SCN5A is a pathogenic mutation, a possible functional modifier, or background "genetic noise."The frequency of A572D was compared between 3,741 LQTS referral cases (mostly Caucasian) and 1,437 Caucasian controls. A572D-SCN5A was engineered into SCN5A using the most commonly spliced transcript (Q1077del, hH1c clone) in the setting of either H558 or R558 for heterologous expression/patch clamp studies in HEK293 cells.A572D-SCN5A was detected in 17 (0.45%) of 3,741 cases compared with 7 (0.49%) of 1,437 controls (P = .82). Among the 17 A572D-positive LQTS referrals, 10 (59%) hosted definite LQTS-causing mutations elsewhere (5 KCNQ1, 3 KCNH2, 2 SCN5A). Functional studies showed no gating kinetic or current density differences compared with wild-type channels in the context of H558 but showed moderate dysfunction when expressed in H558R-SCN5A, with which it is invariably associated.There is sufficient evidence to conclude that A572D-SCN5A is not an independent, LQT3-causative mutation. A572D is present in approximately 0.5% of both cases and controls and has a wild-type phenotype when expressed in HEK293 cells. However, in the context of H558R-SCN5A, persistent late sodium current emerges, indicating that A572D/H558R could be a proarrhythmic factor akin to S1103Y. These findings underscore the scrutiny necessary to distinguish truly pathogenic mutations from functional polymorphisms and otherwise innocuous, rare genetic variants in SCN5A. These results also question how much cellular dysfunction for a mutation is required in vitro to support pathogenicity.
Project description:Obtaining functional data with newly identified rare variants increases certainty that the variant identified is relevant for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) causation. Two novel SCN5A rare variants, R222Q and I1835T, segregated with DCM in two families with affected individuals homozygous or heterozygous for the common SCN5A polymorphism H558R. cDNAs with each rare variant were constructed in the common Q1077del or Q1077 splice variant backgrounds with and without the H558R polymorphism and expressed in HEK293 cells. Sodium current (I(Na) ) was studied for each using whole-cell voltage clamp. In the Q1077del background I(Na) densities of R222Q and I1835T were not different from wild type, but the combined variants of R222Q/H558R, I1835T/H558R caused approximately 35% and approximately 30% reduction, respectively, and each showed slower recovery from inactivation. In the Q1077del background R222Q and R222Q/H558R also exhibited a significant negative shift in both activation and inactivation while I1835T/H558R showed a significant negative shift in inactivation that tended to decrease window current. In contrast, expression in the Q1077 background showed no changes in peak I(Na) densities, decay, or recovery from inactivation for R222Q/H558R and I1835T/H558R. We conclude that the biophysical findings, dependent upon common SCN5A variants, provide further evidence that these novel SCN5A rare variants are relevant for DCM.
Project description:Mutations in CAV3-encoding caveolin-3 (Cav3) have been implicated in type 9 long QT syndrome (LQT9) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). When co-expressed with SCN5A-encoded cardiac sodium channels these mutations increased late sodium current (INa) but the mechanism was unclear. The present study was designed to address the mechanism by which the LQT9-causing mutant Cav3-F97C affects the function of caveolar SCN5A.HEK-293 cells expressing SCN5A and LQT9 mutation Cav3-F97C resulted in a 2-fold increase in late INa compared to Cav3-WT. This increase was reversed by the neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor L-NMMA. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that an nNOS complex mediated the effect of Cav3 on SCN5A. A SCN5A macromolecular complex was established in HEK-293 cells by transiently expressing SCN5A, ?1-syntrophin (SNTA1), nNOS, and Cav3. Compared with Cav3-WT, Cav3-F97C produced significantly larger peak INa amplitudes, and showed 3.3-fold increase in the late INa associated with increased S-nitrosylation of SCN5A. L-NMMA reversed both the Cav3-F97C induced increase in late and peak INa and decreased S-nitrosylation of SCN5A. Overexpression of Cav3-F97C in adult rat cardiomyocytes caused a significant increase in late INa compared to Cav3-WT, and prolonged the action potential duration (APD90) in a nNOS-dependent manner.Cav3 is identified as an important negative regulator for cardiac late INa via nNOS dependent direct S-nitrosylation of SCN5A. This provides a molecular mechanism for how Cav3 mutations increase late INa to cause LQT9. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Na(+) Regulation in Cardiac Myocytes".
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We examined the association of rs7626962 (S1103Y) or rs7629265, a variant in high linkage disequilibrium with S1103Y (r(2) = 0.87 - 1), with sudden cardiac death (SCD) and atrial fibrillation (AF) among African Americans. BACKGROUND:The SCN5A missense variant S1103Y has been associated with SCD among African Americans in small case-control studies, but larger population-based studies are needed to validate these findings. The association of this variant with AF has not been fully explored. METHODS:Using genotyping data on over 7,000 African Americans from 5 cohorts (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities [ARIC], Cleveland Family Study [CFS], Jackson Heart Study [JHS], Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA], Cardiovascular Health Study [CHS]), we examined the association of rs7629265 with electrocardiographic PR, QRS, and QT intervals, and with incident AF and SCD. We examined association of S1103Y (rs7626962) with SCD using a population-based case-control study of SCD Cardiac Arrest Blood Study (CABS). RESULTS:Meta-analyses across 5 cohorts demonstrated that rs7629265 was significantly associated with PR duration (? = -4.1 milliseconds; P = 2.2×10(-6) ), but not significantly associated with QRS or QT intervals. In meta-analyses of prospectively followed ARIC and CHS participants (n = 3,656), rs7629265 was associated with increased AF risk (n = 299 AF cases; HR = 1.74, P = 1.9 × 10(-4) ). By contrast, rs7629265 was not significantly associated with SCD risk in ARIC (n = 83 SCD cases; P = 0.30) or CHS (n = 54 SCD cases; P = 0.47). Similarly, S1103Y was not significantly associated with SCD risk in CABS (n = 225 SCD cases; P = 0.29). CONCLUSION:The common SCN5A variant, rs7629265, is associated with increased AF risk and shorter PR interval among African Americans. In contrast to prior reports, we found no evidence of association of rs7629265 or rs7626962 (S1103Y) with SCD risk in the general population.
Project description:Increasing evidence observed in clinical phenotypes show that abrupt breathing disorders during sleep may play an important role in the pathogenesis of sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS). The reported Brugada syndrome causing mutation R1512W in cardiac sodium channel ? subunit encoded gene SCN5A, without obvious loss of function of cardiac sodium channel in previous in vitro study, was identified as the first genetic cause of Chinese SUNDS by us. The R1512W carrier was a 38-year-old male SUNDS victim who died suddenly after tachypnea in nocturnal sleep without any structural heart disease. To test our hypothesis that slight acidosis conditions may contribute to the significant loss of function of mutant cardiac sodium channels underlying SUNDS, the biophysical characterization of SCN5A mutation R1512W was performed under both extracellular and intracellular slight acidosis at pH 7.0. The cDNA of R1512W was created using site-directed mutagenesis methods in the pcDNA3 plasmid vector. The wild type (WT) or mutant cardiac sodium channel R1512W was transiently transfected into HEK293 cells. Macroscopic voltage-gated sodium current (INa) was measured 24?hours after transfection with the whole-cell patch clamp method at room temperature in the HEK293 cells. Under the baseline conditions at pH 7.4, R1512W (-175?±?15?pA/pF) showed about 30% of reduction in peak INa compared to WT (-254?±?23?pA/pF, P?<?0.05). Under the acidosis condition at pH 7.0, R1512W (-130?±?17?pA/pF) significantly decreased the peak INa by nearly 50% compared to WT (-243?±?23?pA/pF, P?<?0.005). Compared to baseline condition at pH 7.4, the acidosis at pH 7.0 did not affect the peak INa in WT (P?>?0.05) but decreased peak INa in R1512W (P?<?0.05). This initial functional study for SCN5A mutation in the Chinese SUNDS victim revealed that the acidosis aggravated the loss of function of mutant channel R1512W and suggested that nocturnal sleep disorders-associated slight acidosis may trigger the lethal arrhythmia underlying the sudden death of SUNDS cases in the setting of genetic defect.
Project description:Angiotensin II (ANG II) increases oxidative stress and is associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death. The cardiac Na(+) channel promoter contains elements that confer redox sensitivity. We tested the hypothesis that ANG II-mediated oxidative stress may modulate Na(+) channel current through altering channel transcription. In H9c2 myocytes treated for 48 h with ANG II (100 nmol/l) or H(2)O(2) (10 micromol/l) showed delayed macroscopic inactivation, increased late current, and 59.6% and 53.8% reductions in Na(+) current, respectively (P < or = 0.01). By quantitative real-time RT-PCR, the cardiac Na(+) channel (scn5a) mRNA abundance declined by 47.3% (P < 0.01) in H9c2 myocytes treated for 48 h with 100 nmol/l ANG II. A similar change occurred with 20 micromol/l H(2)O(2) (46.9%, P < 0.01) after 48 h. Comparable effects were seen in acutely isolated ventricular myocytes. The effects of ANG II could be inhibited by prior treatment of H9c2 cells with scavengers of reactive oxygen species or an inhibitor of the NADPH oxidase. Mutation of the scn5a promoter NF-kappaB binding site prevented decreased activity in response to ANG II and H(2)O(2). Gel shift and chromosomal immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB bound to the scn5a promoter in response to ANG II and H(2)O(2). Overexpression of the p50 subunit of NF-kappaB in H9c2 cells reduced scn5a mRNA (77.3%, P < 0.01). In conclusion, ANG II can decrease scn5a transcription and current. This effect appears to be through production of H(2)O(2) resulting in NF-kappaB binding to the Na(+) channel promoter.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Up to 30% of patients with Brugada syndrome (BrS) carry loss-of-function (LoF) variants in the cardiac sodium channel gene SCN5A encoding for the protein Na<sub>V</sub>1.5. Recent studies suggested that Na<sub>V</sub>1.5 can dimerize, and some variants exert dominant negative effects. In this study, we sought to explore the generality of missense variant Na<sub>V</sub>1.5 dominant negative effects and their clinical severity.<h4>Methods</h4>We identified 35 LoF variants (<10% of wild type [WT] peak current) and 15 partial LoF variants (10%-50% of WT peak current) that we assessed for dominant negative effects. SCN5A variants were studied in HEK293T cells, alone or in heterozygous coexpression with WT SCN5A using automated patch clamp. To assess the clinical risk, we compared the prevalence of dominant negative vs putative haploinsufficient (frameshift, splice, or nonsense) variants in a BrS consortium and the Genome Aggregation Database population database.<h4>Results</h4>In heterozygous expression with WT, 32 of 35 LoF and 6 of 15 partial LoF variants showed reduction to <75% of WT-alone peak current, showing a dominant negative effect. Individuals with dominant negative LoF variants had an elevated disease burden compared with the individuals with putative haploinsufficient variants (2.7-fold enrichment in BrS cases, P = .019).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Most SCN5A missense LoF variants exert a dominant negative effect. This class of variant confers an especially high burden of BrS.