Nedd4-mediated AMPA receptor ubiquitination regulates receptor turnover and trafficking.
ABSTRACT: ?-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors (AMPARs) are the primary mediators of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. Alterations in AMPAR localization and turnover have been considered critical mechanisms underpinning synaptic plasticity and higher brain functions, but the molecular processes that control AMPAR trafficking and stability are still not fully understood. Here, we report that mammalian AMPARs are subject to ubiquitination in neurons and in transfected heterologous cells. Ubiquitination facilitates AMPAR endocytosis, leading to a reduction in AMPAR cell-surface localization and total receptor abundance. Mutation of lysine residues to arginine residues at the glutamate receptor subunit 1 (GluA1) C-terminus dramatically reduces GluA1 ubiquitination and abolishes ubiquitin-dependent GluA1 internalization and degradation, indicating that the lysine residues, particularly K868, are sites of ubiquitination. We also find that the E3 ligase neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 4 (Nedd4) is enriched in synaptosomes and co-localizes and associates with AMPARs in neurons. Nedd4 expression leads to AMPAR ubiquitination, leading to reduced AMPAR surface expression and suppressed excitatory synaptic transmission. Conversely, knockdown of Nedd4 by specific siRNAs abolishes AMPAR ubiquitination. These data indicate that Nedd4 is the E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for AMPAR ubiquitination, a modification that regulates multiple aspects of AMPAR molecular biology including trafficking, localization and stability.
Project description:AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission and are crucial for synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. However, the molecular control of AMPAR stability and its neurophysiological significance remain unclear. Here, we report that AMPARs are subject to lysine acetylation at their C termini. Acetylation reduces AMPAR internalization and degradation, leading to increased cell-surface localization and prolonged receptor half-life. Through competition for the same lysine residues, acetylation intensity is inversely related to the levels of AMPAR ubiquitination. We find that sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) acts as an AMPAR deacetylase regulating AMPAR trafficking and proteostasis. SIRT2 knockout mice (Sirt2-/-) show marked upregulation in AMPAR acetylation and protein accumulation. Both Sirt2-/- mice and mice expressing acetylation mimetic GluA1 show aberrant synaptic plasticity, accompanied by impaired learning and memory. These findings establish SIRT2-regulated lysine acetylation as a form of AMPAR post-translational modification that regulates its turnover, as well as synaptic plasticity and cognitive function.
Project description:Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPARs) are the primary mediators for inter-neuronal communication and play a crucial role in higher brain functions including learning and memory. Our previous work demonstrated that AMPARs are subject to ubiquitination by the E3 ligase Nedd4, resulting in EPS15-mediated receptor internalization and Ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome pathway (UPP)-dependent degradation. Protein ubiquitination is a highly dynamic and reversible process, achieved via the balance between ubiquitination and deubiquitination. However, deubiquitination of mammalian AMPARs and the responsible deubiquitinating enzymes remain elusive. In this study, we identify USP46 as the deubiquitinating enzyme for AMPARs. We find that AMPARs are subject to K63 type ubiquitination, and USP46 is able to deubiquitinate AMPARs in vivo and in vitro. In heterologous cells and neurons, expression of USP46 results in a significant reduction in AMPAR ubiquitination, accompanied by a reduced rate in AMPAR degradation and an increase in surface AMPAR accumulation. By contrast, knockdown of USP46 by RNAi leads to elevated AMPAR ubiquitination and a reduction in surface AMPARs at synapses in neurons. Consistently, miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents recordings show reduced synaptic strength in neurons expressing USP46-selective RNAi. These results demonstrate USP46-mediated regulation of AMPAR ubiquitination and turnover, which may play an important role in synaptic plasticity and brain function. Protein ubiquitination is a highly dynamic and reversible process, achieved via the balance between ubiquitination and deubiquitination. The glutamatergic AMPARs, which mediate most of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain, are known to be subjected to Nedd4-mediated ubiquitination; however, the deubiquitination process and the responsible deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) for mammalian AMPARs remain elusive. We find that AMPARs are subject to K63-type ubiquitination, and identify USP46 as the DUB for AMPARs. USP46 deubiquitinates AMPARs in vitro and in vivo. Up- or down-regulation of USP46 leads to changes in AMPAR ubiquitination, surface expression, and trafficking, as well as the strength of synaptic transmission. USP46-mediated regulation of AMPAR ubiquitination and turnover may play an important role in synaptic plasticity and brain function.
Project description:The accurate trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) to and from the synapse is a critical component of learning and memory in the brain, whereas dysfunction of AMPAR trafficking is hypothesized to be an underlying mechanism of Alzheimer's disease. Previous work has shown that ubiquitination of integral membrane proteins is a common posttranslational modification used to mediate endocytosis and endocytic sorting of surface proteins in eukaryotic cells. Here we report that mammalian AMPARs become ubiquitinated in response to their activation. Using a mutant of GluA1 that is unable to be ubiquitinated at lysines on its C-terminus, we demonstrate that ubiquitination is required for internalization of surface AMPARs and their trafficking to the lysosome in response to the AMPAR agonist AMPA but not for internalization of AMPARs in response to the NMDA receptor agonist NMDA. Through overexpression or RNA interference-mediated knockdown, we identify that a specific E3 ligase, Nedd4-1 (neural-precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated gene 4-1), is necessary for this process. Finally, we show that ubiquitination of GluA1 by Nedd4-1 becomes more prevalent as neurons mature. Together, these data show that ubiquitination of GluA1-containing AMPARs by Nedd4-1 mediates their endocytosis and trafficking to the lysosome. Furthermore, these results provide insight into how hippocampal neurons regulate AMPAR trafficking and degradation with high specificity in response to differing neuronal signaling cues and suggest that changes to this pathway may occur as neurons mature.
Project description:Ca2+-permeable AMPA-type glutamate receptors (CP-AMPARs) containing GluA1 but lacking GluA2 subunits contribute to multiple forms of synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP), but mechanisms regulating CP-AMPARs are poorly understood. A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) 150 scaffolds kinases and phosphatases to regulate GluA1 phosphorylation and trafficking, and trafficking of AKAP150 itself is modulated by palmitoylation on two Cys residues. Here, we developed a palmitoylation-deficient knockin mouse to show that AKAP150 palmitoylation regulates CP-AMPAR incorporation at hippocampal synapses. Using biochemical, super-resolution imaging, and electrophysiological approaches, we found that palmitoylation promotes AKAP150 localization to recycling endosomes and the postsynaptic density (PSD) to limit CP-AMPAR basal synaptic incorporation. In addition, we found that AKAP150 palmitoylation is required for LTP induced by weaker stimulation that recruits CP-AMPARs to synapses but not stronger stimulation that recruits GluA2-containing AMPARs. Thus, AKAP150 palmitoylation controls its subcellular localization to maintain proper basal and activity-dependent regulation of synaptic AMPAR subunit composition.
Project description:The ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) are major excitatory receptors that mediate fast neurotransmission in the mammalian brain. The surface expression of functional AMPARs is crucial for synaptic transmission and plasticity. AMPAR auxiliary subunits control the biosynthesis, membrane trafficking, and synaptic targeting of AMPARs. Our previous report showed that ?/?-hydrolase domain-containing 6 (ABHD6), an auxiliary subunit for AMPARs, suppresses the membrane delivery and function of GluA1-containing receptors in both heterologous cells and neurons. However, it remained unclear whether ABHD6 affects the membrane trafficking of glutamate receptor subunits, GluA2 and GluA3. Here, we examine the effects of ABHD6 overexpression in HEK293T cells expressing GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and stargazin, either alone or in combination. The results show that ABHD6 suppresses the glutamate-induced currents and the membrane expression of AMPARs when expressing GluA2 or GluA3 in the HEK293T cells. We generated a series of GluA2 and GluA3 C-terminal deletion constructs and confirm that the C-terminus of GluAs is required for ABHD6's inhibitory effects on glutamate-induced currents and surface expression of GluAs. Meanwhile, our pull-down experiments reveal that ABHD6 binds to GluA1-3, and deletion of the C-terminal domain of GluAs abolishes this binding. These findings demonstrate that ABHD6 inhibits the AMPAR-mediated currents and its surface expression, independent of the type of AMPAR subunits, and this inhibitor's effects are mediated through the binding with the GluAs C-terminal regions.
Project description:The accumulation of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) at synapses is essential for excitatory synaptic transmission. However, the mechanisms underlying synaptic targeting of AMPARs remain elusive. We have now used a molecular replacement approach on an AMPAR-null background to investigate the targeting mechanisms necessary for regulating AMPAR trafficking in the hippocampus. Although there is an extensive literature on the role of the GluA1 C-tail in AMPAR trafficking, there is no effect of overexpressing the C-tail on basal transmission. Instead, we found that the first intracellular loop domain (Loop1) of GluA1, a previously overlooked region within AMPARs, is critical for receptor targeting to synapses, but not for delivery of receptors to the plasma membrane. We also identified a CaMKII phosphorylation site (S567) in the GluA1 Loop1, which is phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we show that S567 is a key residue that regulates Loop1-mediated AMPAR trafficking. Thus, our study reveals a unique mechanism for targeting AMPARs to synapses to mediate synaptic transmission.
Project description:The structural and functional plasticity of synapses is critical for learning and memory. Long-term potentiation (LTP) induction promotes spine growth and AMPAR accumulation at excitatory synapses, leading to increased synaptic strength. Glutamate initiates these processes, but the contribution from extracellular modulators is not fully established. Wnts are required for spine formation; however, their impact on activity-mediated spine plasticity and AMPAR localization is unknown. We found that LTP induction rapidly increased synaptic Wnt7a/b protein levels. Acute blockade of endogenous Wnts or loss of postsynaptic Frizzled-7 (Fz7) receptors impaired LTP-mediated synaptic strength, spine growth, and AMPAR localization at synapses. Live imaging of SEP-GluA1 and single-particle tracking revealed that Wnt7a rapidly promoted synaptic AMPAR recruitment and trapping. Wnt7a, through Fz7, induced CaMKII-dependent loss of SynGAP from spines and increased extrasynaptic AMPARs by PKA phosphorylation. We identify a critical role for Wnt-Fz7 signaling in LTP-mediated synaptic accumulation of AMPARs and spine plasticity.
Project description:Regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking is a key modulator of excitatory synaptic transmission; however, intracellular vesicular transport of newly synthesized AMPARs has been little studied due to technical limitations. By combining molecular tools with imaging strategies in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we found that vesicles containing newly synthesized, GluA1-subunit-containing AMPARs are transported antero- and retrogradely at a mean speed of 1.5 μm.s-1. Synaptic activity and variations in intracellular calcium levels bidirectionally modulate GluA1 transport. Chemical long-term potentiation (cLTP) initially induces a halt in GluA1 transport, followed by a sustained increase, while acute glutamate uncaging on synaptic spines arrests vesicular movements. GluA1 phosphomimetic mutants preferentially travel to the dendritic tip, probably to replenish extrasynaptic pools, distal to the soma. Our findings indicate that AMPAR intracellular transport is highly regulated during synaptic plasticity and likely controls AMPAR numbers at the plasma membrane.
Project description:In Alzheimer's disease (AD), decreases in the amount and synaptic localization of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) result in weakened synaptic activity and dysfunction in synaptic plasticity, leading to impairments in cognitive functions. We have previously found that AMPARs are subject to lysine acetylation, resulting in higher AMPAR stability and protein accumulation. Here we report that AMPAR acetylation was significantly reduced in AD and neurons with A? incubation. We identified p300 as the acetyltransferase responsible for AMPAR acetylation and found that enhancing GluA1 acetylation ameliorated A?-induced reductions in total and cell-surface AMPARs. Importantly, expression of acetylation mimetic GluA1 (GluA1-4KQ) in APP/PS1 mice rescued impairments in synaptic plasticity and memory. These findings indicate that A?-induced reduction in AMPAR acetylation and stability contributes to synaptopathy and memory deficiency in AD, suggesting that AMPAR acetylation may be an effective molecular target for AD therapeutics.
Project description:AMPA receptors (AMPARs) have recently been shown to undergo post-translational ubiquitination in mammalian neurons. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood and remain controversial. Here, we report that all four AMPAR subunits (GluA1-4) are rapidly ubiquitinated upon brief application of AMPA or bicuculline in cultured neurons. This process is Ca2+ dependent and requires the activity of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. The ubiquitination of all subunits occurs exclusively on AMPARs located on the plasma membrane post-endocytosis. The sites of ubiquitination were mapped to Lys-868 in GluA1 and Lys-870/Lys-882 in GluA2 C-terminals. Mutation of these lysines did not affect basal surface expression or AMPA-induced internalization of GluA1 and GluA2 subunits. Instead, it reduced the intracellular trafficking of AMPARs to the late endosomes and thus protein degradation. These data indicate that ubiquitination is an important regulatory signal for controlling AMPAR function, which may be crucial for synaptic plasticity.