Circulating cytokines and risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a prospective study.
ABSTRACT: Cytokines play important roles in B-cell activation, proliferation, and apoptosis, thus may be etiologically related to risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). However, the association between circulating levels of cytokines and B-NHL risk has not been prospectively studied in non-HIV populations. The objective of this study was to assess this association by conducting a case-control study nested within a prospective cohort of non-HIV-infected, healthy women. Fifteen cytokines were measured in samples collected a median of 8.2 years prior to diagnosis in 92 cases and two matched controls per case. Only cytokines that showed adequate temporal reproducibility over a two-year period were included. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest tertile relative to the lowest was elevated for soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4-4.7, p (trend) < 0.01) and decreased for IL-13 (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.2-1.0, p (trend) = 0.05). Three other cytokines were marginally associated with risk of B-NHL: TNF-alpha (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 0.9-3.3, p (trend) = 0.11), sTNF-R2 (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 0.9-3.5, p (trend) = 0.06), and IL-5 (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-1.0, p (trend) = 0.06). No association was observed between B-NHL risk and levels of the other cytokines measured (IL-1beta, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-12p70, CRP and sTNF-R1). This study suggests that dysregulated cytokines may be involved in B-NHL development.
Project description:Although severe immune dysregulation is an established risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), it is unclear whether subclinical immune system function influences lymphomagenesis. To address this question, we conducted a nested case-control study within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial to investigate whether circulating levels of cytokines and other immune markers are associated with future risk of NHL. Selected cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-?] and other immune markers [soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1), sTNF-R2, C-reactive protein, and sCD27] were measured in prediagnostic serum specimens from 297 incident NHL cases and 297 individually matched controls. ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating quartiles of analyte concentration to NHL risk were calculated by using conditional logistic regression. Statistically significant associations with increased NHL risk were observed for elevated serum levels of sTNF-R1 (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.8; P(trend) = 0.02) and sCD27 (OR = 5.3, 95% CI: 2.9-9.4; P(trend) < 0.0001). These associations remained in analyses of cases diagnosed longer than 6 years following blood collection (sTNF-R1: OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0-4.0, P(trend) = 0.01; sCD27: OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.9-8.5, P(trend) = 0.0001). Elevated levels of IL-10, TNF-? and sTNF-R2 were also significantly associated with increased risk of NHL overall; however, these associations weakened with increasing time from blood collection to case diagnosis and were null for cases diagnosed longer than 6 years postcollection. Our findings for sTNF-R1 and sCD27, possible markers for inflammatory and B-cell stimulatory states, respectively, support a role for subclinical inflammation and chronic B-cell stimulation in lymphomagenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Factors contributing to chronic inflammation appear to be associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between circulating levels of inflammation mediators and subsequent risk of ovarian cancer. METHODS:We conducted a case-control study of 230 cases and 432 individually matched controls nested within three prospective cohorts to evaluate the association of prediagnostic circulating levels of inflammation-related biomarkers (IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF?, IL-1Ra, sIL-1RII, sIL-2Ra, sIL-4R, sIL-6R, sTNF-R1, and sTNF-R2) measured using Luminex xMap technology with risk of ovarian cancer. RESULTS:We observed a trend across quartiles for IL-2 (OR(Q4 vs. Q1): 1.57, 95% CI: 0.98-2.52, P = 0.07), IL-4 (OR(Q4 vs. Q1): 1.50, 95% CI: 0.95-2.38, P = 0.06), IL-6 (OR(Q4 vs. Q1): 1.63, 95% CI: 1.03-2.58, P = 0.03), IL-12p40 (OR(Q4 vs. Q1): 1.60, 95% CI: 1.02-2.51, P = 0.06), and IL-13 (OR(Q4 vs. Q1): 1.42, 95% CI: 0.90-2.26, P = 0.11). Trends were also observed when cytokines were modeled on the continuous scale for IL-4 (P trend = 0.01), IL-6 (P trend = 0.01), IL-12p40 (P trend = 0.01), and IL-13 (P trend = 0.04). ORs were not materially different after excluding cases diagnosed less than 5 years after blood donation or when limited to serous tumors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPACT:This study provides the first direct evidence that multiple inflammation markers, specifically IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-13, may be associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer, and adds to the evidence that inflammation is involved in the development of this disease.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Inflammation and inflammatory conditions have been associated with pancreatic cancer risk and progression in a number of clinical, epidemiological, and animal model studies. The goal of the present study is to identify plasma markers of inflammation associated with survival of pancreatic cancer patients, and assess their joint contribution to patient outcome. METHODS:We measured circulating levels of four established markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type II (sTNF-RII), and macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1)) in 446 patients enrolled in an ongoing prospective clinic-based study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for death were estimated using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS:Overall mortality was significantly increased in patients in the top quartile of CRP (HR?=?2.52, 95% CI: 1.82-3.49), IL-6 (HR?=?2.78, 95% CI: 2.03-3.81), sTNF-RII (HR?=?2.00, 95% CI: 1.46-2.72), and MIC-1 (HR?=?2.53, 95% CI: 1.83-3.50), compared to those in the bottom quartile (P-trend <0.0001 for all four comparisons). Furthermore, patients with higher circulating concentrations of all four cytokines had a median survival of 3.7 months; whereas, those with lower levels had a median survival of 19.2 months (HR?=?4.55, 95% CI: 2.87-7.20, P-trend <0.0001). CONCLUSION:Individual elevated plasma inflammatory cytokines are associated with significant and dramatic reductions in pancreatic cancer patient survival. Furthermore, we observed an independent combined effect of those cytokines on patient survival, suggesting that multiple inflammatory pathways are likely involved in PDAC progression. Future research efforts to target the inflammatory state using combination strategies in pancreatic cancer patients are warranted.
Project description:We undertook a hospital-based case-control study to examine the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selected immunoregulatory genes and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk in a Chinese population. One hundred and sixty-nine NHL patients diagnosed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2001 standard and 421 controls were recruited. Nine SNPs in three genes (IL-10, IL-1RN, and TNF-α) were selected based on predicted functions and previous study findings. Genetic association analysis was performed using the Cochran-Armitage trend test and multiple logistic regression. Four SNPs were associated with an increased risk of overall NHL: odds ratio per minor allele [ORper-minor-allele] and 95% confidence interval [CI] were 2.64 (1.75-3.98) for IL-10 rs1800893, 2.67 (1.72-4.16) for IL-1RN rs4251961, 1.80 (1.24-2.63) for TNF- α rs1800630, and 1.55 (1.02-2.37) for TNF- α rs2229094. These SNPs were also associated with an increased risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In addition, another SNP (TNF- α rs1041981) was associated with an increased risk of DLBCL (ORper-minor-allele=1.73, 95% CI 1.14-2.61). The findings provide evidence on the role of these immunoregulatory gene variants in NHL etiology.
Project description:We evaluated the association of dietary fat and protein intake with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in a clinic-based study in 603 cases (including 218 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, 146 follicular lymphoma, and 105 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) and 1007 frequency-matched controls. Usual diet was assessed with a 128-item food-frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs, and polytomous logistic regression was used to assess subtype-specific risks. trans Fatty acid (TFA) intake was positively associated with NHL risk [OR = 1.60 for highest vs. lowest quartile (95% CI = 1.18, 2.15); P-trend = 0.0014], n3 (?3) fatty acid intake was inversely associated with risk [OR = 0.48 (95% CI = 0.35, 0.65); P-trend < 0.0001], and there was no association with total, animal, plant-based, or saturated fat intake. When examining intake of specific foods, processed meat [OR = 1.37 (95% CI = 1.02, 1.83); P-trend = 0.03], milk containing any fat [OR = 1.47 (95% CI = 1.16, 1.88); P-trend = 0.0025], and high-fat ice cream [OR = 4.03 (95% CI = 2.80, 5.80); P-trend < 0.0001], intakes were positively associated with risk, whereas intakes of fresh fish and total seafood [OR = 0.61 (95% CI = 0.46, 0.80); P-trend = 0.0025] were inversely associated with risk. Overall, there was little evidence for NHL subtype-specific heterogeneity. In conclusion, diets high in TFAs, processed meats, and higher fat dairy products were positively associated with NHL risk, whereas diets high in n3 fatty acids and total seafood were inversely associated with risk.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a nuclear enzyme that plays a role in DNA repair, differentiation, proliferation, and cell death. The polymorphisms of PARP-1 have been associated with the risk of various carcinomas, including breast, lung, and prostate. We investigated whether PARP-1 polymorphisms are associated with the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).Subjects from a Korean population consisting of 573 NHL patients and 721 controls were genotyped for 5 PARP-1 polymorphisms (Asp81Asp, Ala284Ala, Lys352Lys, IVS13+118A>G, and Val762Ala) using High Resolution Melting polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and an automatic sequencer.None of the 5 polymorphisms were associated with overall risk for NHL. However, the Val762Ala polymorphism was associated with reduced risk for NHL in males [odds ratio (OR), 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.41-0.93 for CC genotype and OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.60-1.16 for TC genotype] with a trend toward a gene dose effect (p for trend, 0.02). The Asp81Asp (p for trend, 0.04) and Lys352Lys (p for trend, 0.03) polymorphisms revealed the same trend. In an association study of PARP-1 haplotypes, the haplotype-ACAAC was associated with decreased risk of NHL in males (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59-0.94).The present data suggest that Val762Ala, Asp81Asp, and Lys352Lys polymorphisms and the haplotype-ACAAC in PARP-1 are associated with reduced risk of NHL in Korean males.
Project description:We conducted a population-based case-control study in Connecticut women to test the hypothesis that genetic variations in Th1 and Th2 cytokine genes may modify the association between blood transfusion and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Compared with women without blood transfusion, women with a history of transfusion had an increased risk of NHL if they carried IL10RA (rs9610) GG genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-3.2] or TNF (rs1800629) AG/AA genotypes (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.9-2.7). We also found women with a history of transfusion had a decreased risk of NHL if they carried IL10RA (rs9610) AG/AA genotypes (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.9) or TNF (rs1800629) GG genotype (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5-1.0). A similar pattern was also observed for B-cell lymphoma but not for T-cell lymphoma. Statistically significant interactions with blood transfusion were observed for IL10RA (rs9610) (P(forinteraction) = 0.003) and TNF (rs1800629) (P(forinteraction) = 0.012) for NHL overall and IL10RA (rs9610) (P(forinteraction) = 0.001) and TNF (rs1800629) (P(forinteraction) = 0.019) for B-cell lymphoma. The results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in TNF and IL10RA genes may modify the association between blood transfusion and NHL risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Several previous studies have found non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk to be associated with hair dye use, particularly use of permanent, dark colors and use before 1980, when hair dye formulations changed. METHODS:We examined NHL risk in relation to reported hair dye use among 1,321 cases and 1,057 controls from a US population-based multi-center study. DNA was extracted from blood or buccal cells to identify genetic variation in N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2), which encode enzymes that metabolize aromatic amine compounds found in hair dyes. RESULTS:Among women, 509 cases and 413 controls reported hair dye use [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.9, 1.6]. Risk estimates were higher for use before 1980 than for use in 1980 or later, particularly for use of permanent, intense tone (black, dark brown, dark blonde) products (<1980-OR = 1.6; 95% CI 0.9, 2.7; >or=1980-OR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.4, 1.1). Risk estimates were increased for women who used permanent, intense tone products before 1980 if they had the rapid/intermediate NAT2 phenotype (OR = 3.3; 95% CI 1.3, 8.6) or the NAT1 10 allele (OR = 2.5; 95% CI 0.9, 7.6), but not if they were slow NAT2 acetylators (OR = 1.5; 95% CI 0.6, 3.6) or had no copies of the NAT1 10 allele (OR = 1.5; 95% CI 0.7, 3.3). NHL risk was not increased among women who began hair dye use after 1980 or among men. CONCLUSION:Our results support previous research demonstrating elevated NHL risk among women who used dark color or intense tone permanent hair dyes before 1980. We present the first evidence suggesting that this risk may differ by genetic variation in NAT1 and NAT2.
Project description:We evaluated the association between common immune system-altering experiences and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk using a case-control study of 162 like-sex twin pairs discordant for NHL, identified from the International Twin Study. Information on medical history and evidence of childhood exposure to microbes was obtained by questionnaire from 1998 to 2002. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Intra-twin-pair agreement between twins on individual exposures was high (76%-97%). A negative association between NHL and seasonal hay fever (odds ratio (OR) = 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10, 0.75) and certain allergies (OR = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.68) was observed. The number of atopic diseases was negatively associated with NHL (P for trend = 0.0003). A history of infectious mononucleosis was negatively associated with NHL risk (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.90). NHL risk was associated with more frequent childhood exposure to microbes during early life (P for trend = 0.04). No differences in association by NHL subtype were observed, although statistical power for these comparisons was low. These observations support the hypothesis that immune-related exposures, especially atopy, are associated with decreased NHL risk. Use of the within-twin-pair study design mitigates confounding by genome, family structure, and unmeasured characteristics of early childhood factors.
Project description:Abnormal immune function is a key factor in predisposition to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We evaluated the association of 30 cytokines individually and as a profile with diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) and follicular (FL) lymphomas.We used a multiplexed assay to measure 30 cytokine concentrations in pre-treatment serum in a case-control study of 234 FL, 188 DLBCL, and 400 control participants. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age and sex, and polytomous regression was used to evaluate heterogeneity between FL and DLBCL. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to assess cytokine profiles associated with FL and DLBCL.In single cytokine modeling, we found that 12 of the 30 circulating serum cytokines were significantly (P<0.05) associated with FL and/or DLBCL after accounting for multiple testing (q<0.05). Soluble IL-2R (sIL-2R) had the strongest association with both FL (OR=6.0 for highest versus lowest tertile, 95% CI 3.8-9.5; p-trend=1.8 × 10(-21)) and DLBCL (OR=7.6, 95% CI 4.5-13.1; p-trend=7.2 × 10(-20)). IL1RA and IL-12p40 also showed similar associations for DLBCL and FL. In contrast, HGF, MIG, and MIP-1? had a stronger association with DLBCL compared to FL, and IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-?, IP-10, and VEGF were only statistically significantly associated with DLBCL after accounting for multiple testing. However, in PCA modeling, a cytokine profile based on sIL-2R, IL-1RA, MIG, IP-10, IL-8, and IL-12p40 explained most of the variability between controls and both FL and DLBCL.We identified some cytokines unique to DLBCL, but overall cytokine associations were more similar than distinct for DLBCL and FL. While these data are limited by concerns of reverse causality, they do suggest cytokines and cytokine profiles that can be prioritized in future studies.