Two evolutionary histories in the genome of rice: the roles of domestication genes.
ABSTRACT: Genealogical patterns in different genomic regions may be different due to the joint influence of gene flow and selection. The existence of two subspecies of cultivated rice provides a unique opportunity for analyzing these effects during domestication. We chose 66 accessions from the three rice taxa (about 22 each from Oryza sativa indica, O. sativa japonica, and O. rufipogon) for whole-genome sequencing. In the search for the signature of selection, we focus on low diversity regions (LDRs) shared by both cultivars. We found that the genealogical histories of these overlapping LDRs are distinct from the genomic background. While indica and japonica genomes generally appear to be of independent origin, many overlapping LDRs may have originated only once, as a result of selection and subsequent introgression. Interestingly, many such LDRs contain only one candidate gene of rice domestication, and several known domestication genes have indeed been "rediscovered" by this approach. In summary, we identified 13 additional candidate genes of domestication.
Project description:The history of the domestication of rice is controversial, as it remains unknown whether domestication processes occurred once or multiple times. To date, genetic architecture and phylogenetic studies based on the rice nuclear genome have been extensively studied, but the results are quite different. Here, we found interesting results for different selections in Oryza sativa based on comprehensive studies of the rice mitochondrial (mt) genome. In detail, 412 rice germplasms were collected from around the world for variant architecture studies. A total of 10632 variants were detected in the mt genome, including 7277 SNPs and 3355 InDels. Selection signal (?w/?c) indicated that the selection sites in Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica were different from those of Oryza sativa L. indica rice. The fixation index (FST) was higher between indica and japonica than between indica and wild rice. Moreover, haplotype and phylogenetic analyses also revealed indica clusters and japonica clusters that were well separated from wild rice. As mentioned above, our studies indicate that the selection sites of the indica type were different from those of the japonica type. This means that indica and japonica have experienced different domestication processes. We also found that japonica may have experienced a bottleneck event during domestication.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The domestication process of Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) is complicated. It's well established that Oryza rufipogon is the ancestor of Asian rice, although the number of domestication events still controversial. Recently, numerous types of studies based on rice nuclear genome have been conducted, but the results are quite different. Chloroplasts (cp) are also part of the rice genome and have a conserved cyclic structure that is valuable for plant genetics and evolutionary studies. Therefore, we conducted chloroplast-based studies, aiming to provide more evidence for the domestication of Asian rice.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 1389 variants were detected from the chloroplast genomes of 412 accessions obtained through the world. Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica exhibited slightly less diversity (π) than Oryza sativa L. indica and wild rice. The fixation index values (F<sub>ST</sub>) revealed that indica and japonica exhibited farther genetic distances compared with wild rice. Across cp genome, Tajima's D test demonstrated that different selection sites occurred in Asian rice. Principal component analyses (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) clearly classify the Asian rice into different groups. Furthermore, introgression patterns identified that indica and japonica shared no introgression events in cp level, and phylogenetic studies showed cultivated rice were well separated from different type of wild rice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Here, we focus on the domestication of Asian rice (indica and japonica). Diversity and phylogenetic analyses revealed some selection characteristics in the chloroplast genome that potentially occurred in different Asian rice during the domestication. The results shown that Asian rice had been domesticated at least twice. In additional, japonica may experience a strong positive selection or bottleneck event during the domestication.
Project description:Crop domestications are long-term selection experiments that have greatly advanced human civilization. The domestication of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) ranks as one of the most important developments in history. However, its origins and domestication processes are controversial and have long been debated. Here we generate genome sequences from 446 geographically diverse accessions of the wild rice species Oryza rufipogon, the immediate ancestral progenitor of cultivated rice, and from 1,083 cultivated indica and japonica varieties to construct a comprehensive map of rice genome variation. In the search for signatures of selection, we identify 55 selective sweeps that have occurred during domestication. In-depth analyses of the domestication sweeps and genome-wide patterns reveal that Oryza sativa japonica rice was first domesticated from a specific population of O. rufipogon around the middle area of the Pearl River in southern China, and that Oryza sativa indica rice was subsequently developed from crosses between japonica rice and local wild rice as the initial cultivars spread into South East and South Asia. The domestication-associated traits are analysed through high-resolution genetic mapping. This study provides an important resource for rice breeding and an effective genomics approach for crop domestication research.
Project description:The origin of domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa) has been a contentious topic, with conflicting evidence for either single or multiple domestication of this key crop species. We examined the evolutionary history of domesticated rice by analyzing de novo assembled genomes from domesticated rice and its wild progenitors. Our results indicate multiple origins, where each domesticated rice subpopulation (japonica, indica, and aus) arose separately from progenitor O. rufipogon and/or O. nivara. Coalescence-based modeling of demographic parameters estimate that the first domesticated rice population to split off from O. rufipogon was O. sativa ssp. japonica, occurring at ?13.1-24.1?ka, which is an order of magnitude older then the earliest archeological date of domestication. This date is consistent, however, with the expansion of O. rufipogon populations after the Last Glacial Maximum ?18?ka and archeological evidence for early wild rice management in China. We also show that there is significant gene flow from japonica to both indica (?17%) and aus (?15%), which led to the transfer of domestication alleles from early-domesticated japonica to proto-indica and proto-aus populations. Our results provide support for a model in which different rice subspecies had separate origins, but that de novo domestication occurred only once, in O. sativa ssp. japonica, and introgressive hybridization from early japonica to proto-indica and proto-aus led to domesticated indica and aus rice.
Project description:Here we report that the change from the red seeds of wild rice to the white seeds of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) resulted from the strong selective sweep of a single mutation, a frame-shift deletion within the Rc gene that is found in 97.9% of white rice varieties today. A second mutation, also within Rc, is present in less than 3% of white accessions surveyed. Haplotype analysis revealed that the predominant mutation originated in the japonica subspecies and crossed both geographic and sterility barriers to move into the indica subspecies. A little less than one Mb of japonica DNA hitchhiked with the rc allele into most indica varieties, suggesting that other linked domestication alleles may have been transferred from japonica to indica along with white pericarp color. Our finding provides evidence of active cultural exchange among ancient farmers over the course of rice domestication coupled with very strong, positive selection for a single white allele in both subspecies of O. sativa.
Project description:The semidwarf phenotype has been extensively selected during modern crop breeding as an agronomically important trait. Introduction of the semidwarf gene, semi-dwarf1 (sd1), which encodes a gibberellin biosynthesis enzyme, made significant contributions to the "green revolution" in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here we report that SD1 was involved not only in modern breeding including the green revolution, but also in early steps of rice domestication. We identified two SNPs in O. sativa subspecies (ssp.) japonica SD1 as functional nucleotide polymorphisms (FNPs) responsible for shorter culm length and low gibberellin biosynthetic activity. Genetic diversity analysis among O. sativa ssp. japonica and indica, along with their wild ancestor O. rufipogon Griff, revealed that these FNPs clearly differentiate the japonica landrace and O. rufipogon. We also found a dramatic reduction in nucleotide diversity around SD1 only in the japonica landrace, not in the indica landrace or O. rufipogon. These findings indicate that SD1 has been subjected to artificial selection in rice evolution and that the FNPs participated in japonica domestication, suggesting that ancient humans already used the green revolution gene.
Project description:Oryza sativa or Asian cultivated rice is one of the major cereal grass species domesticated for human food use during the Neolithic. Domestication of this species from the wild grass Oryza rufipogon was accompanied by changes in several traits, including seed shattering, percent seed set, tillering, grain weight, and flowering time. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has identified three genomic regions in chromosome 3 that appear to be associated with these traits. We would like to study whether these regions show signatures of selection and whether the same genetic basis underlies the domestication of different rice varieties. Fragments of 88 genes spanning these three genomic regions were sequenced from multiple accessions of two major varietal groups in O. sativa--indica and tropical japonica--as well as the ancestral wild rice species O. rufipogon. In tropical japonica, the levels of nucleotide variation in these three QTL regions are significantly lower compared to genome-wide levels, and coalescent simulations based on a complex demographic model of rice domestication indicate that these patterns are consistent with selection. In contrast, there is no significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in the homologous regions in indica rice. These results suggest that there are differences in the genetic and selective basis for domestication between these two Asian rice varietal groups.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Accumulation of genome-wide transcriptome data provides new insight on a genomic scale which cannot be gained by analyses of individual data. The majority of rice (O. sativa) species are japonica and indica cultivars. Genome-wide identification of genes differentially expressed between japonica and indica cultivars will be very useful in understanding the domestication and evolution of rice species. RESULTS:In this study, we analyzed 983 of the 1866 entries in the Affymetrix array data in the public database: 595 generated from indica and 388 from japonica rice cultivars. To discover differentially expressed genes in each cultivar, we performed significance analysis of microarrays for normalized data, and identified 490 genes preferentially expressed in japonica and 104 genes in indica. Gene Ontology analyses revealed that defense response-related genes are significantly enriched in both cultivars, indicating that japonica and indica might be under strong selection pressure for these traits during domestication. In addition, 36 (34.6%) of 104 genes preferentially expressed in indica and 256 (52.2%) of 490 genes preferentially expressed in japonica were annotated as genes of unknown function. Biotic stress overview in the MapMan toolkit revealed key elements of the signaling pathway for defense response in japonica or indica eQTLs. CONCLUSIONS:The percentage of screened genes preferentially expressed in indica was 4-fold higher (34.6%) and that in japonica was 5-fold (52.2%) higher than expected (11.1%), suggesting that genes of unknown function are responsible for the novel traits that distinguish japonica and indica cultivars. The identification of 10 functionally characterized genes expressed preferentially in either japonica or indica highlights the significance of our candidate genes during the domestication of rice species. Functional analysis of the roles of individual components of stress-mediated signaling pathways will shed light on potential molecular mechanisms to improve disease resistance in rice.
Project description:Cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., represents the world's most important staple food crop, feeding more than half of the human population. Despite this essential role in world agriculture, the history of cultivated rice's domestication from its wild ancestor, Oryza rufipogon, remains unclear. In this study, DNA sequence variation in three gene regions is examined in a phylogeographic approach to investigate the domestication of cultivated rice. Results indicate that India and Indochina may represent the ancestral center of diversity for O. rufipogon. Additionally, the data suggest that cultivated rice was domesticated at least twice from different O. rufipogon populations and that the products of these two independent domestication events are the two major rice varieties, Oryza sativa indica and Oryza sativa japonica. Based on this geographical analysis, O. sativa indica was domesticated within a region south of the Himalaya mountain range, likely eastern India, Myanmar, and Thailand, whereas O. sativa japonica was domesticated from wild rice in southern China.
Project description:Cold stress is a major factor limiting production and geographic distribution of rice (Oryza sativa). Although the growth range of japonica subspecies has expanded northward compared to modern wild rice (O. rufipogon), the molecular basis of the adaptation remains unclear. Here we report bZIP73, a bZIP transcription factor-coding gene with only one functional polymorphism (+511?G>A) between the two subspecies japonica and indica, may have facilitated japonica adaptation to cold climates. We show the japonica version of bZIP73 (bZIP73Jap) interacts with bZIP71 and modulates ABA levels and ROS homeostasis. Evolutionary and population genetic analyses suggest bZIP73 has undergone balancing selection; the bZIP73Jap allele has firstly selected from standing variations in wild rice and likely facilitated cold climate adaptation during initial japonica domestication, while the indica allele bZIP73Ind was subsequently selected for reasons that remain unclear. Our findings reveal early selection of bZIP73Jap may have facilitated climate adaptation of primitive rice germplasms.