Trimodal glioblastoma treatment consisting of concurrent radiotherapy, temozolomide, and the novel TGF-? receptor I kinase inhibitor LY2109761.
ABSTRACT: Here we investigate the effects of the novel transforming growth factor-? receptor I (TGF-?RI) serine/threonine kinase inhibitor LY2109761 on glioblastoma when combined with the present clinical standard combination regimen radiotherapy and temozolomide (TMZ). Human GBM U87 (methylated MGMT promoter), T98 (unmethylated MGMT promoter), and endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with combinations of LY2109761, TMZ, and radiation. We found that LY2109761 reduced clonogenic survival of U87 and T98 cells and further enhanced the radiation-induced anticlonogenicity. In addition, LY2109761 had antimigratory and antiangiogenic effects in Matrigel migration and tube formation assays. In vivo, in human xenograft tumors growing subcutaneously on BALB/c nu/nu mice, LY2109761 delayed tumor growth alone and in combination with fractionated radiation and TMZ. Interestingly, as expected, the methylated U87 model was more sensitive to TMZ than the unmethylated T98 model in all experiments, whereas the opposite was found for LY2109761. Moreover, with respect to tumor angiogenesis, while LY2109761 decreased the glioblastoma proliferation index (Ki-67) and the microvessel density (CD31 count), the relative pericyte coverage (?-SMA/CD31 ratio) increased in particular after triple therapy, suggesting a vascular normalization effect induced by LY2109761. This normalization could be attributed in part to a decrease in the Ang-2/Ang-1 messenger RNA ratio. LY2109761 also reduced tumor blood perfusion as quantified by noninvasive dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Together, the data indicate that the addition of a TGF-?RI kinase inhibitor to the present clinical standard (radiation plus TMZ) has the potential to improve clinical outcome in human glioblastoma, especially in patients with unmethylated MGMT promoter status.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive cancers. Despite recent advances in multimodal therapies, high-grade glioma remains fatal. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent used worldwide for the clinical treatment of GBM; however, the innate and acquired resistance of GBM limits its application. Here, we found that TMZ inhibited the proliferation and induced the G2/M arrest of GBM cells. Therefore, we performed microarrays to identify the cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes affected by TMZ. Notably, GADD45A was found to be up-regulated by TMZ in both cell cycle and apoptosis arrays. Furthermore, GADD45A knockdown (GADD45Akd) enhanced the cell growth arrest and cell death induced by TMZ, even in natural (T98) and adapted (TR-U373) TMZ-resistant cells. Interestingly, GADD45Akd decreased the expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in TMZ-resistant cells (T98 and TR-U373). In MGMT-deficient/TMZ-sensitive cells (U87 and U373), GADD45Akd decreased TMZ-induced TP53 expression. Thus, in this study, we investigated the genes influenced by TMZ that were important in GBM therapy, and revealed that GADD45A plays a protective role against TMZ treatment which may through TP53-dependent and MGMT-dependent pathway in TMZ-sensitive and TMZ-resistant GBM, respectively. This protective role of GADD45A against TMZ treatment may provide a new therapeutic strategy for GBM treatment.
Project description:Concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT) followed by adjuvant TMZ is standard treatment for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), although the relative contribution of concurrent versus adjuvant TMZ is unknown. In this study, the efficacy of TMZ/RT was tested with a panel of 20 primary GBM xenografts.Mice with intracranial xenografts were treated with TMZ, RT, TMZ/RT, or placebo. Survival ratio for a given treatment/line was defined as the ratio of median survival for treatment vs. placebo.The median survival ratio was significantly higher for O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylated tumors versus unmethylated tumors following treatment with TMZ (median survival ratio, 3.6 vs. 1.5, respectively; p = 0.008) or TMZ/RT (5.7 vs. 2.3, respectively; p = 0.001) but not RT alone (1.7 vs. 1.6; p = 0.47). In an analysis of variance, MGMT methylation status and p53 mutation status were significantly associated with treatment response. When we analyzed the additional survival benefit conferred specifically by combined therapy, only a subset (5 of 11) of MGMT methylated tumors derived substantial additional benefit from combined therapy, while none of the MGMT unmethylated tumors did. Consistent with a true radiosensitizing effect of TMZ, sequential treatment in which RT (week 1) was followed by TMZ (week 2) proved significantly less effective than TMZ followed by RT or concurrent TMZ/RT (survival ratios of 4.0, 9.6 and 12.9, respectively; p < 0.0001).Concurrent treatment with TMZ and RT provides significant survival benefit only in a subset of MGMT methylated tumors and provides superior antitumor activity relative to sequential administration of RT and TMZ.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant glioma, with a median overall survival (OS) of 14-16 months. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the first-line chemotherapy drug for glioma, but whether TMZ should be withheld from patients with GBMs that lack O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation is still under debate. DNA methylation profiling holds great promise for further stratifying the responses of MGMT promoter unmethylated GBMs to TMZ. In this study, we studied 147 TMZ-treated MGMT promoter unmethylated GBM, whose methylation information was obtained from the HumanMethylation27 (HM-27K) BeadChips (n = 107) and the HumanMethylation450 (HM-450K) BeadChips (n = 40) for training and validation, respectively. In the training set, we performed univariate Cox regression and identified that 3,565 CpGs were significantly associated with the OS of the TMZ-treated MGMT promoter unmethylated GBMs. Functional analysis indicated that the genes corresponding to these CpGs were enriched in the biological processes or pathways of mitochondrial translation, cell cycle, and DNA repair. Based on these CpGs, we developed a 31-CpGs methylation signature utilizing the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression algorithm. In both training and validation datasets, the signature identified the TMZ-sensitive GBMs in the MGMT promoter unmethylated GBMs, and only the patients in the low-risk group appear to benefit from the TMZ treatment. Furthermore, these identified TMZ-sensitive MGMT promoter unmethylated GBMs have a similar OS when compared with the MGMT promoter methylated GBMs after TMZ treatment in both two datasets. Multivariate Cox regression demonstrated the independent prognostic value of the signature in TMZ-treated MGMT promoter unmethylated GBMs. Moreover, we also noticed that the hallmark of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, ECM related biological processes and pathways were highly enriched in the MGMT unmethylated GBMs with the high-risk score, indicating that enhanced ECM activities could be involved in the TMZ-resistance of GBM. In conclusion, our findings promote our understanding of the roles of DNA methylation in MGMT umethylated GBMs and offer a very promising TMZ-sensitivity predictive signature for these GBMs that could be tested prospectively.
Project description:Abstract Current standard-of-care for glioblastoma (GBM) includes surgery followed by concurrent therapy with radiation and temozolomide (TMZ) followed by adjuvant TMZ (days 1–5 every 28 days. Almost all GBM patients experience recurrent/progressive disease, with a median survival after recurrence of 3–9 months. Second-line treatment for recurrent GBM with bevacizumab (BEV) has not improved survival, and effective therapies for GBM are lacking. Unmethylated promoter for O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) is a validated biomarker for TMZ-resistance and is correlated with poor patient prognosis. VAL-083 is a bi-functional DNA-targeting agent which rapidly induces interstrand DNA cross-links at N7-guanine, induces double-strand breaks and acts independent of MGMT DNA repair. The current ongoing trial is a biomarker-driven Phase 2 study in MGMT-unmethylated BEV-naïve adult GBM. The primary objective of this study is to determine the effect of VAL-083 on median overall survival (mOS) for MGMT-unmethylated GBM patients compared to historical control. Secondary efficacy endpoints include progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), duration of response (DOR), and quality-of-life. Thirty-five (35) subjects with recurrent GBM have received 40 mg/m2/day VAL-083 on days 1, 2, 3 of a 21-day cycle as the starting dose. Myelosuppression is the most common adverse event and a higher potential for this toxicity correlated with those patients who received a higher number of cycles of prior TMZ maintenance therapy, (>5 cycles vs. ?5 cycles, p< 0.05). To minimize the potential for hematological toxicity in rGBM, subsequent subjects initiated treatment at 30 mg/m2/d VAL-083 x 3 consecutive days every 21 days. In addition, since TMZ is of limited value in the MGMT-unmethylated setting, a second arm in newly diagnosed GBM has been included to explore whether substituting TMZ with VAL-083 offers clinical benefit and extends the time to recurrence. Enrollment, safety data and study updates will be presented at the meeting. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02717962.
Project description:Temozolomide (TMZ) is important chemotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), but the optimal dosing schedule is unclear.The efficacies of different clinically relevant dosing regimens were compared in a panel of 7 primary GBM xenografts in an intracranial therapy evaluation model.Protracted TMZ therapy (TMZ daily M-F, 3 wk every 4) provided superior survival to a placebo-treated group in 1 of 4 O(6)-DNA methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter hypermethylated lines (GBM12) and none of the 3 MGMT unmethylated lines, while standard therapy (TMZ daily M-F, 1 wk every 4) provided superior survival to the placebo-treated group in 2 of 3 MGMT unmethylated lines (GBM14 and GBM43) and none of the methylated lines. In comparing GBM12, GBM14, and GBM43 intracranial specimens, both GBM14 and GBM43 mice treated with protracted TMZ had a significant elevation in MGMT levels compared with placebo. Similarly, high MGMT was found in a second model of acquired TMZ resistance in GBM14 flank xenografts, and resistance was reversed in vitro by treatment with the MGMT inhibitor O(6)-benzylguanine, demonstrating a mechanistic link between MGMT overexpression and TMZ resistance in this line. Additionally, in an analysis of gene expression data, comparison of parental and TMZ-resistant GBM14 demonstrated enrichment of functional ontologies for cell cycle control within the S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle and DNA damage checkpoints.Across the 7 tumor models studied, there was no consistent difference between protracted and standard TMZ regimens. The efficacy of protracted TMZ regimens may be limited in a subset of MGMT unmethylated tumors by induction of MGMT expression.
Project description:Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain cancer. Current standard-of-care includes surgery, radiation and treatment with temozolomide (TMZ), however nearly all tumors recur and the prognosis for recurrent GBM is dismal. Resistance to TMZ is correlated with expression of the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT), which is highly expressed in a majority of GBM tumors. Dianhydrogalactitol (VAL-083) is a first-in-class bi-functional DNA-targeting agent that exhibited activity against GBM in NCI-sponsored clinical trials both as a single agent and in combination with radiotherapy. VAL-083 readily crosses the blood-brain barrier and accumulates in brain tumor tissue. We have demonstrated that VAL-083 targets N7-Guanine and rapidly induces interstrand DNA cross-links, leading to DNA double-strand breaks, S/G2 cell-cycle arrest and cell death in GBM cell lines and GBM cancer stem cells (CSCs) in vitro. This unique N7-guanine targeting mechanism not only circumvents MGMT-mediated chemo-resistance but also maintains cytotoxic activity in cancer cells deficient in mismatch repair (MMR). These data suggest VAL-083 may offer a superior chemotherapeutic alternative in the treatment of MGMT-unmethylated or MMR deficient GBM. Here, we provide an update of ongoing clinical trials with VAL-083 in MGMT-unmethylated GBM: i) a single-arm, biomarker-driven, Phase II study to determine if VAL-083 treatment of MGMT-unmethylated adult GBM patients at first recurrence/progression, prior to bevacizumab improves survival compared to historical lomustine control (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02717962); ii) a single-arm, biomarker-driven, Phase II study to confirm the tolerability and efficacy of VAL-083 in combination with radiotherapy in newly diagnosed MGMT-unmethylated GBM patients (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT03050736). The results of these studies may support a new treatment paradigm in for the treatment of MGMT-unmethylated GBM.
Project description:The relative contribution of isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations (mIDH) and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation (methMGMT) as biomarkers in glioblastoma remain poorly understood.We investigated the association between methMGMT and mIDH with progression free survival and overall survival in a prospectively collected molecular registry of 274 glioblastoma patients.For glioblastoma patients who underwent Temozolomide and Radiation Therapy, OS and PFS was most favorable for those with tumors harboring both mIDH and methMGMT (median OS: 35.8 mo, median PFS: 27.5 mo); patients afflicted glioblastomas with either mIDH or methMGMT exhibited intermediate OS and PFS (mOS: 36 and 17.1 mo; mPFS: 12.2 mo and 9.9 mo, respectively); poorest OS and PFS was observed in wild type IDH1 (wtIDH1) glioblastomas that were MGMT promoter unmethylated (mOS: 15 mo, mPFS: 9.7 mo). For patients with wtIDH glioblastomas, TMZ+RT was associated with improved OS and PFS relative to patients treated with RT (OS: 15.4 mo v 9.6 mo, p < 0.001; PFS: 9.9 mo v 6.5 mo, p < 0.001). While TMZ+RT and RT treated mIDH patients exhibited improved overall survival relative to those with wtIDH, there were no differences between the TMZ+RT or RT group. These results suggest that mIDH1 conferred resistance to TMZ. Supporting this hypothesis, exogenous expression of mIDH1 in independent astrocytoma/glioblastoma lines resulted in a 3-10 fold increase in TMZ resistance after long-term passage.Our study demonstrates IDH mutation and MGMT promoter methylation status independently associate with favorable outcome in TMZ+RT treated glioblastoma patients. However, these biomarkers differentially impact clinical TMZ response.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant adult brain tumor. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard of care and is most effective in GBMs that lack the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). Moreover, even initially responsive tumors develop a secondary resistance to TMZ and become untreatable. Since aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is widespread in GBM, EGFR inhibition has been tried in multiple clinical trials without success. We recently reported that inhibiting EGFR leads to increased secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and activation of a survival pathway in GBM. Here, we compare the efficacy of TMZ versus EGFR plus TNF inhibition in an orthotopic mouse model of GBM. METHODS:We use an orthotopic model to examine the efficacy of TMZ versus EGFR plus TNF inhibition in multiple subsets of GBMs, including MGMT methylated and unmethylated primary GBMs, recurrent GBMs, and GBMs rendered experimentally resistant to TMZ. RESULTS:The efficacy of the 2 treatments was similar in MGMT methylated GBMs. However, in MGMT unmethylated GBMs, a combination of EGFR plus TNF inhibition was more effective. We demonstrate that the 2 treatment approaches target distinct and non-overlapping pathways. Thus, importantly, EGFR plus TNF inhibition remains effective in TMZ-resistant recurrent GBMs and in GBMs rendered experimentally resistant to TMZ. CONCLUSION:EGFR inhibition combined with a blunting of the accompanying TNF-driven adaptive response could be a viable therapeutic approach in MGMT unmethylated and recurrent EGFR-expressing GBMs.
Project description:Although several antipsychotic drugs have been shown to possess anticancer activities, haloperidol, a "first-generation" antipsychotic drug, has not been extensively evaluated for potential antineoplastic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumoral effects of haloperidol in glioblastoma (GBM) U87, U251 and T98 cell lines, and the effects of combined treatment with temozolomide (TMZ) and/or radiotherapy, using 4 Gy of irradiation. The viability and proliferation of the cells were evaluated with trypan blue exclusion assay and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis, using the annexin-propidium iodide (PI), and cell cycle, cluster of differentiation (CD) expression and caspase-8 activation were measured using flow cytometry. Treatment with haloperidol significantly reduced cell viability in U87, U251 and T98 GBM cell lines. Haloperidol induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, inhibited cell migration and produced an alteration in the expression of CD24/CD44. The additional effect of haloperidol, combined with temozolomide and radiation therapy, increased tumor cell death. Haloperidol was observed to induce apoptosis and to increase caspase-8 activation. In conclusion, haloperidol may represent an innovative strategy for the treatment of GBM and further studies are warranted in glioma xenograft models and other malignancies.
Project description:Background:The current standard of care for the management of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) includes maximal safe resection followed by radiotherapy (RT) with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). While it is well established that TMZ has better efficacy in patients with MGMT promoter methylation, it remains an area of debate whether TMZ should be omitted when treating GBM patients with unmethylated MGMT. Methods:We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide separate estimates of median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with methylated and unmethylated GBM treated with RT with or without TMZ. We searched multiple databases from inception to January 13, 2020. Results:The median OS for patients with unmethylated GBM treated with RT/TMZ pooled from 5 phase III studies (N = 655) was 14.11 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.18-15.04) with a median PFS of 4.99 months (95% CI, 4.25-5.72). In contrast, the median OS for patients with methylated GBM pooled from 6 studies (N = 753) was 24.59 months (95% CI, 22.19-26.99) with a median PFS pooled from 7 studies (N = 805) of 9.51 months (95% CI, 7.41-11.61). There is a paucity of prospective data pertaining to OS/PFS in unmethylated patients treated with RT only and therefore a direct comparison was not possible. Conclusions:This meta-analysis provides estimates of survival for patients with MGMT methylated or unmethylated GBM treated with RT/TMZ. Further research is needed to delineate whether TMZ should be withheld for patients with unmethylated GBM outside of the setting of clinical trials.