The role of an E-box element: multiple frunctions and interacting partners.
ABSTRACT: Circadian clocks can be entrained by light-dark or temperature cycles. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, 12h changes in temperature between 18°C and 28°C synchronize its clock. Both subunits of the circadian RNA-binding protein CHLAMY1, named C1 and C3, are able to integrate temperature information. C1 gets hyper-phosphorylated in cells grown at 18°C and the level of C3 is up-regulated at this temperature. In the long period mutant per1, where temperature entrainment is disturbed, the temperature-dependent regulation of C1 and C3 is altered. Up-regulation of C3 at the low temperature is mediated predominantly by an E-box element situated in its promoter region. This cis-acting element is also relevant for circadian expression of c3 as well as of its up-regulation in cells, where C1 is overexpressed. Among the few identified factors interacting with the E-box region, C3 is also present, suggesting that it feedbacks on its own transcription.
Project description:Glucocorticoid (GC) signaling synchronizes the circadian rhythm of individual peripheral cells and induces the expression of circadian genes, including Period1 (Per1) and Period2 (Per2). However, no GC response element (GRE) has been reported in the Per2 promoter region. Here we report the molecular mechanisms of Per2 induction by GC signaling and its relevance to the regulation of circadian timing. We found that GC prominently induced Per2 expression and delayed the circadian phase. The overlapping GRE and E-box (GE2) region in the proximal Per2 promoter was responsible for GC-mediated Per2 induction. The GRE in the Per2 promoter was unique in that brain and muscle ARNT-like protein-1 (BMAL1) was essential for GC-induced Per2 expression, whereas other GRE-containing promoters, such as Per1 and mouse mammary tumor virus, responded to dexamethasone in the absence of BMAL1. This specialized regulatory mechanism was mediated by BMAL1-dependent binding of the GC receptor to GRE in Per2 promoter. When Per2 induction was abrogated by the mutation of the GRE or E-box, the circadian oscillation phase failed to be delayed compared with that of the wild-type. Therefore, the current study demonstrates that the rapid Per2 induction mediated by GC is crucial for delaying the circadian rhythm.
Project description:Non-coding cis-regulatory elements are essential determinants of development, but their exact impacts on behavior and physiology in adults remain elusive. Cis-element-based transcriptional regulation is believed to be crucial for generating circadian rhythms in behavior and physiology. However, genetic evidence supporting this model is based on mutations in the protein-coding sequences of clock genes. Here, we report generation of mutant mice carrying a mutation only at the E'-box cis-element in the promoter region of the core clock gene Per2. The Per2 E'-box mutation abolishes sustainable molecular clock oscillations and renders circadian locomotor activity and body temperature rhythms unstable. Without the E'-box, Per2 messenger RNA and protein expression remain at mid-to-high levels. Our work delineates the Per2 E'-box as a critical nodal element for keeping sustainable cell-autonomous circadian oscillation and reveals the extent of the impact of the non-coding cis-element in daily maintenance of animal locomotor activity and body temperature rhythmicity.
Project description:The mammalian clock system is composed of a master clock and peripheral clocks. At the molecular level, the rhythm-generating mechanism is controlled by a molecular clock composed of positive and negative feedback loops. However, the underlying mechanisms for molecular clock regulation that affect circadian clock function remain unclear. Here, we show that Egr1 (early growth response 1), an early growth response gene, is expressed in mouse liver in a circadian manner. Consistently, Egr1 is transactivated by the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer through a conserved E-box response element. In hepatocytes, EGR1 regulates the transcription of several core clock genes, including Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Rev-erb? and Rev-erb?, and the rhythm amplitude of their expression is dependent on EGR1's transcriptional function. Further mechanistic studies indicated that EGR1 binds to the proximal region of the Per1 promoter to activate its transcription directly. When the peripheral clock is altered by light or feeding behavior transposition in Egr1-deficient mice, the expression phase of hepatic clock genes shifts normally, but the amplitude is also altered. Our data reveal a critical role for EGR1 in the regulation of hepatic clock circuitry, which may contribute to the rhythm stability of peripheral clock oscillators.
Project description:Light, restricted feeding, and hormonal inputs may operate as time givers (zeitgebers) for the circadian clock within peripheral organs through the activation of tissue-specific signaling cascades. cAMP signaling through CREM (cAMP-responsive element modulator) and its variant ICER (inducible cAMP early repressor) is linked to the circadian regulation of pineal melatonin synthesis, although little is known about its influence in other organs. We performed experiments in the absence of light and feeding-time cues to test which core clock genes are controlled by CREM/ICER in the liver and adrenal gland. In vivo, Crem loss-of-function mutation resulted in fine-tuning of all measured adrenal clock genes (Per1/2/3, Cry1/2, Bmal1, and Rev-erb?), whereas only Per1 and Cry1 were affected in the liver. Icer expression was circadian in the adrenal gland, with peak gene expression at zeitgeber 12 and the highest protein levels at zeitgeber ?20. The expression of both Icer and Per1 genes responded to cAMP stimuli in an immediate-early fashion. In immortal cells, forskolin induced expression of Per1 after 2 h, and de novo protein synthesis led to Per1 attenuation. We show that the de novo synthesized protein responsible for Per1 attenuation is ICER. Indeed, Per1 expression is up-regulated in cells ectopically expressing antisense Icer, and mobility shift experiments identified ICER binding to cAMP-responsive elements of the Per1 promoter. We propose that ICER acts as a noise filter for different signals that could affect transcription in the adrenal gland. Because ICER is an immediate-early repressor, the circadian nature of adrenal Icer expression could serve a role in a time-dependent gating mechanism.
Project description:Glucocorticoids regulate gene expression by binding and activating the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). While ligand affinity determines the global sensitivity of the response, additional proteins act on the genome to tune sensitivity of some genes. However, the genomic extent and specificity of dose-specific glucocorticoid responses are unknown. We show that dose-specific glucocorticoid responses are extraordinarily specific at the genomic scale, able to distinctly express a single gene, the circadian rhythm gene for Period 1 (PER1), at concentrations consistent with the nighttime nadir of human cortisol. We mapped the PER1 response to a single GR binding site. The specific GR binding sequence did not impact sensitivity, and we instead attributed the response to a combination of additional transcription factors and chromatin accessibility acting in the same locus. The PER1 hypersensitive response element is conserved in the mouse, where we found similar upregulation of Per1 in pituitary cells. Targeted and transient overexpression of PER1 led to regulation of additional circadian rhythm genes hours later, suggesting that hypersensitive expression of PER1 impacts circadian gene expression. These findings show that hypersensitive GR binding occurs throughout the genome, drives targeted gene expression, and may be important to endocrine mediation of peripheral circadian rhythms.
Project description:The intestine demonstrates profound circadian rhythmicity in glucose absorption in rodents, mediated entirely by rhythmicity in the transcription, translation, and function of the sodium glucose co-transporter SGLT1 (Slc5a1). Clock genes are rhythmic in the intestine and have been implicated in the regulation of rhythmicity of other intestinal genes; however, their role in the regulation of SGLT1 is unknown. We investigated the effects of one clock gene, PER1, on SGLT1 transcription in vitro.Caco-2 cells were stably transfected with knockdown vectors for PER1 and mRNA expression of clock genes and SGLT1 determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were transiently cotransfected with combinations of the PER1 expression vectors and the wild-type SGLT1-luciferase promoter construct or the promoter with mutated E-box sequences.Knockdown of PER1 increased native SGLT1 expression in Caco-2 enterocytes, while promoter studies confirmed that the inhibitory activity of PER1 on SGLT1 occurs via the proximal 1 kb of the SGLT1 promoter. E-box sites exerted a suppressive effect on the SGLT1 promoter; however, mutation of E-boxes had little effect on the inhibitory activity of PER1 on the SGLT1 promoter suggesting that the actions of PER1 on SGLT1 are independent of E-boxes.Our findings suggest that PER1 exerts an indirect suppressive effect on SGLT1, possibly acting via other clock-controlled genes binding to non-E-box sites on the SGLT1 promoter. Understanding the regulation of rhythmicity of SGLT1 may lead to new treatments for the modulation of SGLT1 expression in conditions such as malabsorption, diabetes, and obesity.
Project description:An endogenous time-keeping mechanism controls circadian biological rhythms in mammals. Previously, we showed that vitamin A deficiency modifies clock BMAL1 and PER1 as well as BDNF and neurogranin daily rhythmicity in the rat hippocampus when animals are maintained under 12-h-light:12-h-dark conditions. Retinoic acid nuclear receptors, retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs), have been detected in the same brain area. Our objectives were (a) to analyze whether RAR?, RAR? and RXR? exhibit a circadian variation in the rat hippocampus and (b) to investigate the effect of a vitamin-A-deficient diet on the circadian expression of BMAL1, PER1 and retinoic acid receptors (RARs and RXR?) genes. Holtzman male rats from control and vitamin-A-deficient groups were maintained under 12-h-light:12-h-dark or 12-h-dark:12-h-dark conditions during the last week of treatment. RAR?, RAR?, RXR?, BMAL1 and PER1 transcript and protein levels were determined in hippocampus samples isolated every 4 h in a 24-h period. Regulatory regions of RARs and RXR? genes were scanned for clock-responsive sites, while BMAL1 and PER1 promoters were analyzed for retinoic acid responsive elements and retinoid X responsive elements. E-box and retinoid-related orphan receptor responsive element sites were found on regulatory regions of retinoid receptors genes, which display an endogenously controlled circadian expression in the rat hippocampus. Those temporal profiles were modified when animals were fed with a vitamin-A-deficient diet. Similarly, the nutritional vitamin A deficiency phase shifted BMAL1 and abolished PER1 circadian expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Our data suggest that vitamin A deficiency may affect the circadian expression in the hippocampus by modifying the rhythmic profiles of retinoic acid receptors.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Activation of the immune system affects the circadian clock. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and Interleukin (IL)-1? inhibit the expression of clock genes including Period (Per) genes and the PAR-bZip clock-controlled gene D-site albumin promoter-binding protein (Dbp). These effects are due to cytokine-induced interference of E-box mediated transcription of clock genes. In the present study we have assessed the two E-box binding transcriptional regulators Twist1 and Twist2 for their role in cytokine induced inhibition of clock genes.<h4>Methods</h4>The expression of the clock genes Per1, Per2, Per3 and of Dbp was assessed in NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblasts and the mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line HT22. Cells were treated for 4h with TNF and IL-1?. The functional role of Twist1 and Twist2 was assessed by siRNAs against the Twist genes and by overexpression of TWIST proteins. In luciferase (luc) assays NIH-3T3 cells were transfected with reporter gene constructs, which contain a 3xPer1 E-box or a Dbp E-box. Quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was performed using antibodies to TWIST1 and CLOCK, and the E-box consensus sequences of Dbp (CATGTG) and Per1 E-box (CACGTG).<h4>Results</h4>We report here that siRNA against Twist1 protects NIH-3T3 cells and HT22 cells from down-regulation of Period and Dbp by TNF and IL-1?. Overexpression of Twist1, but not of Twist2, mimics the effect of the cytokines. TNF down-regulates the activation of Per1-3xE-box-luc, the effect being prevented by siRNA against Twist1. Overexpression of Twist1, but not of Twist2, inhibits Per1-3xE-box-luc or Dbp-E-Box-luc activity. ChIP experiments show TWIST1 induction by TNF to compete with CLOCK binding to the E-box of Period genes and Dbp.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Twist1 plays a pivotal role in the TNF mediated suppression of E-box dependent transactivation of Period genes and Dbp. Thereby Twist1 may provide a link between the immune system and the circadian timing system.
Project description:Disrupted circadian rhythms are a core feature of mood and anxiety disorders. Circadian rhythms are coordinated by a light-entrainable master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Animal models of mood and anxiety disorders often exhibit blunted rhythms in locomotor activity and clock gene expression. Interestingly, the changes in circadian rhythms correlate with mood-related behaviours. Although animal models of depression and anxiety exhibit aberrant circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior, it is possible that the methodology being used to induce the behavioral phenotype (e.g., brain lesions, chronic stress, global gene deletion) affect behavior independently of circadian system. This study investigates the relationship between individual differences in circadian locomotor parameters and mood-related behaviors in healthy rats. The circadian phenotype of male Lewis rats was characterized by analyzing wheel running behavior under standard 12h:12h LD conditions, constant dark, constant light, and rate of re-entrainment to a phase advance. Rats were then tested on a battery of behavioral tests: activity box, restricted feeding, elevated plus maze, forced swim test, and fear conditioning. Under 12h:12h LD conditions, percent of daily activity in the light phase and variability in activity onset were associated with longer latency to immobility in the forced swim test. Variability in onset also correlated positively with anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Rate of re-entrainment correlated positively with measures of anxiety in the activity box and elevated plus maze. Lastly, we found that free running period under constant dark was associated with anxiety-like behaviors in the activity box and elevated plus maze. Our results provide a previously uncharacterized relationship between circadian locomotor parameters and mood-related behaviors in healthy rats and provide a basis for future examination into circadian clock functioning and mood.
Project description:Behavioral and physiological circadian rhythms are controlled by endogenous oscillators in animals. Voluntary wheel-running in rodents is thought to be an appropriate model of aerobic exercise in humans. We evaluated the effects of chronic voluntary exercise on the circadian system by analyzing temporal profiles of feeding, core body temperature, plasma hormone concentrations and peripheral expression of clock and clock-controlled genes in mice housed under sedentary (SED) conditions or given free access to a running-wheel (RW) for four weeks. Voluntary wheel-running activity advanced the circadian phases of increases in body temperature, food intake and corticosterone secretion in the mice. The circadian expression of clock and clock-controlled genes was tissue- and gene-specifically affected in the RW mice. The temporal expression of E-box-dependent circadian clock genes such as Per1, Per2, Nr1d1 and Dbp were slightly, but significantly phase-advanced in the liver and white adipose tissue, but not in brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Peak levels of Per1, Per2 and Nr1d1 expression were significantly increased in the skeletal muscle of RW mice. The circadian phase and levels of hepatic mRNA expression of the clock-controlled genes that are involved in cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism significantly differed between SED and RW mice. These findings indicated that endogenous clock-governed voluntary wheel-running activity provides feedback to the central circadian clock that systemically governs behavioral and physiological rhythms.