Antigen profiles for the quantitative assessment of eosinophils in mouse tissues by flow cytometry.
ABSTRACT: Much of our current understanding of eosinophil-associated pathologies has developed from the use of mouse models. While mouse eosinophils can be readily detected by flow cytometric methods, most studies do not document the efficiency of this process compared to direct counting of stained cells. Our intent was to address this knowledge gap by identifying one or more eosinophil-specific antigen profiles that yielded flow cytometric data that was statistically consistent with direct counts. We found that anti-CD193 (CCR3) and anti-CD125 (IL-5R?) antibodies were effective at detecting eosinophils in bone marrow of interleukin-5 transgenic mice, but these antibodies under-reported the percent positive cells. In contrast, anti-Siglec F alone or in combination with anti-CD45 can be used for the quantitative detection of eosinophils in mouse bone marrow and spleen. The antigen profile CD45(+)SiglecF(+)CD11c(-) was effective at detecting eosinophils in the lung as well as bone marrow and spleen, and the results obtained correlated with direct morphometric counts under all conditions evaluated (r(2)=0.98-0.99). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis presenting definitive correlations between percent eosinophils detected by cell surface markers and direct counting of stained cells in multiple tissues and at varying degrees of eosinophilia.
Project description:Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and their adaptive counterpart type 2 T helper (TH2) cells respond to interleukin-33 (IL-33) by producing IL-5, which is a crucial cytokine for eosinophil development in the bone marrow. The aim of this study was to determine if bone marrow ILC2s, TH cells, and eosinophils are locally regulated by IL-33 in terms of number and activation upon exposure to the common aeroallergen house dust mite (HDM). Mice that were sensitized and challenged with HDM by intranasal exposures induced eosinophil development in the bone marrow with an initial increase of IL5R?+ eosinophil progenitors, following elevated numbers of mature eosinophils and the induction of airway eosinophilia. Bone marrow ILC2s, TH2, and eosinophils all responded to HDM challenge by increased IL-33 receptor (ST2) expression. However, only ILC2s, but not TH cells, revealed increased ST2 expression at the onset of eosinophil development, which significantly correlated with the number of eosinophil progenitors. In summary, our findings suggest that airway allergen challenges with HDM activates IL-33-responsive ILC2s, TH cells, and eosinophils locally in the bone marrow. Targeting the IL-33/ST2 axis in allergic diseases including asthma may be beneficial by decreasing eosinophil production in the bone marrow.
Project description:Eosinophils are produced in the bone marrow from CD34+ eosinophil lineage-committed progenitors, whose levels in the bone marrow are elevated in a variety of human diseases. These findings suggest that increased eosinophil lineage-committed progenitor production is an important process in disease-associated eosinophilia. The pathways central to the biology of the eosinophil lineage-committed progenitor remain largely unknown. Thus, developing new methods to investigate the regulators of eosinophil lineage-committed progenitor differentiation is needed to identify potential therapeutic targets to specifically inhibit eosinophil production. We tested cytokine regimens to optimize liquid cultures for the study of eosinophil lineage-committed progenitor and eosinophil precursor differentiation into mature eosinophils. Stem cell factor (but not fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand) was required for optimal yield of eosinophils. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of cell preservation and scale on the culture, successfully culturing functional eosinophils from fresh and frozen murine bone marrow cells and in a standard-sized and 96-well culture format. In summary, we have developed an adaptable culture system that yields functionally competent eosinophils from murine low-density bone marrow cells and whose cytokine regime includes expansion of progenitors with stem cell factor alone with subsequent differentiation with interleukin 5.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although several novel agents are currently in clinical trials for eosinophilic disorders, none has demonstrated efficacy in reducing blood and tissue eosinophilia in all subjects. Additional approaches are clearly needed. OBJECTIVE:We sought to explore the potential of the human eosinophil surface receptor epidermal growth factor-like module containing mucin-like hormone receptor 1 (EMR1) as a therapeutic target for eosinophilic disorders. METHODS:EMR1 expression was assessed in blood and bone marrow specimens from eosinophilic and healthy subjects, cell lines, CD34(+) cells differentiated in vitro, and tissue biopsy specimens by using flow cytometry, quantitative PCR, and immunostaining. Eosinophil targeting by a novel, humanized, afucosylated anti-EMR1 IgG1 was evaluated in vitro by using a natural killer cell-mediated killing assay and in vivo in cynomolgus monkeys. RESULTS:Analysis of blood and bone marrow cells from healthy and eosinophilic donors and in vitro-differentiated CD34(+) cells confirmed restriction of human EMR1 surface and mRNA expression to mature eosinophils. Tissue eosinophils also expressed EMR1. Although EMR1 was highly expressed on eosinophils from all subjects, surface expression was negatively correlated with absolute eosinophil counts (r = -0.46, P < .001), and soluble plasma levels correlated positively with absolute eosinophil counts (r = 0.69, P < .001), suggesting modulation of EMR1 in vivo. Nevertheless, afucosylated anti-EMR1 mAb dramatically enhanced natural killer cell-mediated killing of eosinophils from healthy and eosinophilic donors and induced a rapid and sustained depletion of eosinophils in monkeys. CONCLUSION:EMR1 expression is restricted to mature blood and tissue eosinophils. Targeting of eosinophils with afucosylated anti-EMR1 antibody shows promise as a treatment for eosinophilic disorders.
Project description:The presence of eosinophils in the lung is often regarded as a defining feature of asthma. On allergen stimulation, numbers of eosinophils and their progenitors are increased in both the bone marrow and lungs. Eosinophil progenitors provide an ongoing supply of mature eosinophils. Here, we report that deficiency in the regulator of calcineurin 1 gene (Rcan1) leads to a near-complete absence of eosinophilia in ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice. In the absence of Rcan1, bone marrow cells produce significantly fewer eosinophils in vivo and in vitro on interleukin-5 stimulation. Importantly, eosinophil progenitor populations are significantly reduced in both naïve and ovalbumin-challenged Rcan1(-/-) mice. Bone marrow cells from Rcan1(-/-) mice are capable of developing into fully mature eosinophils, suggesting that Rcan1 is required for eosinophil progenitor production but may not be necessary for eosinophil maturation. Thus, Rcan1 represents a novel contributor in the development of eosinophilia in allergic asthma through regulation of eosinophil progenitor production.
Project description:Eosinophils originate in the bone marrow from an eosinophil lineage-committed, IL-5R?-positive, hematopoietic progenitor (eosinophil progenitor). Indeed, IL-5 is recognized as a critical regulator of eosinophilia and has effects on eosinophil progenitors, eosinophil precursors, and mature eosinophils. However, substantial levels of eosinophils remain after IL-5 neutralization or genetic deletion, suggesting that there are alternative pathways for promoting eosinophilia. In this study, we investigated the contributory role of IL-5 accessory cytokines on the final stages of eosinophil differentiation. IL-5 stimulation of low-density bone marrow cells resulted in expression of a panel of cytokines and cytokine receptors, including several ligand-receptor pairs. Notably, IL-4 and IL-4R? were expressed by eosinophil precursors and mature eosinophils. Signaling through IL-4R? promoted eosinophil maturation when IL-5 was present, but IL-4 stimulation in the absence of IL-5 resulted in impaired eosinophil survival, suggesting that IL-4 cooperates with IL-5 to promote eosinophil differentiation. In contrast, CCL3, an eosinophil precursor-produced chemokine that signals through CCR1, promotes terminal differentiation of CCR1-positive eosinophil precursors in the absence of IL-5, highlighting an autocrine loop capable of sustaining eosinophil differentiation. These findings suggest that brief exposure to IL-5 is sufficient to initiate a cytokine cooperative network that promotes eosinophil differentiation of low-density bone marrow cells independent of further IL-5 stimulation.
Project description:Eosinophils are frequently elevated in pathological conditions and can cause tissue damage and disease exacerbation. The number of eosinophils in the blood is largely regulated by factors controlling their production in the bone marrow. While several exogenous factors, such as interleukin-5, have been described to promote eosinophil differentiation, comparatively little is known about eosinophil-intrinsic factors that control their de novo generation. Here, we report that the small atypical GTPase RhoH is induced during human eosinophil differentiation, highly expressed in mature blood eosinophils and further upregulated in patients suffering from a hypereosinophilic syndrome. Overexpression of RhoH increases, in a Rho-associated protein kinase-dependent manner, the expression of GATA-2, a transcription factor involved in regulating eosinophil differentiation. In RhoH-/- mice, we observed reduced GATA-2 expression as well as accelerated eosinophil differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, RhoH overexpression in bone marrow progenitors reduces eosinophil development in mixed bone marrow chimeras. These results highlight a novel negative regulatory role for RhoH in eosinophil differentiation, most likely in consequence of altered GATA-2 levels.
Project description:The role of intestinal eosinophils in immune homeostasis is enigmatic and the molecular signals that drive them from protective to tissue damaging are unknown. Most commonly associated with Th2 cell-mediated diseases, we describe a role for eosinophils as crucial effectors of the interleukin-23 (IL-23)-granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) axis in colitis. Chronic intestinal inflammation was characterized by increased bone marrow eosinopoiesis and accumulation of activated intestinal eosinophils. IL-5 blockade or eosinophil depletion ameliorated colitis, implicating eosinophils in disease pathogenesis. GM-CSF was a potent activator of eosinophil effector functions and intestinal accumulation, and GM-CSF blockade inhibited chronic colitis. By contrast neutrophil accumulation was GM-CSF independent and dispensable for colitis. In addition to TNF secretion, release of eosinophil peroxidase promoted colitis identifying direct tissue-toxic mechanisms. Thus, eosinophils are key perpetrators of chronic inflammation and tissue damage in IL-23-mediated immune diseases and it suggests the GM-CSF-eosinophil axis as an attractive therapeutic target.
Project description:Eosinophils reside in the colonic mucosa and increase significantly during disease. Although a number of studies have suggested that eosinophils contribute to the pathogenesis of GI inflammation, the expanding scope of eosinophil-mediated activities indicate that they also regulate local immune responses and modulate tissue inflammation. We sought to define the impact of eosinophils that respond to acute phases of colitis in mice.Acute colitis was induced in mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid or oxazolone to C57BL/6J (control) or eosinophil deficient (PHIL) mice. Eosinophils were also depleted from mice using antibodies against interleukin (IL)-5 or by grafting bone marrow from PHIL mice into control mice. Colon tissues were collected and analysed by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and reverse transcription PCR; lipids were analysed by mass spectroscopy.Eosinophil-deficient mice developed significantly more severe colitis, and their colon tissues contained a greater number of neutrophils, than controls. This compensatory increase in neutrophils was accompanied by increased levels of the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2, which attract neutrophils. Lipidomic analyses of colonic tissue from eosinophil-deficient mice identified a deficiency in the docosahexaenoic acid-derived anti-inflammatory mediator 10, 17- dihydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (diHDoHE), namely protectin D1 (PD1). Administration of an exogenous PD1-isomer (10S, 17S-DiHDoHE) reduced the severity of colitis in eosinophil-deficient mice. The PD1-isomer also attenuated neutrophil infiltration and reduced levels of tumour necrosis factor-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and inducible NO-synthase in colons of mice. Finally, in vitro assays identified a direct inhibitory effect of PD1-isomer on neutrophil transepithelial migration.Eosinophils exert a protective effect in acute mouse colitis, via production of anti-inflammatory lipid mediators.
Project description:SHP2 participates in multiple signaling events by mediating T-cell development and function, and regulates cytokine-dependent granulopoiesis. To explore whether and how SHP2 can regulate bone-marrow eosinophil differentiation, we investigate the contribution of SHP2 in the bone-marrow eosinophil development in allergic mice. Blockade of SHP2 function by SHP2 inhibitor PHPS-1 or conditional shp2 knockdown by adenovirus-inhibited bone-marrow-derived eosinophil differentiation in vitro, with no detectable effects on the apoptosis of eosinophils. Furthermore, SHP2 induced eosinophil differentiation via regulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. Myeloid shp2 conditional knockout mice (LysM(cre)shp2(flox/flox)) failed to induce eosinophilia as well as airway hyper-responsiveness. The SHP2 inhibitor PHPS-1 also alleviated eosinophilic airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness, accompanied by significantly reduced levels of systemic eosinophils and eosinophil lineage-committed progenitors in allergic mice. We demonstrate that inhibition of eosinophil development is SHP2-dependent and SHP2 is sufficient to promote eosinophil formation in vivo. Our data reveal SHP2 as a critical regulator of eosinophil differentiation, and inhibition of SHP2 specifically in myeloid cells alleviates allergic airway inflammation.
Project description:CD33-related Siglecs (CD33rSiglecs) are a family of sialic acid-recognizing lectins on immune cells whose biologic functions are unknown. We studied in vivo functions of Siglec-F, the CD33rSiglec expressed on mouse eosinophils, which are prominent in allergic processes. Induction of allergic lung inflammation in mice caused up-regulation of Siglec-F on blood and bone marrow eosinophils, accompanied by newly induced expression on some CD4(+) cells, as well as quantitative up-regulation of endogenous Siglec-F ligands in the lung tissue and airways. Taken together with the tyrosine-based inhibitory motif in the cytosolic tail of Siglec-F, the data suggested a negative feedback loop, controlling allergic responses of eosinophils and helper T cells, via Siglec-F and Siglec-F ligands. To pursue this hypothesis, we created Siglec-F-null mice. Allergen-challenged null mice showed increased lung eosinophil infiltration, enhanced bone marrow and blood eosinophilia, delayed resolution of lung eosinophilia, and reduced peribronchial-cell apoptosis. Anti-Siglec-F antibody cross-linking also enhanced eosinophil apoptosis in vitro. These data support the proposed negative feedback role for Siglec-F, represent the first in vivo demonstration of biologic functions for any CD33rSiglec, and predict a role for human Siglec-8 (the isofunctional paralog of mouse Siglec-F) in regulating the pathogenesis of human eosinophil-mediated disorders.