Herpes simplex virus type 1-induced FasL expression in human monocytic cells and its implications for cell death, viral replication, and immune evasion.
ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitously occurring pathogen that infects humans early in childhood. The virus persists as a latent infection in dorsal root ganglia, especially of the trigeminal nerve, and frequently becomes reactivated in humans under conditions of stress. Monocytic cells constitute an important component of the innate and adaptive immune responses. We show here for the first time that HSV-1 stimulates human FasL promoter and induces de novo expression of FasL on the surface of human monocytic cells, including monocytes and macrophages. This virus-induced FasL expression causes death of monocytic cells growing in suspension, but not in monolayers (e.g., macrophages). The addition of a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, as well as anti-FasL antibodies, reduced cell death but increased viral replication in the virus-infected cell cultures. We also show here for the first time that the virus-induced de novo expression of FasL on the cell surface acts as an immune evasion mechanism by causing the death of interacting human CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Our study provides novel insights on FasL expression and cell death in HSV-infected human monocytic cells and their impact on interacting immune cells.
Project description:The Fas/FasL pathway plays a key role in immune homeostasis and immune surveillance. In the central nervous system (CNS) Fas/FasL is involved in axonal outgrowth and adult neurogenesis. However, little is known about the role of the Fas/FasL pathway in herpes encephalitis. In this study, we used a neuropathogenic clinical strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) to explore infection-induced inflammation and immune responses in the mouse brain and the role of Fas/FasL in antiviral CNS immunity. HSV-1 CNS infection induced the infiltration of Fas- FasL-bearing monocytes and T cells in the brain and also to an up-regulation of Fas and FasL expression on resident astrocytes and microglia within infected sites. Upon infection, Fas- and FasL-deficient mice (lpr and gld) were partially protected from encephalitis with a decreased morbidity and mortality compared to WT mice. Fas/FasL deficiency promoted cell-mediated immunity within the CNS. Fas receptor stimulation abrogated HSV-1 induced activation and inflammatory reactions in microglia from WT mice, while lack of Fas or FasL led to a more pronounced activation of monocytes and microglia and also to an enhanced differentiation of these cells into a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype. Furthermore, the specific immune system was more efficient in Fas- and FasL-deficient mice with significantly higher numbers of infiltrating HSV-1-specific cytotoxic T cells in the brain. Our data indicate that the Fas/FasL pathway leads to excessive neuroinflammation during HSV-1 infection, which is associated with a diminished anti-viral response and an excessive neuroinflammation.
Project description:Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can infect a wide range of cell types, including cells of the adaptive and innate immunity but, normally, it completes a fully-permissive replication cycle only in epithelial or neural cells. Complex mechanisms controlling this delicate balance in immune cells and consequent restriction of HSV-1 infection in these cells have not been completely elucidated. We have recently demonstrated that the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) can act as a main permissiveness regulator of HSV-1 infection in monocytic cells, however, mediators involved in this regulation have not been identified. To better define mechanisms involved in this phenomenon and, particularly, the possible involvement of ROS, wild type U937 cells or U937 cells stably transfected with a dominant-negative (DN) I?B-mutant and selenium-containing compounds, as anti-oxidants, were utilized. The main results can be summarized as follows. HSV-1 infection induces an immediate ROS production in U937 monocytic cells that can efficiently activate NF-?B but not in DN-I?B-mutant cells. Treatment with selenium-containing antioxidants efficiently inhibited HSV-1-induced ROS generation while producing increased levels of HSV-1 replication and a reduction of HSV-1-induced NF-?B activation in U937 monocytic cells. Our results suggest a scenario in which an efficient NF-?B-dependent ROS production in response to infection could contribute in limiting HSV-1 replication in monocytes/macrophages, thus avoiding possible irreparable damage to the innate immune system of the host during HSV-1 infection.
Project description:Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2 are significant human pathogens causing recurrent disease. During infection, HSV modulates cell death pathways using the large subunit (R1) of ribonucleotide reductase (RR) to suppress apoptosis by binding to and blocking caspase-8. Here, we demonstrate that HSV-1 and HSV-2 R1 proteins (ICP6 and ICP10, respectively) also prevent necroptosis in human cells by inhibiting the interaction between receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) and RIP3, a key step in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced necroptosis. We show that suppression of this cell death pathway requires an N-terminal RIP homotypic interaction motif (RHIM) within R1, acting in concert with the caspase-8-binding domain, which unleashes necroptosis independent of RHIM function. Thus, necroptosis is a human host defense pathway against two important viral pathogens that naturally subvert multiple death pathways via a single evolutionarily conserved gene product.
Project description:The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) is a crucial player of the antiviral innate response. Intriguingly, however, NF-?B activation is assumed to favour herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection rather than restrict it. Apoptosis, a form of innate response to viruses, is completely inhibited by HSV in fully permissive cells, but not in cells incapable to fully sustain HSV replication, such as immunocompetent cells. To resolve the intricate interplay among NF-?B signalling, apoptosis and permissiveness to HSV-1 in monocytic cells, we utilized U937 monocytic cells in which NF-?B activation was inhibited by expressing a dominant-negative I?B?. Surprisingly, viral production was increased in monocytic cells in which NF-?B was inhibited. Moreover, inhibition of NF-?B led to increased apoptosis following HSV-1 infection, associated with lysosomal membrane permeabilization. High expression of late viral proteins and induction of apoptosis occurred in distinct cells. Transcriptional analysis of known innate response genes by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR excluded a contribution of the assayed genes to the observed phenomena. Thus, in monocytic cells NF-?B activation simultaneously serves as an innate process to restrict viral replication as well as a mechanism to limit the damage of an excessive apoptotic response to HSV-1 infection. This finding may clarify mechanisms controlling HSV-1 infection in monocytic cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Despite being immunogenic, gastric cancers overcome antitumour immune responses by mechanisms that have yet to be fully elucidated. Fas ligand (FasL) is a molecule that induces Fas receptor mediated apoptosis of activated immunocytes, thereby mediating normal immune downregulatory roles including immune response termination, tolerance acquisition, and immune privilege. Colon cancer cell lines have previously been shown to express FasL and kill lymphoid cells by Fas mediated apoptosis in vitro. Many diverse tumours have since been found to express FasL suggesting that a "Fas counterattack" against antitumour immune effector cells may contribute to tumour immune escape. AIM: To ascertain if human gastric tumours express FasL in vivo, as a potential mediator of immune escape in stomach cancer. SPECIMENS: Thirty paraffin wax embedded human gastric adenocarcinomas. METHODS: FasL protein was detected in gastric tumours using immunohistochemistry; FasL mRNA was detected in the tumours using in situ hybridisation. Cell death was detected in situ in tumour infiltrating lymphocytes using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). RESULTS: Prevalent expression of FasL was detected in all 30 resected gastric adenocarcinomas examined. In the tumours, FasL protein and mRNA were co-localised to neoplastic gastric epithelial cells, confirming expression by the tumour cells. FasL expression was independent of tumour stage, suggesting that it may be expressed throughout gastric cancer progression. TUNEL staining disclosed a high level of cell death among lymphocytes infiltrating FasL positive areas of tumour. CONCLUSIONS: Human gastric adenocarcinomas express the immune downregulatory molecule, FasL. The results suggest that FasL is a prevalent mediator of immune privilege in stomach cancer.
Project description:A179L, a non-structural protein of African swine fever virus (ASFV), is capable of suppressing apoptosis by binding the BH3 domain of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins via a conserved ligand binding groove. Our present study aims to determine if A179L affects necroptosis, the second form of programmed cell death induced by DNA and RNA viruses. Here we report that A179L enhanced TNF-α or TSZ (TNF-α, Smac, and Z-Vad)-induced receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK1), RIPK3, and mixed lineage kinase domain like peudokinase (MLKL) phosphorylation in L929 cells, a murine fibrosarcoma cell line. Sytox green staining revealed that A179L significantly increased the number of necroptotic cells in TSZ-treated L929 cells. Using human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) to model DNA virus-induced cell death, we found that A179L blocked the HSV-1-induced cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase 8, and caspase 3 and decreased the number of apoptotic cells in HSV-1-infected IPEC-DQ cells, a porcine intestinal epithelial cell line. In contrast, A179L transfection of IPEC-DQ cells enhanced HSV-1-induced RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL phosphorylation and increased the number of necroptotic cells. Consistently, A179L also suppressed apoptosis but enhanced the necroptosis induced by two RNA viruses, Sendai virus (SeV) and influenza virus (IAV). Our study uncovers a previously unrecognized role of A179L in regulating cell death and suggests that A179L re-directs its anti-apoptotic activity to necroptosis.
Project description:The nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) pathway plays a key role in innate and adaptive immunity, cell proliferation and survival, inflammation and tumors development. MiR-146a is an immune system regulator that has anti-inflammatory function in multiple cell types and conditions. Here we demonstrate activation of canonical NF-?B pathway in monocytic cells upon HSV-1 replication. By constructing and using a recombinant HSV-1\EGFP virus, we monitored the capability of the virus to recruit NF-?B and we report that the phosphorylation of p65 protein correlates with an active virus replication at single-cell level. In addition, we found that upregulation of miR-146a during viral replication is strictly dependent on NF-?B activation and correlates with tight control of the interleukin-1 receptor-associate kinase 1 (IRAK1). Accordingly, THP-1 DN I?B? cells, expressing a dominant negative mI?B?, did not show upregulation of miR-146a upon HSV-1 infection. Our data suggest that the expression of miRNA-146a modulates NF-?B activation through targeting IRAK1 during HSV-1 replication in THP-1 cells.
Project description:Robust anti-tumor immunity requires innate as well as adaptive immune responses. We have shown that plasmacytoid dendritic cells develop killer cell-like activity in melanoma cell cocultures after exposure to the infectious but replication-deficient herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) d106S. To combine this innate effect with an enhanced adaptive immune response, the gene encoding human MelanA/MART-1 was inserted into HSV-1 d106S via homologous recombination to increase direct expression of this tumor antigen. Infection of Vero cells using this recombinant virus confirmed MelanA expression by Western blotting, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence. HSV-1 d106S-MelanA induced expression of the transgene in fibroblast and melanoma cell lines not naturally expressing MelanA. Infection of a melanoma cell line with CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockout of MelanA confirmed de novo expression of the transgene in the viral context. Dependent on MelanA expression, infected fibroblast and melanoma cell lines induced degranulation of HLA-matched MelanA-specific CD8+ T cells, followed by killing of infected cells. To study infection of immune cells, we exposed peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in vitro-differentiated macrophages to the parental HSV-1 d106S, resulting in expression of the transgene GFP in CD11c+ cells and macrophages. These data provide evidence that the application of MelanA-encoding HSV-1 d106S could enhance adaptive immune responses and re-direct MelanA-specific CD8+ T cells to tumor lesions, which have escaped adaptive immune responses via downregulation of their tumor antigen. Hence, HSV-1 d106S-MelanA harbors the potential to induce innate immune responses in conjunction with adaptive anti-tumor responses by CD8+ T cells, which should be evaluated in further studies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Glioblastoma multiforme is the most malignant cancer of the brain and is notoriously difficult to treat due to the highly proliferative and infiltrative nature of the cells. Herein, we explored the combination treatment of pre-established human glioma xenograft using multiple therapeutic genes whereby the gene expression is regulated by both cell-type and cell cycle-dependent transcriptional regulatory mechanism conferred by recombinant HSV-1 amplicon vectors.<h4>Results</h4>We demonstrated for the first time that Ki67-positive proliferating primary human glioma cells cultured from biopsy samples were effectively induced into cell death by the dual-specific function of the pG8-FasL amplicon vectors. These vectors were relatively stable and exhibited minimal cytotoxicity in vivo. Intracranial implantation of pre-transduced glioma cells resulted in better survival outcome when compared with viral vectors inoculated one week post-implantation of tumor cells, indicating that therapeutic efficacy is dependent on the viral spread and mode of viral vectors administration. We further showed that pG8-FasL amplicon vectors are functional in the presence of commonly used treatment regimens for human brain cancer. In fact, the combined therapies of pG8-FasL and pG8-FADD in the presence of temozolomide significantly improved the survival of mice bearing intracranial high-grade gliomas.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Taken together, our results showed that the glioma-specific and cell cycle-dependent HSV-1 amplicon vector is potentially useful as an adjuvant therapy to complement the current gene therapy strategy for gliomas.
Project description:Primary infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) results in lifelong latent infections of neurons in sensory ganglia such as the trigeminal ganglia (TG). It has been postulated that T cells retained in TG inhibit reactivation of latent virus. The acquisition of TG specimens of individuals within hours after death offered the unique opportunity to characterize the phenotype and specificity of TG-resident T cells in humans. High numbers of activated CD8(+) T cells expressing a late effector memory phenotype were found to reside in latently infected TG. The T cell infiltrate was oligoclonal, and T cells selectively clustered around HSV-1 but not VZV latently infected neurons. Neuronal damage was not observed despite granzyme B expression by the neuron-interacting CD8(+) T cells. The TG-resident T cells, mainly CD8(+) T cells, were directed against HSV-1 and not to VZV, despite neuronal expression of VZV proteins. The results implicate that herpesvirus latency in human TG is associated with a local, persistent T cell response, comprising activated late effector memory CD8(+) T cells that appear to control HSV-1 latency by noncytolytic pathways. In contrast, T cells do not seem to be directly involved in controlling VZV latency in human TG.