ELOVL6 genetic variation is related to insulin sensitivity: a new candidate gene in energy metabolism.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The elongase of long chain fatty acids family 6 (ELOVL6) is an enzyme that specifically catalyzes the elongation of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids with 12, 14 and 16 carbons. ELOVL6 is expressed in lipogenic tissues and it is regulated by sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1). OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether ELOVL6 genetic variation is associated with insulin sensitivity in a population from southern Spain. DESIGN: We undertook a prospective, population-based study collecting phenotypic, metabolic, nutritional and genetic information. Measurements were made of weight and height and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Insulin resistance was measured by homeostasis model assessment. The type of dietary fat was assessed from samples of cooking oil taken from the participants' kitchens and analyzed by gas chromatography. Five SNPs of the ELOVL6 gene were analyzed by SNPlex. RESULTS: Carriers of the minor alleles of the SNPs rs9997926 and rs6824447 had a lower risk of having high HOMA_IR, whereas carriers of the minor allele rs17041272 had a higher risk of being insulin resistant. An interaction was detected between the rs6824447 polymorphism and the intake of oil in relation with insulin resistance, such that carriers of this minor allele who consumed sunflower oil had lower HOMA_IR than those who did not have this allele (P?=?0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variations in the ELOVL6 gene were associated with insulin sensitivity in this population-based study.
Project description:Elongation of very long-chain fatty acids protein 6 (Elovl6) is a crucial enzyme in the synthesis of endogenous fatty acids, which participates in the energy balance and metabolic diseases. The main objective of this study was to explore the molecular characterization of Elovl6 and the regulation of elovl6 expression in response to dietary fatty acids and insulin. In the present study, the ORF (open reading frame) of Elovl6 from rainbow trout was cloned and characterized, which showed a high identity (87%) with mammals and other teleost. The results of quantitative PCR showed that the transcriptional levels of elovl6 from rainbow trout that were fed diets containing soybean oil (enriched with 18:2n-6, linoleic acid (LA)) or linseed oil (enriched with 18:3n-3, ?-linolenic acid (ALA)) were lower than those in the group that were fed diets containing fish oil (enriched with 20:5n-3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 22:6n-3, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)). Correspondingly, mRNA expression of elovl6 in hepatocytes treated with DHA was dramatically higher than that in LA and ALA groups. The transcriptional expression of elovl6 in hepatocytes treated with insulin was also significantly increased. Moreover, the dual luciferase assay showed the transcription factor CREB1 dramatically up-regulated the promoter activity of elovl6, while FOXO1 significantly down-regulated the elovl6 promoter activity in rainbow trout. The differences in transcriptional expression of crbe1 and foxo1 may contribute to the increase or decrease of elovl6 expression in rainbow trout in response to fatty acids or insulin. These findings revealed the molecular characterization of elovl6 and the regulation of elovl6 expression by CREB1 and FOXO1 in rainbow trout in response to dietary fatty acids or insulin.
Project description:Recent animal studies have indicated that overexpression of the elongation of long-chain fatty acids family member 6 (Elovl6) gene can cause insulin resistance and ?-cell dysfunction. These are the major factors involved in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To identify the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of ELOVL6 and T2DM pathogenesis, we conducted a case-control study of 610 Han Chinese individuals (328 newly diagnosed T2DM and 282 healthy subjects). Insulin resistance and islet first-phase secretion function were evaluated by assessment of insulin resistance in a homeostasis model (HOMA-IR) and an arginine stimulation test. Three SNPs of the ELOVL6 gene were genotyped with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, with DNA sequencing used to confirm the results. Only genotypes TT and CT of the ELOVL6 SNP rs12504538 were detected in the samples. Genotype CC was not observed. The T2DM group had a higher frequency of the C allele and the CT genotype than the control group. Subjects with the CT genotype had higher HOMA-IR values than those with the TT genotype. In addition, no statistical significance was observed between the genotype and allele frequencies of the control and T2DM groups for SNPs rs17041272 and rs6824447. The study indicated that the ELOVL6 gene polymorphism rs12504538 is associated with an increased risk of T2DM, because it causes an increase in insulin resistance.
Project description:The elongation of long-chain fatty acids family member 6 (Elovl6) is a key enzyme in lipogenesis that catalyzes the elongation of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Insulin resistance involves upregulation of Elovl6, which has been linked to obesity-related malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of Elovl6 in cancer progression remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed the expression of Elovl6 in 61 clinical HCC specimens. Patients with Elovl6 high-expressing tumors were associated with shorter disease-free survival and overall survival compared to those with Elovl6 low-expressing tumors. Knockdown of Elovl6 in HCC cells reduced cell proliferation and Akt activation, as well as sensitivity to fatty acids. Inhibition of Elovl6 reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in mice bearing tumors. Taken together, our results indicate that Elovl6 enhances oncogenic activity in liver cancer and is associated with poor prognosis in patients with HCC. Elovl6 may be a therapeutic target for HCC; thus, further studies to confirm this strategy are warranted.
Project description:Elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 6 (Elovl6) is a key enzyme in fatty acid synthesis, which participates in converting palmitate (C16:0) to stearate (C18:0). Although studies of Elovl6 have been carried out in mammals, the nutritional regulation of elovl6 in fish remains poorly understood. In the present study, the cloning and nutritional regulation of elovl6 were determined in large yellow croaker. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the full-length cDNA of elovl6 was 1360 bp, including an open reading frame of 810 bp encoding a putative protein of 269 amino acid that possesses the characteristic features of Elovl proteins. The transcript level of elovl6 was significantly increased in the liver of croaker fed the diets with soybean oil (enriched with 18: 2n-6, LA) or linseed oil (enriched with 18: 3n-3, ALA) than that in croaker fed the diet with fish oil (enriched with 20: 5n-3 and 22: 6n-3). Correspondingly, the elovl6 expression in croaker's hepatocytes treated with ALA or LA was remarkably increased compared to the controls. Furthermore, the transcription factors including hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α), CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (CEBPβ), retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), and cAMP response element-binding protein 1 (CREB1) greatly enhanced promoter activity of elovl6 in large yellow croaker, and the expression of transcription factors is consistent with the changes of elovl6 expression in response to fatty acids in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, this study revealed that elovl6 expression in large yellow croaker could be upregulated by dietary ALA or LA via the increased transcriptional expression of transcription factors including hnf1α, cebpβ, rxrα, and creb1.
Project description:ELOVL family member 6, elongation of very long chain fatty acids (Elovl6) is a microsomal enzyme, which regulates the elongation of C12-16 saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Elovl6 has been shown to be associated with various pathophysiologies including insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. To investigate a potential role of Elovl6 during bone development, we here examined a skeletal phenotype of Elovl6 knockout (Elovl6-/-) mice. The Elovl6-/- skeleton was smaller than that of controls, but exhibited no obvious patterning defects. Histological analysis revealed a reduced length of proliferating and an elongated length of hypertrophic chondrocyte layer, and decreased trabecular bone in Elovl6-/- mice compared with controls. These results were presumably due to a modest decrease in chondrocyte proliferation and accelerated differentiation of cells of the chondrocyte lineage. Consistent with the increased length of the hypertrophic chondrocyte layer in Elovl6-/- mice, Collagen10?1 was identified as one of the most affected genes by ablation of Elovl6 in chondrocytes. Furthermore, this elevated expression of Collagen10?1 of Elovl6-null chondrocytes was likely associated with increased levels of Foxa2/a3 and Mef2c mRNA expression. Relative increases in protein levels of nuclear Foxa2 and cytoplasmic histone deacethylase 4/5/7 were also observed in Elovl6 knockdown cells of the chondrocyte lineage. Collectively, our data suggest that Elovl6 plays a critical role for proper development of embryonic growth plate.
Project description:In previous studies on an Iberian x Landrace cross, we have provided evidence that supported the porcine ELOVL6 gene as the major causative gene of the QTL on pig chromosome 8 for palmitic and palmitoleic acid contents in muscle and backfat. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ELOVL6:c.-533C > T located in the promoter region of ELOVL6 was found to be highly associated with ELOVL6 expression and, accordingly, with the percentages of palmitic and palmitoleic acids in longissimus dorsi and adipose tissue. The main goal of the current work was to further study the role of ELOVL6 on these traits by analyzing the regulation of the expression of ELOVL6 and the implication of ELOVL6 polymorphisms on meat quality traits in pigs.High-throughput sequencing of BAC clones that contain the porcine ELOVL6 gene coupled to RNAseq data re-analysis showed that two isoforms of this gene are expressed in liver and adipose tissue and that they differ in number of exons and 3'UTR length. Although several SNPs in the 3'UTR of ELOVL6 were associated with palmitic and palmitoleic acid contents, this association was lower than that previously observed with SNP ELOVL6:c.-533C > T. This SNP is in full linkage disequilibrium with SNP ELOVL6:c.-394G > A that was identified in the binding site for estrogen receptor alpha (ER?). Interestingly, the ELOVL6:c.-394G allele is associated with an increase in methylation levels of the ELOVL6 promoter and with a decrease of ELOVL6 expression. Therefore, ER? is clearly a good candidate to explain the regulation of ELOVL6 expression through dynamic epigenetic changes in the binding site of known regulators of ELOVL6 gene, such as SREBF1 and SP1.Our results strongly suggest the ELOVL6:c.-394G > A polymorphism as the causal mutation for the QTL on pig chromosome 8 that affects fatty acid composition in pigs.
Project description:Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) that can develop into liver cirrhosis and cancer. Elongation of very long chain fatty acids (ELOVL) family member 6 (Elovl6) is a microsomal enzyme that regulates the elongation of C12-16 saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (FAs). We have previously shown that Elovl6 plays an important role in the development of hepatic insulin resistance and NASH by modifying FA composition. Recent studies have linked altered hepatic cholesterol homeostasis and cholesterol accumulation to the pathogenesis of NASH. In the present study, we further investigated the role of Elovl6 in the progression of lithogenic diet (LD)-induced steatohepatitis. We showed that the absence of Elovl6 suppresses hepatic lipid accumulation, plasma total cholesterol and total bile acid (BA) levels in LDL receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice challenged with a LD. The absence of Elovl6 also decreases hepatic inflammation, oxidative stress and liver injury, but increases the formation of cholesterol crystals in the less dilated gallbladder. These findings suggest that Elovl6-mediated changes in hepatic FA composition, especially oleic acid (C18:1n-9), control handling of hepatic cholesterol and BA, which protects against hepatotoxicity and steatohepatitis, but promotes gallstone formation in LD-fed Ldlr(-/-) mice.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The ELOVL fatty acid elongase 6 (ELOVL6), the only elongase related to de novo lipogenesis, catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the elongation cycle by controlling the fatty acid balance in mammals. It is located on pig chromosome 8 (SSC8) in a region where a QTL affecting palmitic, and palmitoleic acid composition was previously detected, using an Iberian x Landrace intercross. The main goal of this work was to fine-map the QTL and to evaluate the ELOVL6 gene as a positional candidate gene affecting the percentages of palmitic and palmitoleic fatty acids in pigs.<h4>Methodology and principal findings</h4>The combination of a haplotype-based approach and single-marker analysis allowed us to identify the main, associated interval for the QTL, in which the ELOVL6 gene was identified and selected as a positional candidate gene. A polymorphism in the promoter region of ELOVL6, ELOVL6:c.-533C>T, was highly associated with the percentage of palmitic and palmitoleic acids in muscle and backfat. Significant differences in ELOVL6 gene expression were observed in backfat when animals were classified by the ELOVL6:c.-533C>T genotype. Accordingly, animals carrying the allele associated with a decrease in ELOVL6 gene expression presented an increase in C16:0 and C16:1(n-7) fatty acid content and a decrease of elongation activity ratios in muscle and backfat. Furthermore, a SNP genome-wide association study with ELOVL6 relative expression levels in backfat showed the strongest effect on the SSC8 region in which the ELOVL6 gene is located. Finally, different potential genomic regions associated with ELOVL6 gene expression were also identified by GWAS in liver and muscle, suggesting a differential tissue regulation of the ELOVL6 gene.<h4>Conclusions and significance</h4>Our results suggest ELOVL6 as a potential causal gene for the QTL analyzed and, subsequently, for controlling the overall balance of fatty acid composition in pigs.
Project description:Elongation of very long chain fatty acid-like family member 6 (ELOVL6) is a fatty acyl elongase that performs the initial and rate-limiting condensing reaction required for microsomal elongation of long-chain fatty acids. Our previous in vitro studies suggested that ELOVL6 elongated long-chain saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids with chain lengths of 12 to 16 carbons. Here, we describe the generation and phenotypic characterization of Elovl6(-/-) mice. As predicted from the in vitro studies, livers from Elovl6(-/-) mice accumulated palmitic (C16:0) and palmitoleic (C16:1, n-7) fatty acids and contained significantly less stearic (C18:0) and oleic (C18:1, n-9) acids, confirming that ELOVL6 is the only enzyme capable of elongating palmitate (C16:0). Unexpectedly, Elovl6(-/-) mice produced vaccenic acid (C18:1, n-7), the elongated product of palmitoleate (C16:1, n-7), suggesting that palmitoleate (C16:1, n-7) to vaccenate (C18:1, n-7) elongation was not specific to ELOVL6. The only detected consequence of deleting Elovl6(-/-) in mice was that their livers accumulated significantly more triglycerides than wild-type mice when fed a fat-free/high-carbohydrate diet. When mice were fed a high-fat diet or ELOVL6 was deleted in ob/ob mice, the absence of ELOVL6 did not alter the development of obesity, fatty liver, hyperglycemia, or hyperinsulinemia. Combined, these results suggest that palmitoleic (C16:1, n-7) and vaccenic (C18:1, n-7) acids can largely replace the roles of oleic acid (C18:1, n-9) in vivo and that the deletion of ELOVL6 does not protect mice from the development of hepatic steatosis or insulin resistance.
Project description:The present study aimed to investigate the expression of elongation of very long-chain fatty acids family member 6 (ELOVL6) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, and to determine its role in the development of HCC. A total of 377 HCC specimens were collected for tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry analyses. The ELOVL6 IHC score for HCC tissues was 0.97±0.71, which was significantly lower than that of the matched adjacent normal tissues (1.32±0.68; P<0.001). Patients with low levels of ELOVL6 expression were older (P=0.014) and possessed larger sized tumors (P=0.039) than patients with high expression levels. Additionally, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with low ELOVL6 expression levels also had significantly poorer overall (P<0.001) and disease-free (P=0.029) survival times, and a greater probability of recurrence. The tumor size, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, vascular invasion and ELOVL6 expression were all shown to be prognostic variables for overall survival in patients with HCC. Multivariate analysis revealed that vascular invasion (P<0.001), TNM stage (P<0.001) and ELOVL6 expression (P=0.001) were independent prognostic variables for overall survival. In addition, vascular invasion (P=0.032) and ELOVL6 expression (P=0.041) were independent risk factors for disease-free survival, and vascular invasion (P=0.019) and ELOVL6 expression (P=0.045) were independent risk factors associated with HCC recurrence. The present study revealed that in patients with HCC, ELOVL6 expression level was reduced in HCC tissues, and that higher ELOVL6 expression levels correlated with longer survival times. This indicates that ELOVL6 may serves as an independent marker of poor patient outcome.