The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation system regulates aggregation and degradation of mutant neuroserpin.
ABSTRACT: Familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of neuroserpin polymers in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of cortical and subcortical neurons in the CNS because of neuroserpin point mutations. ER-associated degradation (ERAD) is involved in mutant neuroserpin degradation. In this study, we demonstrate that two ER-associated E3 ligases, Hrd1 and gp78, are involved in the ubiquitination and degradation of mutant neuroserpin. Overexpression of Hrd1 and gp78 decreases the mutant neuroserpin protein level, whereas Hrd1 and gp78 knockdown increases mutant neuroserpin stability. Moreover, ERAD impairment by mutant valosin-containing protein increases the mutant neuroserpin protein level and aggregate formation. Thus, these findings identify mutant neuroserpin as an ERAD target and show that Hrd1 and gp78 mediate mutant neuroserpin turnover through the ERAD pathway.
Project description:Mutants of neuroserpin are retained as polymers within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of neurones to cause the autosomal dominant dementia familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies or FENIB. The cellular consequences are unusual in that the ordered polymers activate the ER overload response (EOR) in the absence of the canonical unfolded protein response. We use both cell lines and Drosophila models to show that the G392E mutant of neuroserpin that forms polymers is degraded by UBE2j1 E2 ligase and Hrd1 E3 ligase while truncated neuroserpin, a protein that lacks 132 amino acids, is degraded by UBE2g2 (E2) and gp78 (E3) ligases. The degradation of G392E neuroserpin results from SREBP-dependent activation of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in cells that express polymers of neuroserpin (G392E). Inhibition of HMGCoA reductase, the limiting enzyme of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, reduced the ubiquitination of G392E neuroserpin in our cell lines and increased the retention of neuroserpin polymers in both HeLa cells and primary neurones. Our data reveal a reciprocal relationship between cholesterol biosynthesis and the clearance of mutant neuroserpin. This represents the first description of a link between sterol metabolism and modulation of the proteotoxicity mediated by the EOR.
Project description:Misfolded or improperly assembled proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are exported into the cytosol and degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, a process termed ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hrd1p/Der3p is an ER membrane-spanning ubiquitin ligase that participates in ERAD of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) when CFTR is exogenously expressed in yeast cells. Two mammalian orthologues of yeast Hrd1p/Der3p, gp78 and HRD1, have been reported. Here, we demonstrate that gp78, but not HRD1, participates in ERAD of the CFTR mutant CFTRDeltaF508, by specifically promoting ubiquitylation of CFTRDeltaF508. Domain swapping experiments and deletion analysis revealed that gp78 binds to CFTRDeltaF508 through its ubiquitin binding region, the so-called coupling of ubiquitin to ER degradation (CUE) domain. Gp78 polyubiquitylated in vitro an N-terminal ubiquitin-glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-fusion protein, but not GST alone. This suggests that gp78 recognizes the ubiquitin that is already conjugated to CFTRDeltaF508 and catalyzes further polyubiquitylation of CFTRDeltaF508 in a manner similar to that of a multiubiquitin chain assembly factor (E4). Furthermore, we revealed by small interfering RNA methods that the ubiquitin ligase RMA1 functioned as an E3 enzyme upstream of gp78. Our data demonstrates that gp78 cooperates with RMA1 with E4-like activity in the ERAD of CFTRDeltaF508.
Project description:There are an increasing number of ubiquitin ligases (E3s) implicated in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) in mammals. The two for which the greatest amount of information exists are the RING finger proteins gp78 and Hrd1, which are the structural orthologs of the yeast ERAD E3 Hrd1p. We now report that Hrd1, also known as synoviolin, targets gp78 for proteasomal degradation independent of the ubiquitin ligase activity of gp78, without evidence of a reciprocal effect. This degradation is observed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking Hrd1, as well as with acute manipulation of Hrd1. The significance of this is underscored by the diminished level of a gp78-specific substrate, Insig-1, when Hrd1 expression is decreased and gp78 levels are consequently increased. These finding demonstrate a previously unappreciated level of complexity of the ubiquitin system in ERAD and have potentially important ramifications for processes where gp78 is implicated including regulation of lipid metabolism, metastasis, cystic fibrosis and neurodegenerative disorders.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises thirty percent of the newly translated proteins in eukaryotic cells. The quality control mechanism within the ER distinguishes between properly and improperly folded proteins and ensures that unwanted proteins are retained in the ER and subsequently degraded through ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Besides cleaning of misfolded proteins ERAD is also important for physiological processes by regulating the abundance of normal proteins of the ER. Thus it is important to unreveal the regulation patterns of ERAD. Here, we describe that ERAD pathway is regulated by androgen, where its inhibitor SVIP was downregulated, all other ERAD genes were upregulated. Consistently, androgen treatment increased the degradation rate of ERAD substrates. Using several independent techniques, we showed that this regulation is through androgen receptor transactivation. ERAD genes found to be upregulated in prostate cancer tissues and silencing expression of Hrd1, SVIP, and gp78 reduced the in vitro migration and malignant transformation of LNCaP cells. Our data suggests that expression levels of ERAD components are regulated by androgens, that promotes ERAD proteolytic activity, which is positively related with prostate tumorigenesis.
Project description:Familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies (FENIB) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by point mutations in the gene for neuroserpin, a serine protease inhibitor of the nervous system. Different mutations are known that are responsible for mutant neuroserpin polymerization and accumulation as inclusion bodies in many cortical and subcortical neurons, thereby leading to cell death, dementia and epilepsy. Many efforts have been undertaken to elucidate the molecular pathways responsible for neuronal death. Most investigations have concentrated on analysis of intracellular mechanisms such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) and oxidative stress. We have generated a HEK-293 cell model of FENIB by overexpressing G392E-mutant neuroserpin and in this study we examine trafficking and toxicity of this polymerogenic variant. We observed that a small fraction of mutant neuroserpin is secreted via the ER-to-Golgi pathway, and that this release can be pharmacologically regulated. Overexpression of the mutant form of neuroserpin did not stimulate cell death in the HEK-293 cell model. Finally, when treating primary hippocampal neurons with G392E neuroserpin polymers, we did not detect cytotoxicity or synaptotoxicity. Altogether, we report here that a polymerogenic mutant form of neuroserpin is secreted from cells but is not toxic in the extracellular milieu.
Project description:Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin (htt) protein, but the exact mechanism of HD pathogenesis remains uncertain. Recent evidence suggests that htt proteins with expanded polyglutamine tracts induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, probably by interfering with ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Here we report that mutant htt interacts and interferes with the function of gp78, an ER membrane-anchored ubiquitin ligase (E3) involved in ERAD. Mapping studies showed that the HEAT repeats 2&3 of htt interact with the cue domain of gp78. The interaction competitively reduces polyubiquitinated protein binding to gp78 and also sterically blocks gp78 interaction of p97/VCP, a molecular chaperone that is essential for ERAD. These effects of htt negatively regulate the function of gp78 in ERAD and are aggravated by polyglutamine expansion. Paradoxically, gp78 is still able to ubiquitinate and facilitate degradation of htt proteins with expanded polyglutamine. The impairment of ERAD by mutant htt proteins is associated with induction of ER stress. Our studies provide a novel molecular mechanism that supports the involvement of ER stress in HD pathogenesis.
Project description:Proteostasis maintenance of ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors dictates their function in controlling neuronal inhibition in mammalian central nervous systems. However, as a multisubunit, multispan, integral membrane protein, even wild type subunits of GABAA receptors fold and assemble inefficiently in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Unassembled and misfolded subunits undergo ER-associated degradation (ERAD), but this degradation process remains poorly understood for GABAA receptors. Here, using the ?1 subunits of GABAA receptors as a model substrate, we demonstrated that Grp94, a metazoan-specific Hsp90 in the ER lumen, uses its middle domain to interact with the ?1 subunits and positively regulates their ERAD. OS-9, an ER-resident lectin, acts downstream of Grp94 to further recognize misfolded ?1 subunits in a glycan-dependent manner. This delivers misfolded ?1 subunits to the Hrd1-mediated ubiquitination and the valosin-containing protein-mediated extraction pathway. Repressing the initial ERAD recognition step by inhibiting Grp94 enhances the functional surface expression of misfolding-prone ?1(A322D) subunits, which causes autosomal dominant juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. This study clarifies a Grp94-mediated ERAD pathway for GABAA receptors, which provides a novel way to finely tune their function in physiological and pathophysiological conditions.
Project description:The HRD (HMG-CoA reductase degradation) pathway is a conserved route of endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD), by which misfolded ER proteins are ubiquitinated and degraded. ERAD substrates are ubiquitinated by the action of the Hrd1 RING-H2 E3 ligase. Hrd1 is always present in a stoichiometric complex with the ER membrane protein Hrd3, which is also required for HRD-dependent degradation. Despite its conserved presence, unequivocal study of Hrd3 function has been precluded by its central role in Hrd1 stability. Loss of Hrd3 causes unrestricted self-degradation of Hrd1, resulting in significant loss of the core ligase. Accordingly, the degree to which Hrd3 functions independently of Hrd1 stabilization has remained unresolved. By capitalizing on our studies of Usa1 in Hrd1 degradation, we have devised a new approach to evaluate Hrd3 functions in ERAD. We now show that Hrd3 has a direct and critical role in ERAD in addition to Hrd1 stabilization. This direct component of Hrd3 is phenotypically as important as Hrd1 in the native HRD complex. Hrd3 was required the E3 activity of Hrd1, rather than substrate or E2 recruitment to Hrd1. Although Hrd1 can function in some circumstances independent of Hrd3, these studies show an indispensable role for Hrd3 in living cells.
Project description:Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) resides in the plasma membrane and is required for myelin formation in the peripheral nervous system. Many PMP22 mutants accumulate in excess in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and lead to the inherited neuropathies of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. However, the mechanism through which PMP22 mutants accumulate in the ER is unknown. Here, we studied the quality control mechanisms for the PMP22 mutants L16P and G150D, which were originally identified in mice and patients with CMT. We found that the ER-localised ubiquitin ligase Hrd1/SYVN1 mediates ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of PMP22(L16P) and PMP22(G150D), and another ubiquitin ligase, gp78/AMFR, mediates ERAD of PMP22(G150D) as well. We also found that PMP22(L16P), but not PMP22(G150D), is partly released from the ER by loss of Rer1, which is a Golgi-localised sorting receptor for ER retrieval. Rer1 interacts with the wild-type and mutant forms of PMP22. Interestingly, release of PMP22(L16P) from the ER was more prominent with simultaneous knockdown of Rer1 and the ER-localised chaperone calnexin than with the knockdown of each gene. These results suggest that CMT disease-related PMP22(L16P) is trapped in the ER by calnexin-dependent ER retention and Rer1-mediated early Golgi retrieval systems and partly degraded by the Hrd1-mediated ERAD system.
Project description:Mutations in the gene rhodopsin are one of the major causes of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). Mutant forms of Rhodopsin frequently accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), cause ER stress, and trigger photoreceptor cell degeneration. Here, we performed a genome-wide screen to identify suppressors of retinal degeneration in a Drosophila model of adRP, carrying a point mutation in the major rhodopsin, Rh1 (Rh1G69D). We identified two novel E3 ubiquitin ligases SORDD1 and SORDD2 that effectively suppressed Rh1G69D-induced photoreceptor dysfunction and retinal degeneration. SORDD1/2 promoted the ubiquitination and degradation of Rh1G69D through VCP (valosin containing protein) and independent of processes reliant on the HRD1 (HMG-CoA reductase degradation protein 1)/HRD3 complex. We further demonstrate that SORDD1/2 and HRD1 function in parallel and in a redundant fashion to maintain rhodopsin homeostasis and integrity of photoreceptor cells. These findings identify a new ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway and suggest that facilitating SORDD1/2 function may be a therapeutic strategy to treat adRP.