P450 redox enzymes in the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium: gene transcription, heterologous expression, and activity analysis on the purified proteins.
ABSTRACT: With an aim to understand the cytochrome P450 enzyme system in the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, here we report molecular characterization of its P450 redox proteins including the primary P450 oxidoreductase (POR) and two alternate P450 redox proteins cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) and cytochrome b5 reductase (cyt b5r) in terms of transcriptional regulation and heterologous expression. The transcript abundance followed the order POR > cyt b5r > cyt b5. Interestingly, the three genes showed an overall higher expression in the defined carbon-limited cultures with low nitrogen (LN) or high nitrogen (HN) versus the carbon-rich malt extract (ME) cultures. cDNA cloning and analysis revealed the following deduced protein characteristics: cyt b5 (238 amino acids, 25.38 kDa) and cyt b5r (321 amino acids, 35.52 kDa). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the cloned cyt b5 belongs to a novel class of fungal cyt b5-like proteins. The two proteins cyt b5 and cyt b5r were heterologously expressed in E. coli and purified using affinity-based purification in an active form. The POR was heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and was also purified in active form as evidenced by its cytochrome c reduction activity. This is the first report on cloning, heterologous expression, and purification of the alternate redox proteins cyt b5 and cyt b5r in E. coli and on yeast expression of POR from this model white rot fungus.
Project description:Two central redox enzyme systems exist to reduce eukaryotic P450 enzymes, the P450 oxidoreductase (POR) and the cyt b? reductase-cyt b?. In fungi, limited information is available for the cyt b(5) reductase-cyt b(5) system. Here we characterized the kinetic mechanism of (cyt b?r)-cyt b? redox system from the model white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Pc) and made a quantitative comparison to the POR system. We determined that Pc-cyt b?r followed a "ping-pong" mechanism and could directly reduce cytochrome c. However, unlike other cyt b? reductases, Pc-cyt b?r lacked the typical ferricyanide reduction activity, a standard for cyt b? reductases. Through co-expression in yeast, we demonstrated that the Pc-cyt b?r-cyt b? complex is capable of transferring electrons to Pc-P450 CYP63A2 for its benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenation activity and that the efficiency was comparable to POR. In fact, both redox systems supported oxidation of an estimated one-third of the added benzo(a)pyrene amount. To our knowledge, this is the first report to indicate that the cyt b?r-cyt b? complex of fungi is capable of transferring electrons to a P450 monooxygenase. Furthermore, this is the first eukaryotic quantitative comparison of the two P450 redox enzyme systems (POR and cyt b?r-cyt b?) in terms of supporting a P450 monooxygenase activity.
Project description:Heterocyclic and aromatic amine carcinogens are thought to lead to tumor initiation via the formation of DNA adducts, and bioactivation to arylhydroxylamine metabolites is necessary for reactivity with DNA. Carcinogenic arylhydroxylamine metabolites are cleared by a microsomal, NADH-dependent, oxygen-insensitive reduction pathway in humans, which may be a source of interindividual variability in response to aromatic amine carcinogens. The purpose of this study was to characterize the identity of this reduction pathway in human liver. On the basis of our findings with structurally similar arylhydroxylamine metabolites of therapeutic drugs, we hypothesized that the reductive detoxification of arylhydroxylamine carcinogens was catalyzed by NADH cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) and cytochrome b5 (cyt b5). We found that reduction of the carcinogenic hydroxylamines of the aromatic amine 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP; found in cigarette smoke) and the heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP; found in grilled meats) was indeed catalyzed by a purified system containing only human b5R and cyt b5. Specific activities were 56-346-fold higher in the purified system as compared to human liver microsomes (HLM), with similar Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m) values) in both systems. The stoichiometry for b5R and cyt b5 that yielded the highest activity in the purified system was also similar to that found in native HLM ( approximately 1:8 to 1:10). Polyclonal antisera to either b5R or cyt b5 significantly inhibited N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl (NHOH-4-ABP) reduction by 95 and 89%, respectively, and immunoreactive cyt b5 protein content in individual HLM was significantly correlated with individual reduction of both NHOH-4-ABP and N-hydroxy-PhIP (NHOH-PhIP). Finally, titration of HLM into the purified b5R/cyt b5 system did not enhance the efficiency of reduction activity. We conclude that b5R and cyt b5 are together solely capable of the reduction of arylhydroxylamine carcinogens, and we further hypothesize that this pathway may be a source of individual variability with respect to cancer susceptibility following 4-ABP or PhIP exposure.
Project description:Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) is an important drug target for castration resistant prostate cancer. It is a bi-functional enzyme, catalyzing production of glucocorticoid precursors by hydroxylation of pregnene-nucleus, and androgen biosynthesis by a second CC lyase step, at the expense of glucocorticoid production. Cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) is known to be a key regulator of the androgen synthesis reaction in vivo, by a mechanism that is not well understood. Two hypotheses have been proposed for the mechanism by which cyt b5 increases androgen biosynthesis. Cyt b5 could act as an allosteric effector, binding to CYP17A1 and either changing its selective substrate affinity or altering the conformation of the P450 to increase the catalytic rate or decrease unproductive uncoupling channels. Alternatively, cyt b5 could act as a redox donor for supply of the second electron in the P450 cycle, reducing the oxyferrous complex to form the reactive peroxo-intermediate. To understand the mechanism of lyase enhancement by cyt b5, we generated a redox-inactive form of cyt b5, in which the heme is replaced with a Manganese-protoporphyrin IX (Mn-b5), and investigated enhancement of androgen producing lyase reaction by CYP17A1. Given the critical significance of a stable membrane anchor for all of the proteins involved and the need for controlled stoichiometric ratios, we employed the Nanodisc system for this study. The redox inactive form was observed to have no effect on the lyase reaction, while reactions with the normal heme-iron containing cyt b5 were enhanced ?5 fold as compared to reactions in the absence of cyt b5. We also performed resonance Raman measurements on ferric CYP17A1 bound to Mn-b5. Upon addition of Mn-b5 to Nanodisc reconstituted CYP17A1, we observed clear evidence for the formation of a b5-CYP17A1 complex, as noted by changes in the porphyrin modes and alteration in the proximal FeS vibrational frequency. Thus, although Mn-b5 binds to CYP17A1, it is unable to enhance the lyase reaction, strongly suggesting that cyt b5 has a redox effector role in enhancement of the CYP17A1 mediated lyase reaction necessary for androgen synthesis.
Project description:Mammalian cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) is a membrane-bound protein capable of donating an electron to cytochrome P450 (P450) in the P450 catalytic cycle. The interaction between cyt b5 and P450 has been reported to be affected by the substrates of P450; however, the mechanism of substrate modulation on the cyt b5-P450 complex formation is still unknown. In this study, the complexes between full-length rabbit cyt b5 and full-length substrate-free/substrate-bound cytochrome P450 2B4 (CYP2B4) are investigated using NMR techniques. Our findings reveal that the population of complexes is ionic strength dependent, implying the importance of electrostatic interactions in the complex formation process. The observation that the cyt b5-substrate-bound CYP2B4 complex shows a weaker dependence on ionic strength than the cyt b5-substrate-free CYP2B4 complex suggests the presence of a larger fraction of steoreospecific complexes when CYP2B4 is substrate-bound. These results suggest that a CYP2B4 substrate likely promotes specific interactions between cyt b5 and CYP2B4. Residues D65, V66, T70, D71 and A72 are found to be involved in specific interactions between the two proteins due to their weak response to ionic strength change. These findings provide insights into the mechanism underlying substrate modulation on the cyt b5-P450 complexation process.
Project description:Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a human carcinogen that covalently binds to DNA after activation by cytochrome P450 (P450). Here, we investigated whether NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase (CBR) in the presence of cytochrome b5 can act as sole electron donor to human P450 1A1 during BaP oxidation and replace the canonical NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) system. We also studied the efficiencies of the coenzymes of these reductases, NADPH as a coenzyme of POR, and NADH as a coenzyme of CBR, to mediate BaP oxidation. Two systems containing human P450 1A1 were utilized: human recombinant P450 1A1 expressed with POR, CBR, epoxide hydrolase, and cytochrome b5 in Supersomes and human recombinant P450 1A1 reconstituted with POR and/or with CBR and cytochrome b5 in liposomes. BaP-9,10-dihydrodiol, BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol, BaP-1,6-dione, BaP-3,6-dione, BaP-9-ol, BaP-3-ol, a metabolite of unknown structure, and two BaP-DNA adducts were generated by the P450 1A1-Supersomes system, both in the presence of NADPH and in the presence of NADH. The major BaP-DNA adduct detected by (32)P-postlabeling was characterized as 10-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-BaP (assigned adduct 1), while the minor adduct is probably a guanine adduct derived from 9-hydroxy-BaP-4,5-epoxide (assigned adduct 2). BaP-3-ol as the major metabolite, BaP-9-ol, BaP-1,6-dione, BaP-3,6-dione, an unknown metabolite, and adduct 2 were observed in the system using P450 1A1 reconstituted with POR plus NADPH. When P450 1A1 was reconstituted with CBR and cytochrome b5 plus NADH, BaP-3-ol was the predominant metabolite too, and an adduct 2 was also generated. Our results demonstrate that the NADH/cytochrome b5/CBR system can act as the sole electron donor both for the first and second reduction of P450 1A1 during the oxidation of BaP in vitro. They suggest that NADH-dependent CBR can replace NADPH-dependent POR in the P450 1A1-catalyzed metabolism of BaP.
Project description:Cytochrome b-type NAD(P)H oxidoreductases are involved in many physiological processes, including iron uptake in yeast, the respiratory burst, and perhaps oxygen sensing in mammals. We have identified a cytosolic cytochrome b-type NAD(P)H oxidoreductase in mammals, a flavohemoprotein (b5+b5R) containing cytochrome b5 (b5) and b5 reductase (b5R) domains. A genetic approach, using BLAST searches against DBEST for FAD-, NAD(P)H-binding sequences followed by reverse transcription-PCR, was used to clone the complete cDNA sequence of human b5+b5R from the hepatoma cell line Hep 3B. Compared with the classical single-domain b5 and b5R proteins localized on endoplasmic reticulum membrane, b5+b5R also has binding motifs for heme, FAD, and NAD(P)H prosthetic groups but no membrane anchor. The human b5+b5R transcript was expressed at similar levels in all tissues and cell lines that were tested. The two functional domains b5* and b5R* are linked by an approximately 100-aa-long hinge bearing no sequence homology to any known proteins. When human b5+b5R was expressed as c-myc adduct in COS-7 cells, confocal microscopy revealed a cytosolic localization at the perinuclear space. The recombinant b5+b5R protein can be reduced by NAD(P)H, generating spectrum typical of reduced cytochrome b with alpha, beta, and Soret peaks at 557, 527, and 425 nm, respectively. Human b5+b5R flavohemoprotein is a NAD(P)H oxidoreductase, demonstrated by superoxide production in the presence of air and excess NAD(P)H and by cytochrome c reduction in vitro. The properties of this protein make it a plausible candidate oxygen sensor.
Project description:Ncb5or (NADH-cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase), a cytosolic ferric reductase implicated in diabetes and neurological diseases, comprises three distinct domains, cytochrome b5 (b5) and cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) domains separated by a CHORD-Sgt1 (CS) domain, and a novel 50-residue N-terminal region. Understanding how interdomain interactions in Ncb5or facilitate the shuttling of electrons from NAD(P)H to heme, and how the process compares with the microsomal b5 (Cyb5A) and b5R (Cyb5R3) system, is of interest. A high-resolution structure of the b5 domain (PDB entry 3lf5) has previously been reported, which exhibits substantial differences in comparison to Cyb5A. The structural characterization of a construct comprising the naturally fused CS and b5R domains with bound FAD and NAD+ (PDB entry 6mv1) or NADP+ (PDB entry 6mv2) is now reported. The structures reveal that the linker between the CS and b5R cores is more ordered than predicted, with much of it extending the ?-sandwich motif of the CS domain. This limits the flexibility between the two domains, which recognize one another via a short ?-sheet motif and a network of conserved side-chain hydrogen bonds, salt bridges and cation-? interactions. Notable differences in FAD-protein interactions in Ncb5or and Cyb5R3 provide insight into the selectivity for docking of their respective b5 redox partners. The structures also afford a structural explanation for the unusual ability of Ncb5or to utilize both NADH and NADPH, and represent the first examples of native, fully oxidized b5R family members in which the nicotinamide ring of NAD(P)+ resides in the active site. Finally, the structures, together with sequence alignments, show that the b5R domain is more closely related to single-domain Cyb5R proteins from plants, fungi and some protists than to Cyb5R3 from animals.
Project description:Cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) is a membrane-anchored electron-carrier protein containing a heme in its soluble domain. It enhances the enzymatic turnover of selected members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of catabolic enzymes, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells. Remarkably, its alpha-helical membrane-anchoring domain is indispensable for the cyt b5/cyt P450 interaction. Here, we present the first solid-state NMR studies on holo-cyt b5 in a membrane environment, namely, macroscopically oriented DMPC:DHPC bicelles. We have presented approaches to selectively investigate different domains of the protein using spectral editing NMR techniques that utilize the unique motional properties of each domain. Two-dimensional 1H-15N HIMSELF spectra showed PISA-wheel patterns reporting on the structure and dynamics of the membrane anchor of the protein.
Project description:Structural interactions that enable electron transfer to cytochrome-P450 (CYP450) from its redox partner CYP450-reductase (CPR) are a vital prerequisite for its catalytic mechanism. The first structural model for the membrane-bound functional complex to reveal interactions between the full-length CYP450 and a minimal domain of CPR is now reported. The results suggest that anchorage of the proteins in a lipid bilayer is a minimal requirement for CYP450 catalytic function. Akin to cytochrome-b5 (cyt-b5 ), Arg 125 on the C-helix of CYP450s is found to be important for effective electron transfer, thus supporting the competitive behavior of redox partners for CYP450s. A general approach is presented to study protein-protein interactions combining the use of nanodiscs with NMR spectroscopy and SAXS. Linking structural details to the mechanism will help unravel the xenobiotic metabolism of diverse microsomal CYP450s in their native environment and facilitate the design of new drug entities.
Project description:The substitution pattern of anthocyanin pigments is a main determinant of flower color. Flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) is a cytochrome P450 enzyme (Cyt P450) that catalyzes the 3', 5'-hydroxylation of dihydroflavonols, the precursors of purple anthocyanins. Species such as rose and carnation lack F3'5'H activity and are, therefore, unable to generate purple or blue flowers. Petunia, on the other hand, contains two loci, termed hf1 and hf2, that encode a Cyt P450 with F3'5'H activity. Here we report the identification of an additional petunia gene that is required for 3',5' substitution of anthocyanins and purple flower colors. It encodes a cytochrome b5 and is expressed exclusively in the flower. Inactivation of the gene by targeted transposon mutagenesis reduced F3'5'H enzyme activity and the accumulation of 5'-substituted anthocyanins, resulting in an altered flower color. However, no phenotypic effect on the activity of other Cyt P450s, involved in the synthesis of hormones or general phenylpropanoids, was observed. These data provide in vivo evidence for the regulation of the activity of specific Cyt P450s by a cytochrome b5.