Src mediates cytokine-stimulated gene expression in airway myocytes through ERK MAPK.
ABSTRACT: The p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) participate in cytokine-stimulated inflammatory gene expression in airway smooth muscle cells. The following study was undertaken to determine whether Src tyrosine kinases are signaling intermediaries upstream of cytokine-stimulated MAPK activation and gene expression. Treating human airway myocytes with interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ? and interferon (IFN) ? caused a rapid 1.8-fold increase in Src family tyrosine kinase activity within 1 minute that remained 2.3 to 2.7 fold above basal conditions for 15 minutes. This activity was blocked by addition of 30 ?M PP1, a pyrimidine inhibitor specific for Src family tyrosine kinases, in immune-complex assays to confirm that this stimulus activates Src tyrosine kinase. Addition of PP1 also blocked cytokine-stimulated expression of IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-8, while decreasing phosphorylation of ERK, but not p38 MAPK. Since this inflammatory stimulus may activate additional inflammatory signaling pathways downstream of Src, we tested the effects of PP1 on phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT). PP1 had no effect on cytokine-stimulated STAT 1 or STAT 3 phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that Src tyrosine kinases participate in the regulation of IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-8 expression and that these effects of Src are mediated through activation of ERK MAPK and not p38 MAPK or STAT1/STAT3 phosphorylation.
Project description:IL-13 is a Th2 cytokine that promotes alternative activation (M2 polarization) in primary human monocytes. Our studies have characterized the functional IL-13 receptor complex and the downstream signaling events in response to IL-13 stimulation in alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages. In this report, we present evidence that IL-13 induces the activation of a Src family tyrosine kinase, which is required for IL-13 induction of M2 gene expression, including 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO). Our data show that Src kinase activity regulates IL-13-induced p38 MAPK tyrosine phosphorylation via the upstream kinases MKK3 or MKK6. Our findings also reveal that the IL-13 receptor-associated tyrosine kinase Jak2 is required for the activation of both Src kinase as well as p38 MAPK. Further, we found that Src tyrosine kinase-mediated activation of p38 MAPK is required for Stat1 and Stat3 serine 727 phosphorylation in alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages. Additional studies identify Hck as the specific Src family member, stimulated by IL-13 and involved in regulating both p38 MAPK activation and p38 MAPK-mediated 15-LO expression. Finally we show that the Hck regulates the expression of other alternative state (M2)-specific genes (Mannose receptor, MAO-A, and CD36) and therefore conclude that Hck acts as a key regulator controlling gene expression in alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages.
Project description:The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38, mediate liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury via cell death and inflammatory cytokine expression, respectively. Nilotinib is an orally available receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor used for chronic myelogenous leukemia that also has in vitro activity against JNK and p38. In this study, we examine its therapeutic potential against hepatic I/R injury.The effects of nilotinib on liver I/R injury were tested using a murine model of warm, segmental liver I/R. Serum ALT was measured and livers were analyzed by histology, RT-PCR, Western blot, and flow cytometry. The in vitro effects of nilotinib on hepatocyte and non-parenchymal cell (NPC) MAPK activation and cytokine production were also tested.Mice receiving nilotinib had markedly lower serum ALT levels and less histologic injury and apoptosis following liver I/R. Nilotinib did not inhibit its known receptor tyrosine kinases. Nilotinib lowered intrahepatic expression of IL-1?, IL-6, MCP-1, and MIP-2 and systemic levels of IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF. Nilotinib reduced NPC activation of p38 MAPK signaling and decreased the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and their production of TNF. Nilotinib attenuated JNK phosphorylation and hepatocellular apoptosis. In vitro, nilotinib demonstrated direct inhibition of JNK activation in isolated hepatocytes cultured under hypoxic conditions, and blocked activation of p38 MAPK and cytokine production by stimulated NPCs.Nilotinib lowers both liver JNK activation and NPC p38 MAPK activation and may be useful for ameliorating liver I/R injury in humans.
Project description:Prolactin (PRL) is a pleiotropic cytokine promoting cellular proliferation and differentiation. Because PRL activates the Src family of tyrosine kinases (SFK), we have studied the role of these kinases in PRL cell proliferation signaling. PRL induced [(3)H]thymidine incorporation upon transient transfection of BaF-3 cells with the PRL receptor. This effect was inhibited by cotransfection with the dominant negative mutant of c-Src (K>A295/Y>F527, SrcDM). The role of SFK in PRL-induced proliferation was confirmed in the BaF-3 PRL receptor-stable transfectant, W53 cells, where PRL induced Fyn and Lyn activation. The SFK-selective inhibitors PP1/PP2 and herbimycin A blocked PRL-dependent cell proliferation by arresting the W53 cells in G1, with no evident apoptosis. In parallel, PP1/PP2 inhibited PRL induction of cell growth-related genes c-fos, c-jun, c-myc, and odc. These inhibitors have no effect on PRL-mediated activation of Ras/Mapk and Jak/Start pathways. In contrast, they inhibited the PRL-dependent stimulation of the SFKs substrate Sam68, the phosphorylation of the tyrosine phosphatase Shp2, and the PI3K-dependent Akt and p70S6k serine kinases. Consistently, transient expression of SrcDM in W53 cells also blocked PRL activation of Akt. These results demonstrate that activation of SFKs is required for cell proliferation induced by PRL.
Project description:HBEpCs (human bronchial epithelial cells) contribute to airway inflammation by secreting a variety of cytokines and chemokines in response to allergens, pathogens, viruses and environmental toxins and pollutants. The potent neutrophil chemoattractant, IL-8 (interleukin-8), is a major cytokine secreted by HBEpCs. We have recently demonstrated that LPA (lysophosphatidic acid) stimulated IL-8 production in HBEpCs via protein kinase C delta dependent signal transduction. However, mechanisms of IL-8 expression and secretion are complex and involve multiple protein kinases and transcriptional factors. The present study was undertaken to investigate MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signalling in the transcriptional regulation of IL-8 expression and secretion in HBEpCs. Exposure of HBEpCs to LPA (1 microM) enhanced expression and secretion of IL-8 by 5-8-fold and stimulated threonine/tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase), p38 MAPK and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase). The LPA-induced secretion of IL-8 was blocked by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, by p38 MAPK siRNA (small interfering RNA), and by the JNK inhibitor JNK(i) II, but not by the MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) inhibitor, PD98059. LPA enhanced the transcriptional activity of the IL-8 gene; that effect relied on activation of the transcriptional factors NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) and AP-1 (activator protein-1). Furthermore, SB203580 attenuated LPA-dependent phosphorylation of IkappaB (inhibitory kappaB), NF-kappaB and phospho-p38 translocation to the nucleus, NF-kappaB transcription and IL-8 promoter-mediated luciferase reporter activity, without affecting the JNK pathway and AP-1 transcription. Similarly, JNK(i) II only blocked LPA-mediated phosphorylation of JNK and c-Jun, AP-1 transcription and IL-8 promoter-mediated luciferase reporter activity, without blocking p38 MAPK-dependent NF-kappaB transcription. Additionally, siRNA for LPA(1-3) receptors partially blocked LPA-induced IL-8 production and activation of MAPKs. The LPA1 and LPA3 receptors, as compared with LPA2, were most efficient in transducing LPA-mediated IL-8 production. These results show an independent role for p38 MAPK and JNK in LPA-induced IL-8 expression and secretion via NF-kappaB and AP-1 transcription respectively in HBEpCs.
Project description:The dual-specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) inactivates MAP kinases by dephosphorylation. Here we show that the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-17A induces adult mouse primary cardiac fibroblast (CF) proliferation and migration via IL-17 receptor A//IL-17 receptor C-dependent MKP-1 suppression, and activation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2. IL-17A mediated p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 activation is inhibited by MKP-1 overexpression, but prolonged by MKP-1 knockdown. IL-17A induced miR-101 expression via PI3K/Akt, and miR-101 inhibitor reversed MKP-1 down regulation. Importantly, MKP-1 knockdown, pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2, or overexpression of dominant negative MEK1, each markedly attenuated IL-17A-mediated CF proliferation and migration. Similarly, IL-17F and IL-17A/F heterodimer that also signal via IL-17RA/IL-17RC, stimulated CF proliferation and migration. These results indicate that IL-17A stimulates CF proliferation and migration via Akt/miR-101/MKP-1-dependent p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 activation. These studies support a potential role for IL-17 in cardiac fibrosis and adverse myocardial remodeling.
Project description:LY2228820 dimesylate is a highly selective small molecule inhibitor of p38? and p38? mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that is currently under clinical investigation for human malignancies. p38 MAPK is implicated in a wide range of biological processes, in particular those that support tumorigenesis. One such process, angiogenesis, is required for tumor growth and metastasis, and many new cancer therapies are therefore directed against the tumor vasculature. Using an in vitro co-culture endothelial cord formation assay, a surrogate of angiogenesis, we investigated the role of p38 MAPK in growth factor- and tumor-driven angiogenesis using LY2228820 dimesylate treatment and by shRNA gene knockdown. p38 MAPK was activated in endothelial cells upon growth factor stimulation, with inhibition by LY2228820 dimesylate treatment causing a significant decrease in VEGF-, bFGF-, EGF-, and IL-6-induced endothelial cord formation and an even more dramatic decrease in tumor-driven cord formation. In addition to involvement in downstream cytokine signaling, p38 MAPK was important for VEGF, bFGF, EGF, IL-6, and other proangiogenic cytokine secretion in stromal and tumor cells. LY2228820 dimesylate results were substantiated using p38? MAPK-specific shRNA and shRNA against the downstream p38 MAPK effectors MAPKAPK-2 and HSP27. Using in vivo models of functional neoangiogenesis, LY2228820 dimesylate treatment reduced hemoglobin content in a plug assay and decreased VEGF-A-stimulated vascularization in a mouse ear model. Thus, p38? MAPK is implicated in tumor angiogenesis through direct tumoral effects and through reduction of proangiogenic cytokine secretion via the microenvironment.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) has been shown to be induced by cytokines including TNF-? and may contribute to bone inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying MMP-9 expression induced by TNF-? in MC3T3-E1 cells remain unclear. RESULTS: We applied gelatin zymography, Western blot, RT-PCR, real-time PCR, selective pharmacological inhibitors of transcription (actinomycin D, Act.D), translation (cycloheximide, CHI), c-Src (PP1), MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), and NF-?B (Bay11-7082), respective siRNAs transfection, promoter assay, immunofluorescence staining, and ELISA to investigate the MMP-9 expression and soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) release induced by TNF-? in MC3T3-E1 cells. Here we demonstrated that TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression was attenuated by Act.D, CHI, PP1, U0126, SB202190, SP600125, and Bay11-7082, and by the transfection with siRNAs for ERK2, p38 MAPK, and JNK2. TNF-?-stimulated TNFR1, TRAF2, and c-Src complex formation was revealed by immunoprecipitation and Western blot. Furthermore, TNF-?-stimulated NF-?B phosphorylation and translocation were blocked by Bay11-7082, but not by PP1, U0126, SB202190, or SP600125. TNF-? time-dependently induced MMP-9 promoter activity which was also inhibited by PP1, U0126, SB202190, SP600125, or Bay11-7082. Up-regulation of MMP-9 was associated with the release of sICAM-1 into the cultured medium, which was attenuated by the pretreatment with MMP-2/9i, an MMP-9 inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we demonstrated that TNF-? up-regulates MMP-9 expression via c-Src, MAPKs, and NF-?B pathways. In addition, TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression may contribute to the production of sICAM-1 by MC3T3-E1 cells. The interplay between MMP-9 expression and sICAM-1 release may exert an important role in the regulation of bone inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). HSPCs are difficult to be expanded ex vivo while maintaining their stemness when they are exposed to oxidative damage after being released from the bone marrow. There have been efforts to overcome this limitation by using various cytokine cocktails and antioxidants. In this study, we investigated the effects of echinochrome A (Ech A)-a well-established and non-toxic antioxidant-on the ex vivo expansion of HSPCs by analyzing a CD34+ cell population and their biological functions. We observed that Ech A-induced suppression of ROS generation and p38-MAPK/JNK phosphorylation causes increased expansion of CD34+ cells. Moreover, p38-MAPK/JNK inhibitors SB203580 and SP600125 promoted ex vivo expansion of CD34+ cells. We also demonstrated that the activation of Lyn kinase and p110δ is a novel mechanism for Ech A to enhance ex vivo expansion of CD34+ cells. Ech A upregulated phospho-Src, phospho-Lyn, and p110δ expression. Furthermore, the Ech A-induced ex vivo expansion of CD34+ cells was inhibited by pretreatment with the Src family inhibitor PP1 and p110δ inhibitor CAL-101; PP1 blocked p110δ upregulation and PI3K/Akt activation, whereas CAL-101 and PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor LY294002 did not block Src/Lyn activation. These results suggest that Ech A initially induces Src/Lyn activation, upregulates p110δ expression, and finally activates the PI3K/Akt pathway. CD34+ cells expanded in the presence of Ech A produced equal or more hematopoietic colony-forming cells than unexpanded CD34+ cells. In conclusion, Ech A promotes the ex vivo expansion of CD34+ cells through Src/Lyn-mediated p110δ expression, suppression of ROS generation, and p38-MAPK/JNK activation. Hence, Ech A is a potential candidate modality for the ex vivo, and possibly in vivo, expansion of CD34+ cells.
Project description:The family of cytokines signalling through the common receptor subunit gp130 comprises interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, leukaemia inhibitory factor, oncostatin M, ciliary neurotrophic factor and cardiotrophin-1. These so-called IL-6-type cytokines play an important role in the regulation of complex cellular processes such as gene activation, proliferation and differentiation. The current knowledge on the signal-transduction mechanisms of these cytokines from the plasma membrane to the nucleus is reviewed. In particular, we focus on the assembly of receptor complexes after ligand binding, the activation of receptor-associated kinases of the Janus family, and the recruitment and phosphorylation of transcription factors of the STAT family, which dimerize, translocate to the nucleus, and bind to enhancer elements of respective target genes leading to transcriptional activation. The important players in the signalling pathway, namely the cytokines and the receptor components, the Janus kinases Jak1, Jak2 and Tyk2, the signal transducers and activators of transcription STAT1 and STAT3 and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 [SH2 (Src homology 2) domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase] are introduced and their structural/functional properties are discussed. Furthermore, we review various mechanisms involved in the termination of the IL-6-type cytokine signalling, namely the action of tyrosine phosphatases, proteasome, Jak kinase inhibitors SOCS (suppressor of cytokine signalling), protein inhibitors of activated STATs (PIAS), and internalization of the cytokine receptors via gp130. Although all IL-6-type cytokines signal through the gp130/Jak/STAT pathway, the comparison of their physiological properties shows that they elicit not only similar, but also distinct, biological responses. This is reflected in the different phenotypes of IL-6-type-cytokine knock-out animals.
Project description:The specificities of 65 compounds reported to be relatively specific inhibitors of protein kinases have been profiled against a panel of 70-80 protein kinases. On the basis of this information, the effects of compounds that we have studied in cells and other data in the literature, we recommend the use of the following small-molecule inhibitors: SB 203580/SB202190 and BIRB 0796 to be used in parallel to assess the physiological roles of p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) isoforms, PI-103 and wortmannin to be used in parallel to inhibit phosphatidylinositol (phosphoinositide) 3-kinases, PP1 or PP2 to be used in parallel with Src-I1 (Src inhibitor-1) to inhibit Src family members; PD 184352 or PD 0325901 to inhibit MKK1 (MAPK kinase-1) or MKK1 plus MKK5, Akt-I-1/2 to inhibit the activation of PKB (protein kinase B/Akt), rapamycin to inhibit TORC1 [mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)-raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR) complex], CT 99021 to inhibit GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3), BI-D1870 and SL0101 or FMK (fluoromethylketone) to be used in parallel to inhibit RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase), D4476 to inhibit CK1 (casein kinase 1), VX680 to inhibit Aurora kinases, and roscovitine as a pan-CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) inhibitor. We have also identified harmine as a potent and specific inhibitor of DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and -regulated kinase 1A) in vitro. The results have further emphasized the need for considerable caution in using small-molecule inhibitors of protein kinases to assess the physiological roles of these enzymes. Despite being used widely, many of the compounds that we analysed were too non-specific for useful conclusions to be made, other than to exclude the involvement of particular protein kinases in cellular processes.