Energy and macronutrient intake and dietary pattern among school children in Bahrain: a cross-sectional study.
ABSTRACT: Obesity is increasing in Bahrain and there is lack of information on the energy and macronutrient intake of children. The objective of this research was to study the energy and macronutrient intake as well as food frequency pattern of Bahraini school children.This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on Bahraini school boys and girls aged 6-18 years from all the 11 populated regions of the country. Data on food intake consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall and was obtained by interviewing a sub-sample of the study population. Information was also obtained through a self-administered questionnaire for the entire sample on the weekly frequency of food items that were grouped into 7 categories based on similarity of nutrient profiles. Dietary analysis was performed using the Nutritionist 5 (First Data Bank Version 1.6 1998).While the average energy intake of students was close to the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK Reference standards, protein intake substantially exceeded the Reference Nutrient Intake values as did daily sugar consumption. Dietary fiber fell short of the Dietary Recommended Values (UK) and 36%-50% students exceeded the Energy % limits for total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. The Polyunsaturated: Saturated fat ratio remained at an unacceptable level of 0.6 for girls and boys. While sweets, snacks and regular soda drinks were popular, milk, fruits and vegetables were not commonly consumed.High sugar consumption, low intake of dietary fiber and high energy % of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol by many Bahraini children, is likely to increase their risk of obesity and cardiovascular diseases in later life. Nutrition education programs in schools should emphasize the importance of healthy balanced diets for growth and health maintenance of children as well as dietary prevention of diseases.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To describe the nutritional profile and assess the National Dietary Survey on the Child and Adolescent Population project in Spain (ENALIA) regarding usual total energy and macronutrient intake. METHODS:A cross-sectional nationally representative sample of 1862 children and adolescents (age 6 months to 17) was surveyed between 2013 and 2014 following European methodology recommendations. Dietary information was collected using two methods, dietary records (for children from age 6 months to 9 years) and 24-h dietary recall (participants age 10 and older). Usual intake was estimated by correcting for within-person intake variance using the Iowa State University (ISU) method. A probability analysis was used to assess compliance with dietary reference intakes in the target population. RESULTS:Protein consumption in the age 1-3 group as a percentage of total energy exceeded the upper limit of the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) by 4.7% for boys and 12.1% for girls. 42.9% of girls age 4-8 were under the lower limit of the AMDR for carbohydrates. 43.4% of boys and 46.9% of girls between 4 and 17 exceeded the AMDR in total fat intake, saturated fatty acids (SFAs) accounting for 12.3% of total energy. CONCLUSIONS:The results suggest that Spanish children and adolescents could improve macronutrient distribution by reducing fat and increasing carbohydrate intake across all age groups, and decreasing protein intake, especially in young children.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The studies on dietary intake in Polish children are sparse and the information about dietary intake in 6-year-olds in Europe is limited. The published studies on dietary intake in children rarely provide information on the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water. The purpose of the study was to analyse energy and macronutrient intakes in 6-year-old children from southern Poland. METHODS: The studied population comprised 120 children, 64 girls and 56 boys. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated from a three-day food record. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. RESULTS: Intakes of energy (kJ, kcal), plant protein (g), total fat (g), saturated fatty acids (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal), monounsaturated fatty acids (g) and starch (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in boys, while intakes of sucrose (% of energy, g/1000 kcal) and total water (g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in girls. The children's diets were characterised by excessive intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, sucrose, and by inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, available carbohydrates and starch. CONCLUSIONS: The observed adverse characteristics of the children's diets are similar to those observed in the diets of children in other European countries and show the need to work out a common educational programme to improve nutrition in young European children. It is also important to provide the lacking information about the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water in young children.
Project description:The present study examined the best available evidence regarding energy and macronutrient intake during adulthood (age 19 to 59 years) in Malaysia and assessed whether intakes adhere to national recommendations, in order to develop recommendations for dietary improvement based on population consumption patterns. A literature review and meta-analysis evaluated intake based on the following characteristics, using information from food balance sheets, national surveys, and individual studies: (1) levels of intake, (2) proportion of the population whose diets adhere to/exceed/fail to meet Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) levels, and (3) sources of macronutrients observed in these studies. Food balance data suggested high levels of available energy, animal source protein, vegetable fat, and refined carbohydrates. Twenty studies (five nationwide, 15 individual) indicated that Malaysian adults generally met or exceeded recommendations for fat and protein, but were inconsistent with respect to energy and carbohydrates. Information on dietary sources was limited. Due to methodological limitations, insufficient evidence exists regarding energy and macronutrient intakes of Malaysian adults. Improved dietary assessment methods (including use of biomarkers), better data analysis, and updated food composition data, will provide more reliable information on which to base policy decisions and recommendations for improvement.
Project description:In this study, we examined if children's food selection met the School Meals Initiative (SMI) standards and the recently released Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. Mean food selection, plate waste, and food intake were also examined. Food intake of 2049 4th-6th grade students was measured objectively at lunch over 3 d with digital photography in 33 schools. The percent of children whose food selection met the SMI standards and IOM recommendations for energy (kJ), fat and saturated fat, calcium, iron, and vitamin A and C were calculated. The SMI standards provide lower limits for most nutrients; the IOM provides a range of values, including an upper limit for energy. Seventy-seven percent of children's energy selection met the SMI lower limit, but only 16% of children met the IOM's recommended range and 74% of children exceeded the upper limit. More than 70% of children exceeded the SMI and IOM's saturated fat recommendations. Children selected (mean +/- SD) 3168 +/- 621 kJ, discarded 882 +/- 581 kJ, and consumed 2286 +/- 716 kJ. Children were less likely to discard fat than carbohydrate, resulting in proportionally more fat being consumed. Most children met SMI and IOM recommendations for protein, calcium, iron, and vitamin A. With few exceptions, energy selection was similar among groups of children, but plate waste differed (P < 0.001), resulting in greater energy intake among boys compared with girls, Caucasians compared with African Americans, and heavier compared with lighter children. Children's selection was high in saturated fat and, based on IOM criteria, included excess energy.
Project description:We examined trends from 1977-2010 in calorie, macronutrient, and food group intake among US adults 55 and older.Cross-sectional time series.A nationally representative sample of the US non-institutionalized population.Older Americans aged ?55 years (n=18,603) from four surveys of dietary intake in 1977-1978, 1989-1991, 1994-1996, and 2005-2010.Dietary intake was assessed using one 24-hour recall. Multivariable linear regression models were used to determine adjusted per capita mean energy and macronutrient intake for each survey year. Interactions were used to examine differences by race/ethnicity, gender, and generation. The top five food group contributors to total calorie intake were identified for each year.Mean total calorie intake increased significantly among older Americans from 1977-2010. Increases in carbohydrate intake (43% to 49% of total calories) were coupled with decreases in total fat intake (from 40% to 34%) while saturated fat (11%) remained constant. Corresponding shifts in food group intake were observed, as red meat intake greatly declined while bread and grain desserts became dominant calorie sources. Calorie intake was significantly higher for whites compared to blacks from 1994-2010. Cohort analysis indicated a shift from decreasing caloric intake with age to relatively stable calorie intake despite increasing age in more recent cohorts.Increases in total calorie intake from 1977-2010, coupled with the finding that more recent generations did not show the expected age-related decrease in caloric consumption, raise concerns about obesity risk among older Americans. Additionally, despite declines across time in total fat intake, saturated fat intake continues to exceed recommendations, and shifts toward increased consumption of grain-based desserts suggest that high discretionary calorie intake by older Americans might make it difficult to meet nutrient requirements while staying within energy needs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although there is high prevalence of obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors among Latin American adolescents, there is limited evidence on dietary intake and physical activity (PA) patterns in this population. Therefore, we characterized anthropometry, dietary intake, PA and sitting time (ST) in adolescents aged 15-17?years from eight Latin American countries. METHODS:Six hundred seventy-one adolescents (41.4% girls) from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) were included. Nutritional status was classified by four BMI (kg/m2) categories. Waist circumference (WC) was categorized as above or below thresholds. Dietary intake was assessed through two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. PA and ST were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). We calculated overall and country-specific estimates by sex and tested for differences between boys and girls. RESULTS:Differences in the prevalence of overweightness (15.1 and 21.6%) and obesity (8.5 and 6.5%) between boys and girls, respectively, were statistically insignificant (p?=?0.059). Average energy intake was 2289.7?kcal/day (95% CI: 2231-2350) for boys and 1904.2?kcal/day (95% CI: 1840-1963) for girls (p?<?0.001). In relation to macronutrient intake for boys and girls, respectively, the average intake (expressed as percentage of total energy) was 15.0 and 14.9% for protein; 55.4 and 54.9% for carbohydrates; 14.1 and 14.5% for added sugar; 29.5 and 30.1% for total fat; and 9.6 and 9.9% for saturated fat (p?>?0.05 for all outcomes). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of total energy (TE) saturated fat and added sugar (>10% of TE) between girls and boys (49.6% versus 44.8 and 81.7% versus 76.1%, respectively). Prevalence of physical inactivity was 19% in boys and 43.7% in girls (p?<?0.001). Median levels of vigorous-intensity PA and total PA were significantly higher for boys than for girls (p?<?0.05 for both outcomes); whereas levels of ST were similar (273.7 versus 220.0?min/day for boys and girls, respectively; p?>?0.05). CONCLUSIONS:These findings highlight the high prevalence of poor dietary intake and physical inactivity in adolescents from Latin American countries. Therefore, effective and sustainable strategies and programmes are needed that promote healthier diets, regular PA and reduce ST among Latin American adolescents. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Trials NCT02226627. Retrospectively registered on August 27, 2014.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet is becoming increasingly employed in clinical dietetic practice as a means to manage many health-related conditions. Yet, it continues to remain contentious in nutrition circles due to a belief that the diet is devoid of nutrients and concern around its saturated fat content. This work aimed to assess the micronutrient intake of the LCHF diet under two conditions of saturated fat thresholds. DESIGN:In this descriptive study, two LCHF meal plans were designed for two hypothetical cases representing the average Australian male and female weight-stable adult. National documented heights, a body mass index of 22.5 to establish weight and a 1.6 activity factor were used to estimate total energy intake using the Schofield equation. Carbohydrate was limited to <130?g, protein was set at 15%-25% of total energy and fat supplied the remaining calories. One version of the diet aligned with the national saturated fat guideline threshold of <10% of total energy and the other included saturated fat ad libitum. PRIMARY OUTCOMES:The primary outcomes included all micronutrients, which were assessed using FoodWorks dietary analysis software against national Australian/New Zealand nutrient reference value (NRV) thresholds. RESULTS:All of the meal plans exceeded the minimum NRV thresholds, apart from iron in the female meal plans, which achieved 86%-98% of the threshold. Saturated fat intake was logistically unable to be reduced below the 10% threshold for the male plan but exceeded the threshold by 2?g (0.6%). CONCLUSION:Despite macronutrient proportions not aligning with current national dietary guidelines, a well-planned LCHF meal plan can be considered micronutrient replete. This is an important finding for health professionals, consumers and critics of LCHF nutrition, as it dispels the myth that these diets are suboptimal in their micronutrient supply. As with any diet, for optimal nutrient achievement, meals need to be well formulated.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To characterise sex differences in macronutrient intakes and adherence to dietary recommendations in the UK Biobank population. DESIGN:Cross-sectional population-based study. SETTING:UK Biobank Resource. PARTICIPANTS:210?106 (52.5% women) individuals with data on dietary behaviour. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Women-to-men mean differences in nutrient intake in grams and as a percentage of energy and women-to-men ORs in non-adherence, adjusting for age, socioeconomic status and ethnicity. RESULTS:There were sex differences in energy intake and distribution. Men had greater intakes of energy and were less likely to have energy intakes above the estimated average requirement compared with women. Small, but significant, sex differences were found in the intakes of all macronutrients. For all macronutrients, men had greater absolute intakes while women had greater intakes as a percentage of energy. Women were more likely to have intakes that exceeded recommendations for total fat, saturated fat and total sugar. Men were less likely to achieve the minimum recommended intakes for protein, polyunsaturated fat and total carbohydrate. Over 95% of men and women were non-adherent to fibre recommendations. Sex differences in dietary intakes were moderated by age and to some extent by socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS:There are significant sex differences in adherence to dietary recommendations, particularly for sugar. However, given the increased focus on food groups and dietary patterns for nutritional policy, these differences alone may not be sufficient for policy and health promotion. Future studies that are able to explore the sex differences in intakes of different food groups that are risk factors for diet-related diseases are warranted to improve the current understanding of the differential impact of diet on health in women and men.
Project description:Surplus dietary fat cannot be converted into other macronutrient forms or excreted, so has to be stored or oxidized. Healthy mammals store excess energy in the form of triacylgycerol (TAG) in lipid droplets within adipocytes rather than oxidizing it, and thus ultimately gain weight. The 'overflow hypothesis' posits that the capacity to increase the size and number of adipocytes is finite and that when this limit is exceeded, fat accumulates in ectopic sites and leads to metabolic disease.Here we studied the energetic and biochemical consequences of short-term (2-day) excess fat ingestion in a lipodystrophic (A-ZIP/F-1) mouse model in which adipose capacity is severely restricted.In wildtype littermates, this acute exposure to high fat diets resulted in excess energy intake and weight gain without any significant changes in macronutrient oxidation rates, glucose, TAG, or insulin levels. In contrast, hyperphagic lipodystrophic mice failed to gain weight; rather, they significantly increased hepatic steatosis and fat oxidation. This response was associated with a significant increase in hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucosuria, hypertriglyceridemia, and worsening insulin tolerance.These data suggest that when adipose storage reserves are saturated, excess fat intake necessarily increases fat oxidation and induces oxidative substrate competition which exacerbates insulin resistance resolving any residual energy surplus through excretion of glucose.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: The aim of dietary modification, as a cornerstone of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management, is to optimise metabolic control and overall health. This study describes food and nutrient intake in a sample of adults with T2DM, and compares this to recommendations, and to intake in age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and social-class matched adults without T2DM. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of food and nutrient intake in 124 T2DM individuals (64% male; age 57.4±5.6 years, BMI 32.5±5.8?kg?m(-2)) and 124 adults (age 57.4±7.0 years, BMI 31.2±5.0?kg?m(-2)) with no diabetes (ND) was undertaken using a 4-day semiweighed food diary. Biochemical and anthropometric variables were also measured. RESULTS: While reported energy intake was similar in T2DM vs ND (1954 vs 2004?kcal per day, P=0.99), T2DM subjects consumed more total-fat (38.8% vs 35%, P?0.001), monounsaturated-fat (13.3% vs 12.2%; P=0.004), polyunsaturated-fat (6.7% vs 5.9%; P<0.001) and protein (18.6% vs 17.5%, P?0.01). Both groups exceeded saturated-fat recommendations (14.0% vs 13.8%). T2DM intakes of carbohydrate (39.5% vs 42.9%), non-milk sugar (10.4% vs 15.0%) and fibre (14.4 vs 18.9?g) were significantly lower (P<0.001). Dietary glycaemic load (GL) was also lower in T2DM (120.8 vs 129.2; P=0.02), despite a similar glycaemic index (59.7 vs 60.1; P=0.48). T2DM individuals reported consuming significantly more wholemeal/brown/wholegrain breads, eggs, oils, vegetables, meat/meat products, savoury snacks and soups/sauces and less white breads, breakfast cereals, cakes/buns, full-fat dairy, chocolate, fruit juices, oily fish and alcohol than ND controls. CONCLUSION: Adults with T2DM made different food choices to ND adults. This resulted in a high saturated-fat diet, with a higher total-fat, monounsaturated-fat, polyunsaturated-fat and protein content and a lower GL, carbohydrate, fibre and non-milk sugar content. Dietary education should emphasise and reinforce the importance of higher fibre, fruit, vegetable and wholegrain intake and the substitution of monounsaturated for saturated-fat sources, in energy balanced conditions.