Histone deacetylase turnover and recovery in sulforaphane-treated colon cancer cells: competing actions of 14-3-3 and Pin1 in HDAC3/SMRT corepressor complex dissociation/reassembly.
ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical evaluation as anti-cancer agents. Dietary constituents share certain properties of HDAC inhibitor drugs, including the ability to induce global histone acetylation, turn-on epigenetically-silenced genes, and trigger cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or differentiation in cancer cells. One such example is sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from the glucosinolate precursor glucoraphanin, which is abundant in broccoli. Here, we examined the time-course and reversibility of SFN-induced HDAC changes in human colon cancer cells.Cells underwent progressive G2/M arrest over the period 6-72 h after SFN treatment, during which time HDAC activity increased in the vehicle-treated controls but not in SFN-treated cells. There was a time-dependent loss of class I and selected class II HDAC proteins, with HDAC3 depletion detected ahead of other HDACs. Mechanism studies revealed no apparent effect of calpain, proteasome, protease or caspase inhibitors, but HDAC3 was rescued by cycloheximide or actinomycin D treatment. Among the protein partners implicated in the HDAC3 turnover mechanism, silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) was phosphorylated in the nucleus within 6 h of SFN treatment, as was HDAC3 itself. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed SFN-induced dissociation of HDAC3/SMRT complexes coinciding with increased binding of HDAC3 to 14-3-3 and peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase 1 (Pin1). Pin1 knockdown blocked the SFN-induced loss of HDAC3. Finally, SFN treatment for 6 or 24 h followed by SFN removal from the culture media led to complete recovery of HDAC activity and HDAC protein expression, during which time cells were released from G2/M arrest.The current investigation supports a model in which protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates SMRT and HDAC3 in the nucleus, resulting in dissociation of the corepressor complex and enhanced binding of HDAC3 to 14-3-3 or Pin1. In the cytoplasm, release of HDAC3 from 14-3-3 followed by nuclear import is postulated to compete with a Pin1 pathway that directs HDAC3 for degradation. The latter pathway predominates in colon cancer cells exposed continuously to SFN, whereas the former pathway is likely to be favored when SFN has been removed within 24 h, allowing recovery from cell cycle arrest.
Project description:SCOPE:DNA repair inhibitors have broad clinical applications in tumor types with DNA repair defects, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Structural analogs of the anticancer agent sulforaphane (SFN) were investigated as modifiers of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, and for effects on DNA damage/repair pertinent to human CRC. METHODS AND RESULTS:In the polyposis in rat colon (Pirc) model, single oral administration of SFN and structurally related long-chain isothiocyanates (ITCs) decreased histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) expression and increased pH2AX levels markedly in adenomatous colon polyps, extending prior observations on HDAC3 inhibition/turnover in cell-based assays. Colon cancer cells at a high initial plating density had diminished cytotoxicity from SFN, whereas novel tetrazole-containing heterocyclic analogs of SFN retained their efficacy. The potent SFN analogs triggered DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and loss of a key DNA repair regulator, C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) interacting protein (CtIP). These SFN analogs also altered HAT/HDAC activities and histone acetylation status, lowered the expression of HDAC3, P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) and lysine acetyltransferase 2A (KAT2A/GCN5), and attenuated homologous recombination (HR)/non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair activities in colon cancer cells. CONCLUSION:Novel tetrazole-containing heterocyclic analogs of SFN provide a new avenue for chemosensitization in colon cancer cells via modulation of HAT/HDAC activities and associated DNA damage/repair signaling pathways.
Project description:Histone deacetylases (HDACs) and acetyltransferases have important roles in the regulation of protein acetylation, chromatin dynamics and the DNA damage response. Here, we show in human colon cancer cells that dietary isothiocyanates (ITCs) inhibit HDAC activity and increase HDAC protein turnover with the potency proportional to alkyl chain length, i.e., AITC < sulforaphane (SFN) < 6-SFN < 9-SFN. Molecular docking studies provided insights into the interactions of ITC metabolites with HDAC3, implicating the allosteric site between HDAC3 and its co-repressor. ITCs induced DNA double-strand breaks and enhanced the phosphorylation of histone H2AX, ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) and checkpoint kinase-2 (CHK2). Depending on the ITC and treatment conditions, phenotypic outcomes included cell growth arrest, autophagy and apoptosis. Coincident with the loss of HDAC3 and HDAC6, as well as SIRT6, ITCs enhanced the acetylation and subsequent degradation of critical repair proteins, such as CtIP, and this was recapitulated in HDAC knockdown experiments. Importantly, colon cancer cells were far more susceptible than non-cancer cells to ITC-induced DNA damage, which persisted in the former case but was scarcely detectable in non-cancer colonic epithelial cells under the same conditions. Future studies will address the mechanistic basis for dietary ITCs preferentially exploiting HDAC turnover mechanisms and faulty DNA repair pathways in colon cancer cells vs. normal cells.
Project description:Since genes encoding epigenetic regulators are often mutated or deregulated in urothelial carcinoma (UC), they represent promising therapeutic targets. Specifically, inhibition of Class-I histone deacetylase (HDAC) isoenzymes induces cell death in UC cell lines (UCC) and, in contrast to other cancer types, cell cycle arrest in G2/M. Here, we investigated whether mutations in cell cycle genes contribute to G2/M rather than G1 arrest, identified the precise point of arrest and clarified the function of individual HDAC Class-I isoenzymes. Database analyses of UC tissues and cell lines revealed mutations in G1/S, but not G2/M checkpoint regulators. Using class I-specific HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) with different isoenzyme specificity (Romidepsin, Entinostat, RGFP966), cell cycle arrest was shown to occur at the G2/M transition and to depend on inhibition of HDAC1/2 rather than HDAC3. Since HDAC1/2 inhibition caused cell-type-specific downregulation of genes encoding G2/M regulators, the WEE1 inhibitor MK-1775 could not overcome G2/M checkpoint arrest and therefore did not synergize with Romidepsin inhibiting HDAC1/2. Instead, since DNA damage was induced by inhibition of HDAC1/2, but not of HDAC3, combinations between inhibitors of HDAC1/2 and of DNA repair should be attempted.
Project description:Epidemiologic studies suggest a protective effect of cruciferous vegetables on breast cancer. Sulforaphane (SFN), an active food component derived from crucifers, has been shown to be effective in breast cancer chemoprevention. This study evaluated the chemopreventive effect of SFN on selective biomarkers from blood and breast tissues. In a 2- to 8-week double-blinded, randomized controlled trial, 54 women with abnormal mammograms and scheduled for breast biopsy were randomized to consume a placebo or a glucoraphanin (GFN) supplement providing SFN (n = 27). Plasma and urinary SFN metabolites, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, and tissue biomarkers (H3K18ac, H3K9ac, HDAC3, HDAC6, Ki-67, p21) were measured before and after the intervention in benign, ductal carcinoma in situ, or invasive ductal carcinoma breast tissues. Within the supplement group, Ki-67 (P = 0.003) and HDAC3 (P = 0.044) levels significantly decreased in benign tissue. Pre-to-postintervention changes in these biomarkers were not significantly different between treatment groups after multiple comparison adjustment. GFN supplementation was associated with a significant decrease in PBMC HDAC activity (P = 0.04). No significant associations were observed between SFN and examined tissue biomarkers when comparing treatment groups. This study provides evidence that GFN supplementation for a few weeks is safe but may not be sufficient for producing changes in breast tissue tumor biomarkers. Future studies employing larger sample sizes should evaluate alternative dosing and duration regimens to inform dietary SFN strategies in breast cancer chemoprevention.
Project description:Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are believed to regulate gene transcription by catalyzing deacetylation reactions. HDAC3 depletion in mouse liver upregulates lipogenic genes and results in severe hepatosteatosis. Here we show that pharmacologic HDAC inhibition in primary hepatocytes causes histone hyperacetylation but does not upregulate expression of HDAC3 target genes. Meanwhile, deacetylase-dead HDAC3 mutants can rescue hepatosteatosis and repress lipogenic genes expression in HDAC3-depleted mouse liver, demonstrating that histone acetylation is insufficient to activate gene transcription. Mutations abolishing interactions with the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCOR or SMRT) render HDAC3 nonfunctional in vivo. Additionally, liver-specific knockout of NCOR, but not SMRT, causes metabolic and transcriptomal alterations resembling those of mice without hepatic HDAC3, demonstrating that interaction with NCOR is essential for deacetylase-independent function of HDAC3. These findings highlight nonenzymatic roles of a major HDAC in transcriptional regulation in vivo and warrant reconsideration of the mechanism of action of HDAC inhibitors.
Project description:Cruciferous vegetables have been associated with the chemoprevention of cancer. Epigenetic regulators have been identified as important targets for prostate cancer chemoprevention. Treatment of human prostate cancer cells with sulforaphane (SFN), a chemical from broccoli and broccoli sprouts, inhibits epigenetic regulators such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, but it is not known whether consumption of a diet high in broccoli sprouts impacts epigenetic mechanisms in an in vivo model of prostate cancer.In the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model, we tested the hypothesis that a broccoli sprout diet suppresses prostate cancer, inhibits HDAC expression, alters histone modifications, and changes the expression of genes regulated by HDACs.TRAMP mice were fed a 15% broccoli sprout or control AIN93G diet; tissue samples were collected at 12 and 28 wk of age.Mice fed broccoli sprouts had detectable amounts of SFN metabolites in liver, kidney, colon, and prostate tissues. Broccoli sprouts reduced prostate cancer incidence and progression to invasive cancer by 11- and 2.4-fold at 12 and 28 wk of age, respectively. There was a significant decline in HDAC3 protein expression in the epithelial cells of prostate ventral and anterior lobes at age 12 wk. Broccoli sprout consumption also decreased histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation in the ventral lobe (age 12 wk), and decreased histone H3 lysine 18 acetylation in all prostate lobes (age 28 wk). A decline in p16 mRNA levels, a gene regulated by HDAC3, was associated with broccoli sprout consumption, but no significant changes were noted at the protein level.Broccoli sprout intake was associated with a decline in prostate cancer occurrence and HDAC3 protein expression in the prostate, extending prior work that implicated loss of HDAC3/ corepressor interactions as a key preventive mechanism by SFN in vivo.
Project description:Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a key role not only in gene expression but also in DNA repair. Herein, we report the rational design and characterization of a compound named chlordinaline containing nitrogen mustard and 2-aminobenzamide moieties as a DNA/HDAC dual-targeting inhibitor. Chlordinaline exhibited moderate total HDAC inhibitory activity. The HDAC isoform selectivity assay indicated that chlordinaline mostly inhibits HDAC3. Chlordinaline exhibited both DNA and HDAC inhibitory activities and showed potent antiproliferative activity against all the six test cancer cell lines with IC50 values of as low as 3.1-14.2 ?M, which is significantly more potent than reference drugs chlorambucil and tacedinaline. Chlordinaline could induce the apoptosis and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest of A375 cancer cells. This study demonstrates that combining nitrogen mustard and 2-aminobenzamide moieties into one molecule is an effective method to obtain DNA/HDAC dual-targeting inhibitors as potent antitumor agents. Chlordinaline as the first example of such DNA/HDAC dual-targeting inhibitors could be a promising candidate for cancer therapy and could also be a lead compound for further optimization.
Project description:Dietary compounds that possess the properties of altering epigenetic processes are gaining popularity as targets for cancer prevention studies. These compounds when administered at optimal concentrations and especially in combination can have enhanced effects in cancer prevention or therapy. It is important to study the interaction of two or more compounds in order to assess their role in enhancing prevention. Genistein (GEN), found in soy, has been extensively studied for its role as an epigenetic modifier especially as a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor and sulforaphane (SFN), found in cruciferous vegetables, is known as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. However, very little is known about the effects of these two compounds in conjunction in breast cancer prevention or therapy. In our current study, we determined that, at certain doses, the compounds have synergistic effects in decreasing cellular viability of breast cancer cell lines. Our results indicate that the combination of GEN and SFN is much more effective than their single doses in increasing the rate of apoptosis and lowering the colony forming potential of these cells. We determined that these compounds inhibit cell cycle progression to G2 phase in MDA-MB-231 and G1 phase in MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Additionally, we determined that the combination is effective as an HDAC and histone methyltransferase (HMT) inhibitor. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this combination downregulates the levels of HDAC2 and HDAC3 both at the mRNA and protein levels. We also found that these compounds have the potential to downregulate KLF4 levels, which plays an important role in stem cell formation. The combination of GEN and SFN is also effective in downregulating hTERT levels, which is known to be activated when KLF4 binds to its promoter region. Our hypothesis is further strengthened by <i>in vivo</i> studies, where the combination is administered to transgenic mice in the form of genistein and SFN-enriched broccoli sprouts. We have demonstrated that the combination is more effective in preventing or treating mammary cancer via extending tumor latency and reducing tumor volumes/sizes than either of these dietary components administered alone. These results are consistent with our <i>in vitro</i> study suggesting potential preventive and therapeutic effects of this novel dietary combinatorial approach against breast cancer.
Project description:Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reactivate epigenetically-silenced genes in cancer cells, triggering cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Recent evidence suggests that dietary constituents can act as HDAC inhibitors, such as the isothiocyanates found in cruciferous vegetables and the allyl compounds present in garlic. Broccoli sprouts are a rich source of sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate that is metabolized via the mercapturic acid pathway and inhibits HDAC activity in human colon, prostate, and breast cancer cells. In mouse preclinical models, SFN inhibited HDAC activity and induced histone hyperacetylation coincident with tumor suppression. Inhibition of HDAC activity also was observed in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from people who consumed a single serving of broccoli sprouts. Garlic organosulfur compounds can be metabolized to allyl mercaptan (AM), a competitive HDAC inhibitor that induced rapid and sustained histone hyperacetylation in human colon cancer cells. Inhibition of HDAC activity by AM was associated with increased histone acetylation and Sp3 transcription factor binding to the promoter region of the P21WAF1 gene, resulting in elevated p21 protein expression and cell cycle arrest. Collectively, the results from these studies, and others reviewed herein, provide new insights into the relationships between reversible histone modifications, diet, and cancer chemoprevention.
Project description:Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is a promising epigenetic drug target for multiple therapeutic applications. Direct interaction between the Deacetylase Activating Domain of the silencing mediator for retinoid or thyroid-hormone receptors (SMRT-DAD) is required for activation of enzymatic activity of HDAC3. The structure of this complex and the nature of interactions with HDAC inhibitors in solution are unknown. Using novel photoreactive HDAC probes, "nanorulers", we determined the distance between the catalytic site of the full-length HDAC3 and SMRT-DAD in solution at physiologically relevant conditions and found it to be substantially different from that predicted by the X-ray model with a ?379-428 aa truncated HDAC3. Further experiments indicated that in solution this distance might change in response to chemical stimuli, while the enzymatic activity remained unaffected. These observations were further validated by Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) NMR experiments. We propose that the observed changes in the distance are an important part of the histone code that remains to be explored. Mapping direct interactions and distances between macromolecules with such "nanorulers" as a function of cellular events facilitates better understanding of basic biology and ways for its manipulation in a cell- and tissue-specific manner.