Hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta due to WDR72 mutations: a novel mutation and ultrastructural analyses of deciduous teeth.
ABSTRACT: Mutations in WDR72 have been identified in autosomal recessive hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta (AI).to describe a novel WDR72 mutation and report the ultrastructural enamel phenotype associated with a different WDR72 mutation.A family segregating autosomal recessive hypomaturation AI was recruited, genomic DNA obtained and WDR72 sequenced. Four deciduous teeth from one individual with a previously published WDR72 mutation, extracted as part of clinical care, were subjected to scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and transverse microradiography.A novel homozygous nonsense mutation, R897X, was identified in WDR72 in a family originating from Pakistan. Ultrastructural analysis of enamel from the deciduous teeth of an AI patient with the WDR72 mutation S783X revealed energy-dispersive X-ray analysis spectra with normal carbon and nitrogen peaks, excluding retention of enamel matrix protein. However, transverse microradiography values were significantly lower for affected teeth when compared to normal teeth, consistent with reduced mineralisation. On scanning electron microscopy the enamel rod form observed was normal, yet with inter-rod enamel more prominent than in controls. This appearance was unaltered following incubation with either α-chymotrypsin or lipase.The novel WDR72 mutation described brings the total reported WDR72 mutations to four. Analyses of deciduous tooth enamel in an individual with a homozygous WDR72 mutation identified changes consistent with a late failure of enamel maturation without retention of matrix proteins. The mechanisms by which intracellular WDR72 influences enamel maturation remain unknown.
Project description:Nonsense mutations in FAM83H are a recently described underlying cause of autosomal dominant (AD) hypocalcified amelogenesis imperfecta (AI).This study aims to report a novel c.1374C>A p.Y458X nonsense mutation and describe the associated ultrastructural phenotype of deciduous teeth.A family of European origin from the Iberian Peninsula with AD-inherited AI was ascertained. Family members were assessed through clinical examination and supporting investigations. Naturally exfoliated deciduous teeth from 2 siblings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and transverse microradiography (TMR).On clinical and radiographic investigation the appearances of the affected deciduous and permanent teeth were consistent with hypocalcified AI with small focal areas of more normal looking enamel. DNA sequencing identified a novel c.1374C>A p.Y458X FAM83H nonsense mutation in affected, but not in either unaffected family members or unrelated controls. Exfoliated teeth were characterised by substantial post-eruptive enamel loss on gross examination. Irregular, poor quality enamel prisms were observed on SEM. These were coated in amorphous material. TMR and EDX confirmed reduced mineral and increased organic content in enamel, respectively.FAM83H nonsense mutations have recently been recognised as a cause of AD hypocalcified AI. We report a novel nonsense FAM83H mutation and describe the associated preliminary ultrastructural phenotype in deciduous teeth. This is characterised by poorly formed enamel rods with inappropriate retention of amorphous material, which is likely to represent retained organic matrix that contributes to the overall hypomineralised phenotype.
Project description:Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited defects of enamel formation. In isolated AI (no additional segregating features), mutations in at least 7 genes are known so far, causing dominant, recessive or X-linked AI and allowing the identification of the molecular etiology in 40-50% of affected families. We report on 2 siblings (an 11-year-old female and a 7-year-old male) born to consanguineous Turkish parents, with AI and mild, proportionate short stature. Both parents have normal teeth, but mother, maternal grandmother and great-grandfather are/were also of short stature. A spine X-ray performed in the girl excluded brachyolmia. Affymetrix GenomeWide SNP6.0 Array analysis identified no pathogenic copy number changes, but showed sharing of large homozygous regions, including chromosome band 15q21.3 containing the WDR72 gene. WDR72 sequence analysis in both siblings revealed homozygosity for a novel stop mutation in exon 10 (c.997A>T, p.Lys333X) explaining the AI phenotype. Mutations in WDR72 are a very rare cause of autosomal-recessive hypomaturation type of isolated AI. The mutation described in our patients specifies the diagnosis AI IIA3 and represents only the sixth WDR72 mutation reported so far. The WDR72 protein is critical for dental enamel formation, but its exact function is still unknown.
Project description:Healthy dental enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized human tissue. Though acellular, nonvital, and without capacity for turnover or repair, it can nevertheless last a lifetime. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a collective term for failure of normal enamel development, covering diverse clinical phenotypes that typically show Mendelian inheritance patterns. One subset, known as hypomaturation AI, is characterised by near-normal volumes of organic enamel matrix but with weak, creamy-brown opaque enamel that fails prematurely after tooth eruption. Mutations in genes critical to enamel matrix formation have been documented, but current understanding of other key events in enamel biomineralization is limited. We investigated autosomal-recessive hypomaturation AI in a consanguineous Pakistani family. A whole-genome SNP autozygosity screen identified a locus on chromosome 15q21.3. Sequencing candidate genes revealed a point mutation in the poorly characterized WDR72 gene. Screening of WDR72 in a panel of nine additional hypomaturation AI families revealed the same mutation in a second, apparently unrelated, Pakistani family and two further nonsense mutations in Omani families. Immunohistochemistry confirmed intracellular localization in maturation-stage ameloblasts. WDR72 function is unknown, but as a putative beta propeller is expected to be a scaffold for protein-protein interactions. The nearest homolog, WDR7, is involved in vesicle mobilization and Ca2+-dependent exocytosis at synapses. Vesicle trafficking is important in maturation-stage ameloblasts with respect to secretion into immature enamel and removal of cleaved enamel matrix proteins via endocytosis. This raises the intriguing possibility that WDR72 is critical to ameloblast vesicle turnover during enamel maturation.
Project description:The proven candidate genes for amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) are AMELX, ENAM, MMP20, KLK4, FAM83H, and WDR72. We performed mutation analyses on seven families with hypomaturation AI. A novel WDR72 dinucleotide deletion mutation (g.57,426_57,427delAT; c.1467_ 1468delAT; p.V491fsX497) was identified in both alleles of probands from Mexico and Turkey. Haplotype analyses showed that the mutations arose independently in the two families. The disease perfectly segregated with the genotype. Only persons with both copies of the mutant allele were affected. Their hypomineralized enamel suffered attrition and orange-brown staining following eruption. Expression of WDR72 fused to green fluorescent protein showed a cytoplasmic localization exclusively and was absent from the nucleus. We conclude that WDR72 is a cytoplasmic protein that is critical for dental enamel formation.
Project description:Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) is a clinical diagnosis that encompasses a group of genetic mutations, each affecting processes involved in tooth enamel formation and thus, result in various enamel defects. The hypomaturation enamel phenotype has been described for mutations involved in the later stage of enamel formation, including Klk4, Mmp20, C4orf26, and Wdr72. Using a candidate gene approach we discovered a novel Wdr72 human mutation in association with AI to be a 5-base pair deletion (c.806_810delGGCAG; p.G255VfsX294). To gain insight into the function of WDR72, we used computer modeling of the full-length human WDR72 protein structure and found that the predicted N-terminal sequence forms two beta-propeller folds with an alpha-solenoid tail at the C-terminus. This domain iteration is characteristic of vesicle coat proteins, such as beta'-COP, suggesting a role for WDR72 in the formation of membrane deformation complexes to regulate intracellular trafficking. Our Wdr72 knockout mouse model (Wdr72(-/-)), containing a LacZ reporter knock-in, exhibited hypomineralized enamel similar to the AI phenotype observed in humans with Wdr72 mutations. MicroCT scans of Wdr72(-/-) mandibles affirmed the hypomineralized enamel phenotype occurring at the onset of the maturation stage. H&E staining revealed a shortened height phenotype in the Wdr72(-/-) ameloblasts with retained proteins in the enamel matrix during maturation stage. H(+)/Cl(-) exchange transporter 5 (CLC5), an early endosome acidifier, was co-localized with WDR72 in maturation-stage ameloblasts and decreased in Wdr72(-/-) maturation-stage ameloblasts. There were no obvious differences in RAB4A and LAMP1 immunostaining of Wdr72(-/-) mice as compared to wildtype controls. Moreover, Wdr72(-/-) ameloblasts had reduced amelogenin immunoreactivity, suggesting defects in amelogenin fragment resorption from the matrix. These data demonstrate that WDR72 has a major role in enamel mineralization, most notably during the maturation stage, and suggest a function involving endocytic vesicle trafficking, possibly in the removal of amelogenin proteins.
Project description:"Amelogenesis imperfecta" (AI) describes a group of genetic conditions that result in defects in tooth enamel formation. Mutations in many genes are known to cause AI, including the gene encoding the serine protease, kallikrein related peptidase 4 (KLK4), expressed during the maturation stage of amelogenesis. In this study we report the fourth KLK4 mutation to be identified in autosomal recessively-inherited hypomaturation type AI, c.632delT, p.(L211Rfs*37) (NM_004917.4, NP_004908.4). This homozygous variant was identified in five Pakistani AI families and is predicted to result in a transcript with a premature stop codon that escapes nonsense mediated decay. However, the protein may misfold, as three of six disulphide bonds would be disrupted, and may be degraded or non-functional as a result. Primary teeth were obtained from one affected individual. The enamel phenotype was characterized using high-resolution computerized X-ray tomography (CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and microhardness testing (MH). Enamel from the affected individual (referred to as KLK4 enamel) was hypomineralised in comparison with matched control enamel. Furthermore, KLK4 inner enamel was hypomineralised compared with KLK4 outer enamel. SEM showed a clear structural demarcation between KLK4 inner and outer enamel, although enamel structure was similar to control tissue overall. EDX showed that KLK4 inner enamel contained less calcium and phosphorus and more nitrogen than control inner enamel and KLK4 outer enamel. MH testing showed that KLK4 inner enamel was significantly softer than KLK4 outer enamel (p < 0.001). However, the hardness of control inner enamel was not significantly different to that of control outer enamel. Overall, these findings suggest that the KLK4 c.632delT mutation may be a common cause of autosomal recessive AI in the Pakistani population. The phenotype data obtained mirror findings in the Klk4-/- mouse and suggest that KLK4 is required for the hardening and mineralization of the inner enamel layer but is less essential for hardening and mineralization of the outer enamel layer.
Project description:Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) represents hereditary conditions affecting the quality and quantity of enamel. Six genes are known to cause AI (AMELX, ENAM, MMP20, KLK4, FAM83H, and WDR72). Our aim was to determine the distribution of different gene mutations in a large AI population and evaluate phenotype-genotype relationships. Affected and unaffected family members were evaluated clinically and radiographically by one examiner. Genotyping was completed using genomic DNA obtained from blood or saliva. A total of 494 individuals were enrolled, with 430 (224 affected, 202 unaffected, and 4 not definitive) belonging to 71 families with conditions consistent with the diagnosis of AI. Diverse clinical phenotypes were observed (i.e. hypoplastic, hypocalcified, and hypomaturation). Genotyping revealed mutations in all 6 candidate genes. A molecular diagnosis was made in 132 affected individuals (59%) and in 26 of the families (37%). Mutations involved 12 families with FAM83H (46%), 6 families with AMELX (23%), 3 families with ENAM (11%), 2 families with KLK4 and MMP20 (8% for each gene), and 1 family with a WDR72 mutation (4%). Phenotypic variants were associated with allelic FAM83H and AMELX mutations. Two seemingly unrelated families had the same KLK4 mutation. Families affected with AI where candidate gene mutations were not identified could have mutations not identifiable by traditional gene sequencing (e.g. exon deletion) or they could have promoter sequence mutations not evaluated in this study. However, the results suggest that there remain new AI causative genes to be identified.
Project description:The Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders that affect enamel formation. To date, mutations in 4 genes have been reported in various types of AI. Mutations in the genes encoding the 2 enamel proteases, matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4), have each been reported in a single family segregating autosomal-recessive hypomaturation AI. To determine the frequency of mutations in these genes, we analyzed 15 Turkish probands with autosomal-recessive hypomaturation AI for MMP20 and KLK4 gene mutations. No KLK4 mutations were found. A novel MMP20 mutation (g.16250T>A) was found in one family. This missense mutation changed the conserved active-site His226 residue of the zinc catalytic domain to Gln (p.H226Q). Zymogram analysis demonstrated that this missense mutation abolished MMP20 proteolytic activity. No MMP20 mutations were found in the remaining 14 probands, underscoring the genetic heterogeneity of hypomaturation AI.
Project description:Defects in WDR72 (WD repeat-containing protein 72) cause autosomal recessive hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. We generated and characterized Wdr72-knockout/lacZ-knockin mice to investigate the role of WDR72 in enamel formation. In all analyses, enamel formed by Wdr72 heterozygous mice was indistinguishable from wild-type enamel. Without WDR72, enamel mineral density increased early during the maturation stage but soon arrested. The null enamel layer was only a tenth as hard as wild-type enamel and underwent rapid attrition following eruption. Despite the failure to further mineralize enamel deposited during the secretory stage, ectopic mineral formed on the enamel surface and penetrated into the overlying soft tissue. While the proteins in the enamel matrix were successfully degraded, the digestion products remained inside the enamel. Interactome analysis of WDR72 protein revealed potential interactions with clathrin-associated proteins and involvement in ameloblastic endocytosis. The maturation stage mandibular incisor enamel did not stain with methyl red, indicating that the enamel did not acidify beneath ruffle-ended ameloblasts. Attachment of maturation ameloblasts to the enamel layer was weakened, and SLC24A4, a critical ameloblast calcium transporter, did not localize appropriately along the ameloblast distal membrane. Fewer blood vessels were observed in the papillary layer supporting ameloblasts. Specific WDR72 expression by maturation stage ameloblasts explained the observation that enamel thickness and rod decussation (established during the secretory stage) are normal in the Wdr72 null mice. We conclude that WDR72 serves critical functions specifically during the maturation stage of amelogenesis and is required for both protein removal and enamel mineralization.
Project description:Dental enamel malformations, or amelogenesis imperfecta (AI), can be isolated or syndromic. To improve the prospects of making a successful diagnosis by genetic testing, it is important that the full range of genes and mutations that cause AI be determined. Defects in WDR72 (WD repeat-containing protein 72; OMIM *613214) cause AI, type IIA3 (OMIM #613211), which follows an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. The defective enamel is normal in thickness, severely hypomineralized, orange-brown stained, and susceptible to attrition. We identified 6 families with biallelic WDR72 mutations by whole exome sequence analyses that perfectly segregated with the enamel phenotype. The novel mutations included 3 stop-gains [NM_182758.2: c.377G>A/p.(Trp126*), c.1801C>T/p.(Arg601*), c.2350A>T/p.(Arg784*)], a missense mutation [c.1265G>T/p.(Gly422Val)], and a 62,138-base pair deletion (NG_017034.2: g.35441_97578del62138) that removed WDR72 coding exons 3 through 13. A previously reported WDR72 frameshift was also observed [c.1467_1468delAT/p.(Val491Aspfs*8)]. Three of the affected patients showed decreased serum pH, consistent with a diagnosis of renal tubular acidosis. Percentiles of stature and body weight varied among 8 affected individuals but did not show a consistent trend. These studies support that WDR72 mutations cause a syndromic form of AI and improve our ability to diagnose AI caused by WDR72 defects.