Mesenchymal stem cells expanded in vitro with human serum for the treatment of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease: results of a phase I/II clinical trial.
ABSTRACT: This trial evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of the infusion of mesenchymal stem cells expanded using human serum for the treatment of refractory acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease. Twenty-eight expansions were started. In 22, a minimum of more than 1 x 10⁶ mesenchymal stem cells/kg were obtained after a median of 26 days; this threshold was not obtained in the remaining cases. Ten patients received cells for the treatment of refractory or relapsed acute graft-versus-host disease and 8 for chronic disease. One patient treated for acute graft-versus-host disease obtained a complete response, 6 had a partial response and 3 did not respond. One of the chronic patients achieved complete remision, 3 a partial response, and 4 did not respond. The current study supports the use of this approach in less heavily treated patients for both acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. The trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: identifier NCT00447460.
Project description:Graft versus host disease is a difficult and potentially lethal complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It occurs with minor human leucocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch and is normally treated with corticosteroid and other immunosuppressive therapy. When it is refractory to steroid therapy, mortality approaches 80%. Mesenchymal stromal cells are rare cells found in bone marrow and other tissues. They can be expanded in culture and possess complex and diverse immunomodulatory activity. Moreover, human mesenchymal stromal cells carry low levels of class 1 and no class 2 HLA antigens, making them immunoprivileged and able to be used without HLA matching. Their use in steroid-refractory graft versus host disease was first described in 2004. Subsequently, they have been used in a number of Phase I and II trials in acute and chronic graft versus host disease trials with success. We discuss their mode of action, the results, their production, and potential dangers with a view to future application.
Project description:Severe acute graft versus host disease (GvHD) is a life-threatening complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) play an important role in endogenous tissue repair and possess strong immune-modulatory properties making them a promising tool for the treatment of steroid-refractory GvHD. To date, a few reports exist on the use of MSCs in treatment of GvHD in children indicating that children tend to respond better than adults, albeit with heterogeneous results.We here present a review of the literature and the clinical course of two instructive pediatric patients with acute steroid-refractory GvHD after haploidentical stem cell transplantation, which exemplify the beneficial effects of third-party transplanted MSCs in treatment of acute steroid-refractory GvHD. Moreover, we provide a meta-analysis of clinical studies addressing the outcome of patients with steroid-refractory GvHD and treatment with MSCs in adults and in children (n = 183; 122 adults, 61 children). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that the overall response-rate is high (73.8%) and confirms, for the first time, that children indeed respond better to treatment of GvHD with MSCs than adults (complete response 57.4% vs. 45.1%, respectively).These data emphasize the significance of this therapeutic approach especially in children and indicate that future prospective studies are needed to assess the reasons for the observed differential response-rates in pediatric and adult patients.
Project description:Upper gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease is reported in approximately 30% of hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients developing acute graft-versus-host disease. Currently classified as Grade II in consensus criteria, upper gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease is often treated with systemic immunosuppression. We reviewed the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database to assess the prognostic implications of upper gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease in isolation or with other acute graft-versus-host disease manifestations. 8567 adult recipients of myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant receiving T-cell replete grafts for acute leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome between 2000 and 2012 were analyzed. 51% of transplants were from unrelated donors. Reported upper gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease incidence was 12.1%; 2.7% of recipients had isolated upper gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease, of whom 95% received systemic steroids. Patients with isolated upper gastrointestinal involvement had similar survival, disease-free survival, transplant-related mortality, and relapse as patients with Grades 0, I, or II acute graft-versus-host disease. Unrelated donor recipients with isolated upper gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease had less subsequent chronic graft-versus-host disease than those with Grades I or II disease (P=0.016 and P=0.0004, respectively). Upper gastrointestinal involvement added no significant prognostic information when present in addition to other manifestations of Grades I or II acute graft-versus-host disease. If upper gastrointestinal symptoms were reclassified as Grade 0 or I, 425 of 2083 patients (20.4%) with Grade II disease would be downgraded, potentially impacting the interpretation of clinical trial outcomes. Defining upper gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease as a Grade II entity, as it is currently diagnosed and treated, is not strongly supported by this analysis. The general approach to diagnosis, treatment and grading of upper gastrointestinal symptoms and their impact on subsequent acute graft-versus-host disease therapy warrants reevaluation.
Project description:Steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease is a life-threatening complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Evidence is accumulating that steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease is associated with endothelial distress. Endothelial cell homeostasis is regulated by nitric oxide, and serum nitrates are derived from nitric oxide synthase activity or dietary sources. In this retrospective study based on 417 patients allografted at our institution we investigated whether quantification of serum nitrates could predict steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease. Elevated pre-transplant levels of serum nitrates (>26.5 ?M) predicted steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease (P=0.026) and non-relapse mortality (P=0.028), particularly in combination with high pre-transplant angiopoietin-2 levels (P=0.0007 and P=0.021, respectively). Multivariate analyses confirmed serum nitrates as independent predictors of steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease and non-relapse mortality. Differences in serum nitrate levels did not correlate with serum levels of tumor necrosis factor or C-reactive protein or expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in blood cells. Patients with high pre-transplant nitrate levels had significantly reduced rates of refractory graft-versus-host disease (P=0.031) when pravastatin was taken. In summary, patients at high risk of developing steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease could be identified prior to transplantation by serum markers linked to endothelial cell function. Retrospectively, statin medication was associated with a reduced incidence of refractory graft-versus-host disease in this endothelial high-risk cohort.
Project description:Using multicenter data, we developed a novel acute graft-versus-host disease Risk Score which more accurately predicts response to steroid treatment, survival and transplant related mortality than other published risk scores based upon clinical grading criteria.1 To validate this Risk Score in a contemporary cohort, we examined 355 recent University of Minnesota patients (2007-2016) diagnosed with acute graft-versus-host disease and treated with prednisone 60 mg/m2/day for 14 days, followed by an 8-week taper. Overall response [complete response + partial response] was higher in the 276 standard risk versus 79 high risk graft-versus-host disease patients at day 14 (71% versus 56%, P<0.01), day 28 (74% versus 59%, P=0.02) and day 56 (68% versus 49%, P<0.01) after steroid initiation. Day 28 response did not differ by the initial graft-versus-host disease grade. In multiple regression analysis, patients with high risk graft-versus-host disease were less likely to respond at day 28 (odds ratio 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9, P<0.01) and had higher risks of 2 year transplant related mortality (Hazard Ratio 1.8, 95% CI, 1.0-2.1, P=0.03) and overall mortality (Hazard Ratio 1.7, 95% CI, 1.2-2.4, P<0.01) than patients with a standard risk graft-versus-host disease. This analysis confirms the Minnesota graft-versus-host disease Risk Score as a valuable bedside tool to define risk in patients with acute graft-versus-host disease. A tailored approach to upfront acute graft-versus-host disease therapy based upon the Minnesota Risk Score may improve outcomes and facilitate testing of novel treatments in these patients.
Project description:On May 24, 2019, the Food and Drug Administration approved ruxolitinib for steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (SR-aGVHD) in adult and pediatric patients 12?years and older. Approval was based on Study INCB 18424-271 (REACH-1; NCT02953678), an open-label, single-arm, multicenter trial that included 49 patients with grades 2-4 SR-aGVHD occurring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ruxolitinib was administered at 5 mg twice daily, with dose increases to 10 mg twice daily permitted after 3?days in the absence of toxicity. The Day-28 overall response rate was 57.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 42.2-71.2). The median duration of response was 0.5 months (95% CI: 0.3-2.7), and the median time from Day-28 response to either death or need for new therapy for acute GVHD was 5.7 months (95% CI: 2.2 to not estimable). Common adverse reactions included anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, infections, edema, bleeding, and elevated transaminases. Ruxolitinib is the first drug approved for treatment of SR-aGVHD. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Ruxolitinib is the first Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease in adult and pediatric patients 12?years and older. Its approval provides a treatment option for the 60% of those patients who do not respond to steroid therapy.
Project description:An alternative reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen for allogeneic transplantation, based on treosulfan and fludarabine, has recently been identified. The rationale for this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of this regimen prospectively in patients with a primary myelodysplastic syndrome.A total of 45 patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes were conditioned with 3×14 g/m(2) treosulfan and 5×30 mg/m(2) fludarabine followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Subtypes of myelodysplastic syndromes were refractory anemia with excess blasts-2 (44%), refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (27%), refractory anemia (9%), refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (4%), refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and ringed sideroblasts (4%), refractory anemia with excess blasts-1 (2%), and myelodysplastic syndrome with isolated del (5q) (2%). The myelodysplastic syndrome was unclassified in 7% of the patients. Forty-seven percent of the patients had a favorable karyotype, 29% an unfavorable one, and 18% an intermediate karyotype. Patients were evaluated for engraftment, adverse events, graft-versus-host disease, non-relapse mortality, relapse incidence, overall survival and disease-free survival.All but one patient showed primary engraftment of neutrophils after a median of 17 days. Non-hematologic adverse events of grade III-IV in severity included mainly infections and gastrointestinal symptoms (80% and 22% of the patients, respectively). Acute graft-versus-host disease grade II-IV developed in 24%, and extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease in 28% of the patients. After a median follow-up of 780 days, the 2-year overall and disease-free survival estimates were 71% and 67%, respectively. The 2-year cumulative incidences of non-relapse mortality and relapse were 17% and 16%, respectively.Our safety and efficacy data suggest that treosulfan-based conditioning therapy is a promising treatment option for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01062490.
Project description:The use of antihuman T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin in the setting of transplantation from an HLA-matched related donor is still much debated. Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease are the main causes of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with myelofibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of antihuman T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin in a large cohort of patients with myelofibrosis (n=287). The cumulative incidences of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease among patients who were or were not given antihuman T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin were 26% and 41%, respectively. The corresponding incidences of chronic graft-versus-host disease were 52% and 55%, respectively. Non-adjusted overall survival, disease-free survival and non-relapse mortality rates were 55% versus 53%, 49% versus 45%, and 32% versus 31%, respectively, among the patients who were or were not given antihuman T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin. An adjusted model confirmed that the risk of acute graft-versus-host disease was lower following antihuman T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin (hazard ratio, 0.54; P=0.010) while it did not decrease the risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease. The hazard ratios for overall survival and non-relapse mortality were 0.66 and 0.64, with P-values of 0.05 and 0.09, respectively. Antihuman T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin did not influence disease-free survival, graft-versus-host disease, relapse-free survival or relapse risk. In conclusion, in the setting of matched related transplantation in myelofibrosis patients, this study demonstrates that antihuman T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin decreases the risk of acute graft-versus-host disease without increasing the risk of relapse.
Project description:Graft-versus-host disease-free relapse-free survival, which is defined as the absence of grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease, systemically treated chronic graft-versus-host disease, relapse, and death, is a novel, meaningful composite end point for clinical trials. To characterize risk factors and differences in graft-versus-host disease-free relapse-free survival according to a variety of graft sources, we analyzed 23,302 patients with hematologic malignancy that had a first allogeneic transplantation from 2000 through 2013 using the Japanese national transplant registry database. The 1-year graft-versus-host disease-free relapse-free survival rate was 41% in all patients. The rate was higher after bone marrow transplantation than after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation due to the lower risks of III-IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. The rate was highest after HLA-matched sibling bone marrow transplantation. The rate after single cord blood transplantation was comparable to that after HLA-matched unrelated bone marrow transplantation among patients aged 20 years or under, and was comparable or better than other alternative graft sources among patients aged 21 years or over, due to the low risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Other factors associated with better graft-versus-host disease-free relapse-free survival include female patients, antithymocyte globulin prophylaxis (for standard-risk disease), recent years of transplantation, sex combinations other than from a female donor to a male patient, the absence of prior autologous transplantation, myeloablative conditioning, negative cytomegalovirus serostatus, and tacrolimus-based prophylaxis. These results provide important information to guide the choice of graft sources and are benchmarks for future graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis studies.
Project description:Graft versus host disease (GVHD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Despite the use of prophylactic GVHD regimens, a significant proportion of transplant recipients will develop acute or chronic GVHD following HSCT. Corticosteroids are standard first-line therapy, but are only effective in roughly half of all cases with ~50% of patients going on to develop steroid-refractory disease, which increases the risk of nonrelapse mortality. While progress has been made with improvements in survival outcomes over time, corticosteroids are associated with significant toxicities, and many currently available salvage therapies are associated with increased immunosuppression, infectious complications, and potential loss of the graft versus leukemia (GVL) effect. Thus, there is an unmet need for development of newer treatment strategies for both acute and chronic GVHD to improve long-term post-transplant outcomes and quality of life for HSCT recipients. Here, we provide a concise review of major emerging therapies currently being studied in the treatment of acute and chronic GVHD.