Comprehensive identification of glycated peptides and their glycation motifs in plasma and erythrocytes of control and diabetic subjects.
ABSTRACT: Nonenzymatic glycation of proteins sets the stage for formation of advanced glycation end-products and development of chronic complications of diabetes. In this report, we extended our previous methods on proteomics analysis of glycated proteins to comprehensively identify glycated proteins in control and diabetic human plasma and erythrocytes. Using immunodepletion, enrichment, and fractionation strategies, we identified 7749 unique glycated peptides, corresponding to 3742 unique glycated proteins. Semiquantitative comparisons showed that glycation levels of a number of proteins were significantly increased in diabetes and that erythrocyte proteins were more extensively glycated than plasma proteins. A glycation motif analysis revealed that some amino acids were favored more than others in the protein primary structures in the vicinity of the glycation sites in both sample types. The glycated peptides and corresponding proteins reported here provide a foundation for potential identification of novel markers for diabetes, hyperglycemia, and diabetic complications in future studies.
Project description:Nonenzymatic glycation of peptides and proteins by d-glucose has important implications in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, particularly in the development of diabetic complications. In this work, we report the first proteomics-based characterization of nonenzymatically glycated proteins in human plasma and erythrocyte membranes from individuals with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Phenylboronate affinity chromatography was used to enrich glycated proteins and glycated tryptic peptides from both human plasma and erythrocyte membranes. The enriched peptides were subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with electron transfer dissociation-tandem mass spectrometry, resulting in the confident identification of 76 and 31 proteins from human plasma and erythrocyte membranes, respectively. Although most of the glycated proteins could be identified in samples from individuals with normal glucose tolerance, slightly higher numbers of glycated proteins and more glycation sites were identified in samples from individuals with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Project description:Diabetes is a common endocrine disorder characterized by hyperglycemia leading to nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, responsible for chronic complications. The development of mass spectrometric techniques able to give highly specific and reliable results in proteome field is of wide interest for physicians, giving them new tools to monitor the disease progression and the possible complications related to diabetes, as well as the effectiveness of therapeutic treatments. This paper reports and discusses some of the data pertaining protein glycation in diabetic subjects obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS). The preliminary studies carried out by in vitro protein glycation experiments show clear differences in molecular weight of glycated and unglycated proteins. Then, the attention was focused on plasma proteins human serum albumin (HSA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG). Enzymatic degradation products of in vitro glycated HSA were studied in order to simulate the in vivo enzymatic digestion of glycated species by the immunological system leading to the highly reactive advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) peptides. Further studies led to the evaluation of glycated Apo A-I and glycated haemoglobin levels. A different MALDI approach was employed for the identification of markers of disease in urine samples of healthy, diabetic, nephropathic, and diabetic-nephropathic subjects.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recent epidemiological studies indicate that only 30-50% of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients are identified using glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels. Thus, novel biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis are urgently needed for providing early and personalized treatment. METHODS:Here, we studied the glycation degrees of 27 glycation sites representing nine plasma proteins in 48 newly diagnosed male T2DM patients and 48 non-diabetic men matched for age (range 35-65 years). Samples were digested with trypsin and enriched for glycated peptides using boronic acid affinity chromatography. Quantification relied on mass spectrometry (multiple reaction monitoring) using isotope-labelled peptides as internal standard. RESULTS:The combination of glycated lysine-141 of haptoglobin (HP K141) and HbA1c provided a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 98%, and an accuracy of 96% to identify T2DM. A set of 15 features considering three glycation sites in human serum albumin, HP K141, and 11 routine laboratory measures of T2DM, metabolic syndrome, obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance provided a sensitivity of 98%, a specificity of 100%, and an accuracy of 99% for newly diagnosed T2DM patients. CONCLUSIONS:Our studies demonstrated the great potential of glycation sites in plasma proteins providing an additional diagnostic tool for T2DM and elucidating that the combination of these sites with HbA1c and FPG could improve the diagnosis of T2DM.
Project description:Nonenzymatic glycation of tissue proteins has important implications in the development of complications of diabetes mellitus. Herein we report improved methods for the enrichment and analysis of glycated peptides using boronate affinity chromatography and electron-transfer dissociation mass spectrometry, respectively. The enrichment of glycated peptides was improved by replacing an off-line desalting step with an online wash of column-bound glycated peptides using 50 mM ammonium acetate, followed by elution with 100 mM acetic acid. The analysis of glycated peptides by MS/MS was improved by considering only higher charged (> or = 3) precursor ions during data-dependent acquisition, which increased the number of glycated peptide identifications. Similarly, the use of supplemental collisional activation after electron transfer (ETcaD) resulted in more glycated peptide identifications when the MS survey scan was acquired with enhanced resolution. Acquiring ETD-MS/MS data at a normal MS survey scan rate, in conjunction with the rejection of both 1+ and 2+ precursor ions, increased the number of identified glycated peptides relative to ETcaD or the enhanced MS survey scan rate. Finally, an evaluation of trypsin, Arg-C, and Lys-C showed that tryptic digestion of glycated proteins was comparable to digestion with Lys-C and that both were better than Arg-C in terms of the number of glycated peptides and corresponding glycated proteins identified by LC-MS/MS.
Project description:Non-enzymatic glycation of tissue proteins has important implications in the development of complications of diabetes mellitus. While electron transfer dissociation (ETD) has been shown to outperform collision-induced dissociation (CID) in sequencing glycated peptides by tandem mass spectrometry, ETD instrumentation is not yet widely available and often suffers from significantly lower sensitivity than CID. In this study, we evaluated different advanced CID techniques (i.e., neutral-loss-triggered MS(3) and multi-stage activation) during liquid chromatography/multi-stage mass spectrometric (LC/MS(n)) analyses of Amadori-modified peptides enriched from human serum glycated in vitro. During neutral-loss-triggered MS(3) experiments, MS(3) scans triggered by neutral losses of 3 H(2)O or 3 H(2)O + HCHO produced similar results in terms of glycated peptide identifications. However, neutral losses of 3 H(2)O resulted in significantly more glycated peptide identifications during multi-stage activation experiments. Overall, the multi-stage activation approach produced more glycated peptide identifications, while the neutral-loss-triggered MS(3) approach resulted in much higher specificity. Both techniques are viable alternatives to ETD for identifying glycated peptides.
Project description:Protein glycation is a major biochemical event that takes place in the plasma of diabetic patients due to increased sugar levels. Extensive glycation leads to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that is well known for having detrimental effects on diabetic patients. In the current work, we have glycated the physiologically important protein Haemoglobin A0 in vitro to study AGE formation and activity by using them as a template for gold nanoparticle (GNPs) synthesis. It was found that the surface plasmon resonance of synthesised GNPs showed high correlation with the extent of glycation. On fractionation, the glycated Haemoglobin A0 segregated into two distinct population of products, one consisting of proteinaceous, cross-linked larger fragments of Haemoglobin A0 and a second population of non-proteinaceous low molecular weight AGEs. Only low molecular weight AGEs contributed to synthesis of GNPs upon using the fractions as a template, substantiating the principle of proposed GNP-based assay. Owing to its physiological importance, AGEs can be used as a diagnostic means for diabetes and its associated complications. In this study, we have employed the high reactivity of AGEs for the development of a GNP-based novel colorimetric sensor to enable their detection. Our proposed GNP-based sensing could have high clinical significance in detecting diabetes and its associated complexities.
Project description:Diabetes is associated with a dramatic mortality rate due to its vascular complications. Chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes leads to enhanced glycation of erythrocytes and oxidative stress. Even though erythrocytes play a determining role in vascular complications, very little is known about how erythrocyte structure and functionality can be affected by glycation. Our objective was to decipher the impact of glycation on erythrocyte structure, oxidative stress parameters and capacity to interact with cultured human endothelial cells. In vitro glycated erythrocytes were prepared following incubation in the presence of different concentrations of glucose. To get insight into the in vivo relevance of our results, we compared these data to those obtained using red blood cells purified from diabetics or non-diabetics. We measured erythrocyte deformability, susceptibility to hemolysis, reactive oxygen species production and oxidative damage accumulation. Altered structures, redox status and oxidative modifications were increased in glycated erythrocytes. These modifications were associated with reduced antioxidant defence mediated by enzymatic activity. Enhanced erythrocyte phagocytosis by endothelial cells was observed when cultured with glycated erythrocytes, which was associated with increased levels of phosphatidylserine-likely as a result of an eryptosis phenomenon triggered by the hyperglycemic treatment. Most types of oxidative damage identified in in vitro glycated erythrocytes were also observed in red blood cells isolated from diabetics. These results bring new insights into the impact of glycation on erythrocyte structure, oxidative damage and their capacity to interact with endothelial cells, with a possible relevance to diabetes.
Project description:Non-enzymatic glycation of proteins is a post-translational modification produced by a reaction between reducing sugars and amino groups located in lysine and arginine residues or in the N-terminal position. This modification plays a relevant role in medicine and food industry. In the clinical field, this undesired role is directly linked to blood glucose concentration and therefore to pathological conditions derived from hyperglycemia (>11 mm glucose) such as diabetes mellitus or renal failure. An approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis of glycated proteins is here proposed to achieve the three information levels for their complete characterization. These are: 1) identification of glycated proteins, 2) elucidation of sugar attachment sites, and 3) quantitative analysis to compare glycemic states. Qualitative analysis was carried out by tandem mass spectrometry after endoproteinase Glu-C digestion and boronate affinity chromatography for isolation of glycated peptides. For this purpose, two MS operational modes were used: higher energy collisional dissociation-MS2 and CID-MS3 by neutral loss scan monitoring of two selective neutral losses (162.05 and 84.04 Da for the glucose cleavage and an intermediate rearrangement of the glucose moiety). On the other hand, quantitative analysis was based on labeling of proteins with [(13)C(6)]glucose incubation to evaluate the native glycated proteins labeled with [(12)C(6)]glucose. As glycation is chemoselective, it is exclusively occurring in potential targets for in vivo modifications. This approach, named glycation isotopic labeling, enabled differentiation of glycated peptides labeled with both isotopic forms resulting from enzymatic digestion by mass spectrometry (6-Da mass shift/glycation site). The strategy was then applied to a reference plasma sample, revealing the detection of 50 glycated proteins and 161 sugar attachment positions with identification of preferential glycation sites for each protein. A predictive approach was also tested to detect potential glycation sites under high glucose concentration.
Project description:Human serum albumin is one of the most abundant plasma proteins that readily undergoes glycation, thus glycated albumin has been suggested as an additional marker for monitoring glycemic status. Hitherto, only Amadori-modified peptides of albumin were quantified. In this study, we report the construction of fragment ion library for Amadori-modified lysine (AML), N(?)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML)-, and N(?)-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL)-modified peptides of the corresponding synthetically modified albumin using high resolution accurate mass spectrometry (HR/AM). The glycated peptides were manually inspected and validated for their modification. Further, the fragment ion library was used for quantification of glycated peptides of albumin in the context of diabetes. Targeted Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical Mass Spectra (SWATH) analysis in pooled plasma samples of control, prediabetes, diabetes, and microalbuminuria, has led to identification and quantification of 13 glycated peptides comprised of four AML, seven CML, and two CEL modifications, representing nine lysine sites of albumin. Five lysine sites namely K549, K438, K490, K88, and K375, were observed to be highly sensitive for glycation modification as their respective m/z showed maximum fold change and had both AML and CML modifications. Thus, peptides involving these lysine sites could be potential novel markers to assess the degree of glycation in diabetes.
Project description:Glycation and glycoxidation of proteins and peptides have been intensively studied and are considered as reliable diagnostic biomarkers of hyperglycemia and early stages of type II diabetes. However, glucose can also react with primary amino groups present in other cellular components, such as aminophospholipids (aminoPLs). Although it is proposed that glycated aminoPLs can induce many cellular responses and contribute to the development and progression of diabetes, the routes of their formation and their biological roles are only partially revealed. The same is true for the influence of glucose-derived modifications on the biophysical properties of PLs. Here we studied structural, signaling, and biophysical properties of glycated and glycoxidized phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs). By combining high resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy it was possible to deduce the structures of several intermediates indicating an oxidative cleavage of the Amadori product yielding glycoxidized PEs including advanced glycation end products, such as carboxyethyl- and carboxymethyl-ethanolamines. The pro-oxidative role of glycated PEs was demonstrated and further associated with several cellular responses including activation of NF?B signaling pathways. Label free proteomics indicated significant alterations in proteins regulating cellular metabolisms. Finally, the biophysical properties of PL membranes changed significantly upon PE glycation, such as melting temperature (Tm), membrane surface charge, and ion transport across the phospholipid bilayer.