Biosynthetic chlorination of the piperazate residue in kutzneride biosynthesis by KthP.
ABSTRACT: Kutznerides 2 and 8 of the cyclic hexadepsipeptide family of antifungal natural products from the soil actinomycete Kutzneria sp. 744 contain two sets of chlorinated residues, a 6,7-dichlorohexahydropyrroloindole moiety derived from dichlorotryptophan and a 5-chloropiperazate moiety, as well as a methylcyclopropylglycine residue that may arise from isoleucine via a cryptic chlorination pathway. Previous studies identified KtzD, KtzQ, and KtzR as three halogenases in the kutzneride pathway but left no candidate for installing the C5 chlorine on piperazate. On the basis of analysis of the complete genome sequence of Kutzneria, we now identify a fourth halogenase in the pathway whose gene is separated from the defined kutzneride cluster by 12 open reading frames. KthP (kutzneride halogenase for piperazate) is a mononuclear nonheme iron halogenase that acts on the piperazyl ring tethered by a thioester linkage to the holo forms of thiolation domains. MS analysis of the protein-bound product confirmed chlorination of the piperazate framework from the (3S)- but not the (3R)-piperazyl-S-pantetheinyl thiolation proteins. After thioesterase-mediated release, nuclear magnetic resonance was used to assign the free imino acid as (3S,5S)-5-chloropiperazate, distinct from the 3S,5R stereoisomer reported in the mature kutznerides. These results demonstrate that a fourth halogenase, KthP, is active in the kutzneride biosynthetic pathway and suggest further processing of the (3S,5S)-5-chloropiperazate during subsequent incorporation into the kutzneride depsipeptide frameworks.
Project description:The soil actinomycete Kutzneria sp. 744 produces a class of highly decorated hexadepsipeptides, which represent a new chemical scaffold that has both antimicrobial and antifungal properties. These natural products, known as kutznerides, are created via nonribosomal peptide synthesis using various derivatized amino acids. The piperazic acid moiety contained in the kutzneride scaffold, which is vital for its antibiotic activity, has been shown to derive from the hydroxylated product of l-ornithine, l-N(5)-hydroxyornithine. The production of this hydroxylated species is catalyzed by the action of an FAD- and NAD(P)H-dependent N-hydroxylase known as KtzI. We have been able to structurally characterize KtzI in several states along its catalytic trajectory, and by pairing these snapshots with the biochemical and structural data already available for this enzyme class, we propose a structurally based reaction mechanism that includes novel conformational changes of both the protein backbone and the flavin cofactor. Further, we were able to recapitulate these conformational changes in the protein crystal, displaying their chemical competence. Our series of structures, with corroborating biochemical and spectroscopic data collected by us and others, affords mechanistic insight into this relatively new class of flavin-dependent hydroxylases and adds another layer to the complexity of flavoenzymes.
Project description:Kutznerides, actinomycete-derived cyclic depsipetides, consist of six nonproteinogenic residues, including a highly oxygenated tricyclic hexahydropyrroloindole, a chlorinated piperazic acid, 2-(1-methylcyclopropyl)-glycine, a beta-branched-hydroxy acid, and 3-hydroxy glutamic acid, for which biosynthetic logic has not been elucidated. Herein we describe the biosynthetic gene cluster for the kutzneride family, identified by degenerate primer PCR for halogenating enzymes postulated to be involved in biosyntheses of these unusual monomers. The 56-kb gene cluster encodes a series of six nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) modules distributed over three proteins and a variety of tailoring enzymes, including both mononuclear nonheme iron and two flavin-dependent halogenases, and an array of oxygen transfer catalysts. The sequence and organization of NRPS genes support incorporation of the unusual monomer units into the densely functionalized scaffold of kutznerides. Our work provides insight into the formation of this intriguing class of compounds and provides a foundation for elucidating the timing and mechanisms of their biosynthesis.
Project description:Tryptophan 7-halogenase catalyzes chlorination of free tryptophan to 7-chlorotryptophan, which is the first step in the antibiotic pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis. Many biologically and pharmaceutically active natural products contain chlorine and thus, an understanding of the mechanism of its introduction into organic molecules is important. Whilst enzyme-catalyzed chlorination is accomplished with ease, it remains a difficult task for the chemists. Therefore, utilizing enzymes in the synthesis of chlorinated organic compounds is important, and providing atomistic mechanistic insights about the reaction mechanism of tryptophan 7-halogenase is vital and timely. In this work, we examined a mechanism for the reaction of tryptophan chlorination, performed by tryptophan 7-halogenase, by calculating potential energy and free energy surfaces using two different Combined Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical (QM/MM) methods both employing Density Functional Theory (DFT) for the QM region. Both computational strategies agree on the nature of the rate-limiting step and provided close results for the reaction barriers of the two reaction steps. The calculations for both the potential energy and the free energy profiles showed very similar geometric features and hydrogen bonding interactions for the characterized stationary points.
Project description:Natural product chemical diversity is fuelled by the emergence and ongoing evolution of biosynthetic pathways in secondary metabolism. However, co-evolution of enzymes for metabolic diversification is not well understood, especially at the biochemical level. Here, two parallel assemblies with an extraordinarily high sequence identity from Lyngbya majuscula form a beta-branched cyclopropane in the curacin A pathway (Cur), and a vinyl chloride group in the jamaicamide pathway (Jam). The components include a halogenase, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl enzyme cassette for polyketide beta-branching, and an enoyl reductase domain. The halogenase from CurA, and the dehydratases (ECH(1)s), decarboxylases (ECH(2)s) and enoyl reductase domains from both Cur and Jam, were assessed biochemically to determine the mechanisms of cyclopropane and vinyl chloride formation. Unexpectedly, the polyketide beta-branching pathway was modified by introduction of a gamma-chlorination step on (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl mediated by Cur halogenase, a non-haem Fe(ii), alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent enzyme. In a divergent scheme, Cur ECH(2) was found to catalyse formation of the alpha,beta enoyl thioester, whereas Jam ECH(2) formed a vinyl chloride moiety by selectively generating the corresponding beta,gamma enoyl thioester of the 3-methyl-4-chloroglutaconyl decarboxylation product. Finally, the enoyl reductase domain of CurF specifically catalysed an unprecedented cyclopropanation on the chlorinated product of Cur ECH(2) instead of the canonical alpha,beta C = C saturation reaction. Thus, the combination of chlorination and polyketide beta-branching, coupled with mechanistic diversification of ECH(2) and enoyl reductase, leads to the formation of cyclopropane and vinyl chloride moieties. These results reveal a parallel interplay of evolutionary events in multienzyme systems leading to functional group diversity in secondary metabolites.
Project description:The biosynthetic gene cluster for the kutzneride family of hexapeptidolactones includes the four-gene cassette ktzABCD postulated to generate a nonproteinogenic amino acid. Encoded by this cassette are the nonheme FeII-dependent halogenase KtzD and the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-like flavoprotein KtzA, proposed to work in conjunction with adenylating protein KtzB and carrier protein KtzC. In the present work, we report the in vitro reconstitution of this four-protein system and identify the final product as (1S,2R)-allocoronamic acid bound in thioester linkage to KtzC. Further analysis of KtzD and KtzA support a biosynthetic pathway that involves KtzD-mediated generation of a gamma-chloroisoleucyl intermediate which is cyclized to the final product by KtzA without redox participation of the bound flavin cofactor. This work introduces a new monomer for potential incorporation into nonribosomal peptides and validates the unique strategy for its biosynthesis.
Project description:The CurA halogenase (Hal) catalyzes a cryptic chlorination leading to cyclopropane ring formation in the synthesis of the natural product curacin A. Hal belongs to a family of enzymes that use Fe(2+), O(2) and alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG) to perform a variety of halogenation reactions in natural product biosynthesis. Crystal structures of the enzyme in five ligand states reveal strikingly different open and closed conformations dependent on alphaKG binding. The open form represents ligand-free enzyme, preventing substrate from entering the active site until both alphaKG and chloride are bound, while the closed form represents the holoenzyme with alphaKG and chloride coordinated to iron. Candidate amino acid residues involved in substrate recognition were identified by site-directed mutagenesis. These new structures provide direct evidence of a conformational switch driven by alphaKG leading to chlorination of an early pathway intermediate.
Project description:We present here a computational study of reactions at a model complex of the SyrB2 enzyme active site. SyrB2, which chlorinates L-threonine in the syringomycin biosynthetic pathway, belongs to a recently discovered class of alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG), non-heme Fe(II)-dependent halogenases that share many structural and chemical similarities with hydroxylases. Namely, halogenases and hydroxylases alike decarboxylate the alphaKG co-substrate, facilitating formation of a high-energy ferryl-oxo intermediate that abstracts a hydrogen from the reactant complex. The reaction mechanisms differ at this point, and mutation of active site residues (Asp for the hydroxylase to Ala or Ala to Asp/Glu for halogenase) fails to reproduce hydroxylating activity in SyrB2 or halogenating activity in similar hydroxylases. Using a density functional theory approach with a recently implemented Hubbard U correction for accurate treatment of transition-metal chemistry, we explore probable reaction pathways and mechanisms via a model complex consisting of only the iron center and its direct ligands. We show that the first step, alphaKG decarboxylation, is barrierless and exothermic, but the subsequent hydrogen abstraction step has an energetic barrier consistent with that accessible under biological conditions. In the model complex we use, radical chlorination is barrierless and exothermic, whereas the analogous hydroxylation is found to have a small energetic barrier. The hydrogen abstraction and radical chlorination steps are strongly coupled: the barrier for the hydrogen abstraction step is reduced when carried out concomitantly with the exothermic chlorination step. Our work suggests that the lack of chlorination in mutant hydroxylases is most likely due to poor binding of chlorine in the active site, whereas mutant halogenases do not hydroxylate for energetic reasons. Although secondary shell residues undoubtedly modulate the overall reactivity and binding of relevant substrates, we show that a small model compound consisting exclusively of the direct ligands to the metal can help explain reactivity heretofore not yet understood in the halogenase SyrB2.
Project description:Glycopeptide antibiotics (GPAs) include clinically important drugs used for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens. These antibiotics are specialized metabolites produced by several genera of actinomycete bacteria. While many GPAs are highly chemically modified, A47934 is a relatively unadorned GPA lacking sugar or acyl modifications, common to other members of the class, but which is chlorinated at three distinct sites. The biosynthesis of A47934 is encoded by a 68-kb gene cluster in <i>Streptomyces toyocaensis</i> NRRL 15009. The cluster includes all necessary genes for the synthesis of A47934, including two predicted halogenase genes, <i>staI</i> and <i>staK</i> In this study, we report that only one of the halogenase genes, <i>staI</i>, is necessary and essential for A47934 biosynthesis. Chlorination of the A47934 scaffold is important for antibiotic activity, as assessed by binding affinity for the target N-acyl-d-Ala-d-Ala. Surprisingly, chlorination is also vital to avoid activation of enterococcal and <i>Streptomyces</i> VanB-type GPA resistance through induction of resistance genes. Phenotypic assays showed stronger induction of GPA resistance by the dechlorinated compared to the chlorinated GPA. Correspondingly, the relative expression of the enterococcal <i>vanA</i> resistance gene was shown to be increased by the dechlorinated compared to the chlorinated compound. These results provide insight into the biosynthesis of GPAs and the biological function of GPA chlorination for this medically important class of antibiotic.
Project description:We recently reported that SF2312 ((1,5-dihydroxy-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-yl)phosphonic acid), a phosphonate antibiotic with a previously unknown mode of action, is a potent inhibitor of the glycolytic enzyme, Enolase. SF2312 can only be synthesized as a racemic-diastereomeric mixture. However, co-crystal structures with Enolase 2 (ENO2) have consistently shown that only the (3S,5S)-enantiomer binds to the active site. The acidity of the alpha proton at C-3, which deprotonates under mildly alkaline conditions, results in racemization; thus while the separation of four enantiomeric intermediates was achieved via chiral High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) of the fully protected intermediate, deprotection inevitably nullified enantiopurity. To prevent epimerization of the C-3, we designed and synthesized MethylSF2312, ((1,5-dihydroxy-3-methyl-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-yl)phosphonic acid), which contains a fully-substituted C-3 alpha carbon. As a racemic-diastereomeric mixture, MethylSF2312 is equipotent to SF2312 in enzymatic and cellular systems against Enolase. Chiral HPLC separation of a protected MethylSF2312 precursor resulted in the efficient separation of the four enantiomers. After deprotection and inevitable re-equilibration of the anomeric C-5, (3S)-MethylSF2312 was up to 2000-fold more potent than (3R)-MethylSF2312 in an isolated enzymatic assay. This observation strongly correlates with biological activity in both human cancer cells and bacteria for the 3S enantiomer of SF2312. Novel X-ray structures of human ENO2 with chiral and racemic MethylSF2312 show that only (3S,5S)-enantiomer occupies the active site. Enolase inhibition is thus a direct result of binding by the (3S,5S)-enantiomer of MethylSF2312. Concurrent with these results for MethylSF2312, we contend that the (3S,5S)-SF2312 is the single active enantiomer of inhibitor SF2312.
Project description:We have established the structure of (+)-epicalyxin F through chemical synthesis. An acid-promoted rearrangement of synthetic benzopyran 6 led to the identification of the natural product as (3S,5S,7R)-epicalyxin F (22). Comparison with NMR spectra and optical rotation of the natural product confirms our assignment, and the reassigned structure is compatible with the proposed biosynthetic pathway.