Galectin-1 sensitizes carcinoma cells to anoikis via the fibronectin receptor ?5?1-integrin.
ABSTRACT: Anoikis resistance is a hallmark of transformed epithelial cells. Here, we show that treatment of anoikis-resistant carcinoma cell lines with the endogenous lectin galectin-1 (Gal-1) promoted apoptosis via interaction with the unligated fibronectin receptor ?(5)?(1)-integrin. Gal-1 efficiency correlated with expression of ?(5)?(1)-integrin, and transfection of the ?(5)-subunit into deficient cell lines conferred Gal-1 binding and anoikis stimulation. Furthermore, Gal-1 and the ?(5)- and ?(1)-integrin subunits co-precipitated in Gal-1-stimulated cells undergoing anoikis. Other members of the galectin family failed to be active. The functional interaction between Gal-1 and ?(5)?(1)-integrin was glycan dependent with ?2,6-sialylation representing a switch-off signal. Desialylation of cell surface glycans resulted in increased electrophoretic mobility of ?(5)?(1)-integrin and facilitated Gal-1 binding and anoikis stimulation. On the level of signaling, Gal-1-stimulated anoikis was prevented by filipin, which impaired the internalization of ?(5)?(1)-integrin via cholesterol-enriched microdomains, and by pretreatment with a caspase-8 inhibitor. We propose that Gal-1/?(5)?(1)-integrin interaction participates in the control of epithelial integrity and integrin sialylation may enable carcinoma cells to evade this Gal-1-dependent control mechanism.
Project description:N-glycosylation of the I-like domain of beta1 integrin plays an essential role in integrin structure and function, and the altered sialylation of beta1 integrin regulates beta1 integrin binding to fibronectin. However, the structural basis underlying the effect of altered sialylation of the beta1 I-like domain on beta1 integrin binding to fibronectin remains largely unknown. In this study, we used a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy analyses to investigate changes in binding thermodynamics and in conformation of the glycosylated beta1 I-like domain-FN-III(9-10) complex caused by altered sialylation of the beta1 I-like domain. Binding free energy analyses showed that desialylation of beta1 I-like domain increased beta1 integrin binding to fibronectin, consistent with experimental results. Interaction analyses showed that altered sialylation of the beta1 I-like domain resulted in significant changes in the interaction of the N-glycans of the I-like domain with both the I-like domain and fibronectin, and these changes could directly affect the allosteric regulation of the interaction between the I-like domain and fibronectin. Altered sialylation of the beta1 I-like domain caused significant conformational changes in key functional sites of both the beta1 I-like domain and fibronectin. In addition, altered sialylation of the beta1 I-like domain resulted in changes in the degree of correlated motions between residues in the I-like domain and residues in fibronectin, and in the degree of motion changes in fibronectin, which could affect beta1 integrin binding to fibronectin. We believe results from this study provide thermodynamic and structural evidence for a role of altered sialylation of beta1 integrin in regulating beta1 integrin binding to fibronectin and it's induced cellular activities.
Project description:Increased sialylation is one of the hallmarks of ovarian cancer (OC) but its relation with programmed cell death is not known. Here we explored the molecular interplay between autophagy, apoptosis/anoikis, and aberrant-expression of the PI3K-Akt/mTOR pathway in the context of sialidase. OC is accompanied by low expression of cytosolic sialidase (Neu2) and ~10-fold more ?2,6- than ?2,3-linked sialic acids found through qPCR, western blot, and flow cytometry. Interestingly, Neu2 overexpression cleaved ?2,6- and ?2,3-linked sialic acids and reduced cell viability. Several autophagy-related molecules like LC3B/Atg3/Atg5/Atg7/Atg12/Atg16L1/Beclin1 were upregulated upon Neu2 overexpression. Atg5, a crucial protein for autophagosome formation, was desialylated by overexpressed Neu2. Desialylated Atg5 now showed enhanced association both with Atg12 and Atg16L1 leading to more autophagosome formation. Neu2-overexpressing cells exhibited extrinsic pathway-mediated apoptosis as reflected the in activation of Fas/FasL/FADD/Bid/caspase 8/caspase 6/caspase 3/PARP cleavage. There was also increased Bax, reduced Bcl2, and several cell-cycle molecules (CDK2/CDK4/CDK6/cyclin-B1/cyclin-E). Inhibition of autophagy using bafilomycin A1 or Beclin1 siRNA leads to reversal of Neu2-induced apoptosis suggesting their possible relationship. Additionally, overexpressed Neu2 inhibited growth factor-mediated signaling molecules involved in the PI3K/Akt-mTOR pathway probably through their desialylation. Furthermore, overexpressed Neu2 inhibited epithelial (ZO-1/Claudin1), mesenchymal (snail/slug), and cell-adhesion (integrin-?3/focal-adhesion kinase) molecules suggesting anchorage-dependent cell death (anoikis). Such changes were absent in the presence of bafilomycin A1 indicating the involvement of autophagy in Neu2-induced anoikis. The physiological relevance of our in vitro observations was further confirmed in the OC xenograft model. Taken together, it is the first report demonstrating that Atg5 is a sialoglycoprotein having ?2,6- and ?2,3-linked sialic acids and its desialylation by overexpressed Neu2 leads to its activation for autophagosome formation, which induced apoptosis/anoikis in OC.
Project description:Human galectins have distinct and overlapping biological roles in immunological homeostasis. However, the underlying differences among galectins in glycan binding specificity regulating these functions are unclear. Galectin-8 (Gal-8), a tandem repeat galectin, has two distinct carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) that may cross-link cell surface counter receptors. Here we report that each Gal-8 CRD has differential glycan binding specificity and that cell signaling activity resides in the C-terminal CRD. Full-length Gal-8 and recombinant individual domains (Gal-8N and Gal-8C) bound to human HL60 cells, but only full-length Gal-8 signaled phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure in cells, which occurred independently of apoptosis. Although desialylation of cells did not alter Gal-8 binding, it enhanced cellular sensitivity to Gal-8-induced PS exposure. By contrast, HL60 cell desialylation increased binding by Gal-8C but reduced Gal-8N binding. Enzymatic reduction in surface poly-N-acetyllactosamine (polyLacNAc) glycans in HL60 cells reduced cell surface binding by Gal-8C but did not alter Gal-8N binding. Cross-linking and light scattering studies showed that Gal-8 is dimeric, and studies on individual subunits indicate that dimerization occurs through the Gal-8N domain. Mutations of individual domains within full-length Gal-8 showed that signaling activity toward HL60 cells resides in the C-terminal domain. In glycan microarray analyses, each CRD of Gal-8 showed different binding, with Gal-8N recognizing sulfated and sialylated glycans and Gal-8C recognizing blood group antigens and polyLacNAc glycans. These results demonstrate that Gal-8 dimerization promotes functional bivalency of each CRD, which allows Gal-8 to signal PS exposure in leukocytes entirely through C-terminal domain recognition of polyLacNAc glycans.
Project description:Anoikis is a form of apoptosis induced by cell detachment. Integrin inactivation plays a major role in the process but the exact signalling pathway is ill-defined. Here we identify an anoikis pathway using gliotoxin (GT), a virulence factor of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, which causes invasive aspergillosis in humans. GT prevents integrin binding to RGD-containing extracellular matrix components by covalently modifying cysteines in the binding pocket. As a consequence, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is inhibited resulting in dephosphorylation of p190RhoGAP, allowing activation of RhoA. Sequential activation of ROCK, MKK4/MKK7 and JNK then triggers pro-apoptotic phosphorylation of Bim. Cells in suspension or lacking integrin surface expression are insensitive to GT but are sensitised to ROCK-MKK4/MKK7-JNK-dependent anoikis upon attachment to fibronectin or integrin upregulation. The same signalling pathway is triggered by FAK inhibition or inhibiting integrin ?V/?3 with Cilengitide. Thus, GT can target integrins to induce anoikis on lung epithelial cells.
Project description:Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 (CCR7) is involved in lymph-node homing of naive and regulatory T cells and lymphatic metastasis of cancer cells. Sialic acids comprise a group of monosaccharide units that are added to the terminal position of the oligosaccharide chain of glycoproteins by sialyation. Recent studies suggest that aberrant sialylation of receptor proteins contributes to proliferation, motility, and drug resistance of cancer cells. In this study, we addressed whether CCR7 is a sialylated receptor protein and tried to elucidate the effect of sialylation in the regulation of signal transduction and biological function of CCR7. Our results demonstrated that ?-2, 3-sialyltransferase which catalyze sialylation reaction in vivo was overexpressed in breast tumor tissues and cell lines. Lectin blot analysis clearly demonstrated that CCR7 receptor was sialyated in breast cancer cells. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19), the cognate ligand for CCR7, induced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AKT signaling and increased the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and proliferation of breast cancer cells. When cells were pre-treated with a sialyltransferase inhibitor AL10 or sialidase, CCL19-induced cell growth was significantly suppressed. CCL19 also increased invasion and prevented anoikis by up-regulating pro-survival proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Inhibition of sialylation by AL10 totally abolished these effects. Finally, we showed that AL10 inhibited tumorigenicity of breast cancer in experimental animals. Taken together, we demonstrate for the first time that CCR7 receptor is a sialylated protein and sialylation is important for the paracrine stimulation by its endogenous ligand CCL19. In addition, inhibition of aberrant sialylation of CCR7 suppresses proliferation and invasion and triggers anoikis in breast cancer cells. Targeting of sialylation enzymes may be a novel strategy for breast cancer treatment.
Project description:Disruption of cell-matrix interactions can lead to anoikis - apoptosis due to loss of matrix contacts. Altered fibronectin (FN) induces anoikis of primary human fibroblasts by a novel signaling pathway characterized by reduced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). However, the receptors involved are unknown. FAK phosphorylation is regulated by nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2) receptor signaling through PKCalpha a point at which signals from integrins and proteoglycans may converge. We found that an altered FN matrix induced anoikis in fibroblasts by upregulating NG2 and downregulating integrin alpha4. Suppressing NG2 expression or overexpressing alpha4 rescued cells from anoikis. NG2 overexpression alone induced apoptosis and, by reducing FAK phosphorylation, increased anoikis induced by an altered matrix. NG2 overexpression or an altered matrix also suppressed PKCalpha expression, but overexpressing integrin alpha4 enhanced FAK phosphorylation independently of PKCalpha. Cotransfection with NG2 cDNA and integrin alpha4 siRNA did not lower PKCalpha and pFAK levels more than transfection with either alone. PKCalpha was upstream of FAK phosphorylation, as silencing PKCalpha decreased FAK phosphorylation. PKCalpha overexpression reversed this behavior and rescued cells from anoikis. Thus, NG2 is a novel proapoptotic receptor, and NG2 and integrin alpha4 oppositely regulate anoikis in fibroblasts. NG2 and integrin alpha4 regulate FAK phosphorylation by PKCalpha-dependent and -independent pathways, respectively.
Project description:A remolded microenvironment in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) caused by abnormally expressed matricellular proteins could promote HCC progression. The cell-matrix interactions mediated by integrins play an important role in tumor microenvironment. Epidermal Growth Factor-like repeats and Discoidin I-Like Domains 3 (EDIL3), an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein with angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects, is abnormally highly expressed in HCC. Here we aim to analyze its expression in liver and HCC tissues, investigate the underlined mechanisms accounted for HCC progression.EDIL3 expression level is examined in normal liver, cirrhotic liver and HCC at both mRNA and protein level. The association between EDIL3 and clinical outcomes is analyzed. The pattern of EDIL3 expression and location is examined using Immunofluorescence and ELISA. Overexpression or knock-down of EDIL3 in a panel of cell lines are subjected to assays related to proliferation, invasion, and anoikis to investigate the mechanisms of this matrix protein in HCC progression. Recombinant EDIL3 treatment is applied to confirm the results.Compared with normal liver and cirrhotic liver, EDIL3 is elevated in HCC. High level of EDIL3 protein is much more commonly in patients with larger tumor or portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) formation, associated with poor prognosis. EDIL3 is abundantly expressed in HCC cells and secreted by cancer cells. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that EDIL3, probably in an autocrine manner, inhibits anoikis and promotes anchorage-independent growth of HCC cells. Further mechanistic studies suggest integrin ligation by EDIL3 and thus that the sustained activation of the FAK-Src-AKT signal is responsible for the anoikis resistance and anchorage independence. Both the administration of cilengitide, a RGD-containing integrin antagonist, and silencing of integrin ?V, an important RGD-binding integrin, results in the blockade of anoikis-resistance induced by EDIL3.Our study suggests that high levels of autocrine EDIL3 may contribute to a receptive microenvironment for the survival of detached HCC cells and may involve in cancer cell spreading. We also highlight the importance of interaction between EDIL3 and integrin ?V and suggest disrupting the ligation of EDIL3 to integrins via RGD-blocking in selected patients may bear potential therapeutic value.
Project description:Ovarian cancer (OC) is a highly metastatic disease, but no effective strategies to target this process are currently available. Here, an integrative computational analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas OC data set and experimental validation identifies a zinc finger transcription factor ZNF304 associated with OC metastasis. High tumoral ZNF304 expression is associated with poor overall survival in OC patients. Through reverse phase protein array analysis, we demonstrate that ZNF304 promotes multiple proto-oncogenic pathways important for cell survival, migration and invasion. ZNF304 transcriptionally regulates ?1 integrin, which subsequently regulates Src/focal adhesion kinase and paxillin and prevents anoikis. In vivo delivery of ZNF304 siRNA by a dual assembly nanoparticle leads to sustained gene silencing for 14 days, increased anoikis and reduced tumour growth in orthotopic mouse models of OC. Taken together, ZNF304 is a transcriptional regulator of ?1 integrin, promotes cancer cell survival and protects against anoikis in OC.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Although development of anoikis-resistant myofibroblasts during tissue remodeling is known to be associated with tumor invasion, the mechanism by which myofibroblasts become resistant to anoikis is unknown. We previously demonstrated laminin-332 upregulation in the fibrosis around invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Because laminin-332 promotes cell survival through binding to integrins, we hypothesized that invasive breast cancer cells confer an anoikis-resistant phenotype on myofibroblasts by upregulating laminin-332 expression during tissue remodeling. Here, we demonstrate that invasive breast cancer cells induce laminin-332 upregulation and integrin ?4 neoexpression in myofibroblasts to confer an anoikis-resistant phenotype. METHODS: Three types of fibroblasts were isolated from the tumor burden, the fibrosis, and normal tissue of patients with early stage IDC (less than 10 mm diameter), designated cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), interface fibroblasts (InFs), and normal breast fibroblasts (NBFs), respectively. To investigate direct and indirect crosstalk with tumor cells, fibroblasts were co-cultured with invasive MDA-MB-231 or noninvasive MCF7 cells or in conditioned medium. Anoikis resistance of fibroblasts was measured by cell viability and caspase-3 activity after incubation on poly-HEMA coated plates for 72 hours. Involvement of laminin-332/integrin ?3?1 or ?6?4 signaling in anoikis resistance was confirmed by treatment with purified laminin-332 or blocking antibodies against laminin-332, integrin ?1, or integrin ?4. RESULTS: MDA-MB-231 cells induced laminin-332 upregulation and integrin ?4 neoexpression in fibroblasts, leading to anoikis resistance. InFs showed a higher endogenous level of laminin-332 than did CAFs and NBFs. After stimulation with MDA-MB-231-conditioned medium, laminin-332 expression of InFs was dramatically increased and maintained under anoikis conditions. Laminin-332 upregulation was also observed in CAFs and NBFs, but at a lower level than in InFs. Laminin-332 induced Akt (Ser473) phosphorylation by binding to integrin ?3?1. Integrin ?4 neoexpression induced laminin-332-independent Rac1 activation and promoted anoikis resistance in fibroblasts approximately twofold more effectively than did laminin-332, regardless of the type of fibroblast. In addition, integrin ?4 expression suppressed fibroblast aggregation in conditions of anoikis. CONCLUSION: Invasive breast cancer cells confer an anoikis-resistant phenotype on myofibroblasts during tissue remodeling by inducing laminin-332 upregulation and integrin ?4 neoexpression. Interface fibroblasts appear to be the primary myofibroblasts that interact with invasive tumor cells during tissue remodeling.
Project description:Integrin-containing focal adhesions transmit extracellular signals across the plasma membrane to modulate cell adhesion, signalling and survival. Although integrins are known to undergo continuous endo/exocytic traffic, the potential impact of endocytic traffic on integrin-induced signals is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that integrin signalling is not restricted to cell-ECM adhesions and identify an endosomal signalling platform that supports integrin signalling away from the plasma membrane. We show that active focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an established marker of integrin-ECM downstream signalling, localizes with active integrins on endosomes. Integrin endocytosis positively regulates adhesion-induced FAK activation, which is early endosome antigen-1 and small GTPase Rab21 dependent. FAK binds directly to purified endosomes and becomes activated on them, suggesting a role for endocytosis in enhancing distinct integrin downstream signalling events. Finally, endosomal integrin signalling contributes to cancer-related processes such as anoikis resistance, anchorage independence and metastasis.