Roles of the checkpoint sensor clamp Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911)-complex and the clamp loaders Rad17-RFC and Ctf18-RFC in Schizosaccharomyces pombe telomere maintenance.
ABSTRACT: While telomeres must provide mechanisms to prevent DNA repair and DNA damage checkpoint factors from fusing chromosome ends and causing permanent cell cycle arrest, these factors associate with functional telomeres and play critical roles in the maintenance of telomeres. Previous studies have established that Tel1 (ATM) and Rad3 (ATR) kinases play redundant but essential roles for telomere maintenance in fission yeast. In addition, the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911) and Rad17-RFC complexes work downstream of Rad3 (ATR) in fission yeast telomere maintenance. Here, we investigated how 911, Rad17-RFC and another RFC-like complex Ctf18-RFC contribute to telomere maintenance in fission yeast cells lacking Tel1 and carrying a novel hypomorphic allele of rad3 (DBD-rad3), generated by the fusion between the DNA binding domain (DBD) of the fission yeast telomere capping protein Pot1 and Rad3. Our investigations have uncovered a surprising redundancy for Rad9 and Hus1 in allowing Rad1 to contribute to telomere maintenance in DBD-rad3 tel1 cells. In addition, we found that Rad17-RFC and Ctf18-RFC carry out redundant telomere maintenance functions in DBD-rad3 tel1 cells. Since checkpoint sensor proteins are highly conserved, genetic redundancies uncovered here may be relevant to telomere maintenance and detection of DNA damage in other eukaryotes.
Project description:Proliferating cell nuclear antigen loading onto DNA by replication factor C (RFC) is a key step in eukaryotic DNA replication and repair processes. In this study, the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of fission yeast RFC is shown to be essential for its function in vivo. Cells carrying a temperature-sensitive mutation in the CTD, rfc1-44, arrest with incompletely replicated chromosomes, are sensitive to DNA damaging agents, are synthetically lethal with other DNA replication mutants, and can be suppressed by mutations in rfc5. To assess the contribution of the RFC-like complexes Elg1-RFC and Ctf18-RFC to the viability of rfc1-44, genes encoding the large subunits of these complexes have been deleted and overexpressed. Inactivation of Ctf18-RFC by the deletion of ctf18+, dcc1+ or ctf8+ is lethal in an rfc1-44 background showing that full Ctf18-RFC function is required in the absence of fully functional RFC. In contrast, rfc1-44 elg1Delta cells are viable and overproduction of Elg1 in rfc1-44 is lethal, suggesting that Elg1-RFC plays a negative role when RFC function is inhibited. Consistent with this, the deletion of elg1+ is shown to restore viability to rfc1-44 ctf18Delta cells.
Project description:The evolutionarily conserved shelterin complex has been shown to play both positive and negative roles in telomerase regulation in mammals and fission yeast. Although shelterin prevents the checkpoint kinases ATM and ATR from fully activating DNA damage responses at telomeres in mammalian cells, those kinases also promote telomere maintenance. In fission yeast, cells lacking both Tel1 (ATM ortholog) and Rad3 (ATR ortholog) fail to recruit telomerase to telomeres and survive by circularizing chromosomes. However, the critical telomere substrate(s) of Tel1(ATM) and Rad3(ATR) was unknown. Here we show that phosphorylation of the shelterin subunit Ccq1 on Thr93, redundantly mediated by Tel1(ATM) and/or Rad3(ATR), is essential for telomerase association with telomeres. In addition, we show that the telomerase subunit Est1 interacts directly with the phosphorylated Thr93 of Ccq1 to ensure telomere maintenance. The shelterin subunits Taz1, Rap1 and Poz1 (previously established inhibitors of telomerase) were also found to negatively regulate Ccq1 phosphorylation. These findings establish Tel1(ATM)/Rad3(ATR)-dependent Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation as a critical regulator of telomere maintenance in fission yeast.
Project description:The checkpoint kinases ATM and ATR are redundantly required for maintenance of stable telomeres in diverse organisms, including budding and fission yeasts, Arabidopsis, Drosophila, and mammals. However, the molecular basis for telomere instability in cells lacking ATM and ATR has not yet been elucidated fully in organisms that utilize both the telomere protection complex shelterin and telomerase to maintain telomeres, such as fission yeast and humans. Here, we demonstrate by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays that simultaneous loss of Tel1(ATM) and Rad3(ATR) kinases leads to a defect in recruitment of telomerase to telomeres, reduced binding of the shelterin complex subunits Ccq1 and Tpz1, and increased binding of RPA and homologous recombination repair factors to telomeres. Moreover, we show that interaction between Tpz1-Ccq1 and telomerase, thought to be important for telomerase recruitment to telomeres, is disrupted in tel1Delta rad3Delta cells. Thus, Tel1(ATM) and Rad3(ATR) are redundantly required for both protection of telomeres against recombination and promotion of telomerase recruitment. Based on our current findings, we propose the existence of a regulatory loop between Tel1(ATM)/Rad3(ATR) kinases and Tpz1-Ccq1 to ensure proper protection and maintenance of telomeres in fission yeast.
Project description:Chromosome ends in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are positioned in clusters at the nuclear rim. We report that Ctf18, Ctf8, and Dcc1, the subunits of a Replication Factor C (RFC)-like complex, are essential for the perinuclear positioning of telomeres. In both yeast and mammalian cells, peripheral nuclear positioning of chromatin during G1 phase correlates with late DNA replication. We find that the mislocalized telomeres of ctf18 cells still replicate late, showing that late DNA replication does not require peripheral positioning during G1. The Ku and Sir complexes have been shown to act through separate pathways to position telomeres, but in the absence of Ctf18 neither pathway can act fully to maintain telomere position. Surprisingly CTF18 is not required for Ku or Sir4-mediated peripheral tethering of a nontelomeric chromosome locus. Our results suggest that the Ctf18 RFC-like complex modifies telomeric chromatin to make it competent for normal localization to the nuclear periphery.
Project description:Studies in fission yeast have previously identified evolutionarily conserved shelterin and Stn1-Ten1 complexes, and established Rad3(ATR)/Tel1(ATM)-dependent phosphorylation of the shelterin subunit Ccq1 at Thr93 as the critical post-translational modification for telomerase recruitment to telomeres. Furthermore, shelterin subunits Poz1, Rap1 and Taz1 have been identified as negative regulators of Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment. However, it remained unclear how telomere maintenance is dynamically regulated during the cell cycle. Thus, we investigated how loss of Poz1, Rap1 and Taz1 affects cell cycle regulation of Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomere association of telomerase (Trt1(TERT)), DNA polymerases, Replication Protein A (RPA) complex, Rad3(ATR)-Rad26(ATRIP) checkpoint kinase complex, Tel1(ATM) kinase, shelterin subunits (Tpz1, Ccq1 and Poz1) and Stn1. We further investigated how telomere shortening, caused by trt1? or catalytically dead Trt1-D743A, affects cell cycle-regulated telomere association of telomerase and DNA polymerases. These analyses established that fission yeast shelterin maintains telomere length homeostasis by coordinating the differential arrival of leading (Pol?) and lagging (Pol?) strand DNA polymerases at telomeres to modulate Rad3(ATR) association, Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment.
Project description:Replication and related processes in eukaryotic cells require replication factor C (RFC) to load a molecular clamp for DNA polymerase in an ATP-driven process, involving multiple molecular interactions. The detailed understanding of this mechanism is hindered by the lack of data regarding structure, mutual arrangement, and dynamics of the players involved. In this study, we analyzed interactions that take place during loading onto DNA of either the PCNA clamp or the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 checkpoint complex, using computationally derived molecular models. Combining the modeled structures for each RFC subunit with known structural, biochemical, and genetic data, we propose detailed models of how two of the RFC subunits, RFC1 and RFC3, interact with the C-terminal regions of PCNA. RFC1 is predicted to bind PCNA similarly to the p21-PCNA interaction, while the RFC3-PCNA binding is proposed to be similar to the E. coli delta-beta interaction. Additional sequence and structure analysis, supported by experimental data, suggests that RFC5 might be the third clamp loader subunit to bind the equivalent PCNA region. We discuss functional implications stemming from the proposed model of the RFC1-PCNA interaction and compare putative clamp-interacting regions in RFC1 and its paralogs, Rad17 and Ctf18. Based on the individual intermolecular interactions, we propose RFC and PCNA arrangement that places three RFC subunits in association with each of the three C-terminal regions in PCNA. The two other RFC subunits are positioned at the two PCNA interfaces, with the third PCNA interface left unobstructed. In addition, we map interactions at the level of individual subunits between the alternative clamp loader/clamp system, Rad17-RFC(2-5)/Rad9-Rad1-Hus1. The proposed models of interaction between two clamp/clamp loader pairs provide both structural framework for interpretation of existing experimental data and a number of specific findings that can be subjected to direct experimental testing.
Project description:ATM and ATR are two redundant checkpoint kinases essential for the stable maintenance of telomeres in eukaryotes. Previous studies have established that MRN (Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1) and ATRIP (ATR Interacting Protein) interact with ATM and ATR, respectively, and recruit their partner kinases to sites of DNA damage. Here, we investigated how Tel1(ATM) and Rad3(ATR) recruitment to telomeres is regulated in fission yeast. Quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays unexpectedly revealed that the MRN complex could also contribute to the recruitment of Tel1(ATM) to telomeres independently of the previously established Nbs1 C-terminal Tel1(ATM) interaction domain. Recruitment of Tel1(ATM) to telomeres in nbs1-c60Delta cells, which lack the C-terminal 60 amino acid Tel1(ATM) interaction domain of Nbs1, was dependent on Rad3(ATR)-Rad26(ATRIP), but the kinase domain of Rad3(ATR) was dispensable. Thus, our results establish that the Rad3(ATR)-Rad26(ATRIP) complex contributes to the recruitment of Tel1(ATM) independently of Rad3(ATR) kinase activity, by a mechanism redundant with the Tel1(ATM) interaction domain of Nbs1. Furthermore, we found that the N-terminus of Nbs1 contributes to the recruitment of Rad3(ATR)-Rad26(ATRIP) to telomeres. In response to replication stress, mammalian ATR-ATRIP also contributes to ATM activation by a mechanism that is dependent on the MRN complex but independent of the C-terminal ATM interaction domain of Nbs1. Since telomere protection and DNA damage response mechanisms are very well conserved between fission yeast and mammalian cells, mammalian ATR-ATRIP may also contribute to the recruitment of ATM to telomeres and to sites of DNA damage independently of ATR kinase activity.
Project description:Expansion of DNA trinucleotide repeats causes at least 15 hereditary neurological diseases, and these repeats also undergo contraction and fragility. Current models to explain this genetic instability invoke erroneous DNA repair or aberrant replication. Here we show that CAG/CTG tracts are stabilized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the alternative clamp loader/unloader Ctf18-Dcc1-Ctf8-RFC complex (Ctf18-RFC). Mutants in Ctf18-RFC increased all three forms of triplet repeat instability--expansions, contractions, and fragility--with effect over a wide range of allele lengths from 20-155 repeats. Ctf18-RFC predominated among the three alternative clamp loaders, with mutants in Elg1-RFC or Rad24-RFC having less effect on trinucleotide repeats. Surprisingly, chl1, scc1-73, or scc2-4 mutants defective in sister chromatid cohesion (SCC) did not increase instability, suggesting that Ctf18-RFC protects triplet repeats independently of SCC. Instead, three results suggest novel roles for Ctf18-RFC in facilitating genomic stability. First, genetic instability in mutants of Ctf18-RFC was exacerbated by simultaneous deletion of the fork stabilizer Mrc1, but suppressed by deletion of the repair protein Rad52. Second, single-cell analysis showed that mutants in Ctf18-RFC had a slowed S phase and a striking G2/M accumulation, often with an abnormal multi-budded morphology. Third, ctf18 cells exhibit increased Rad52 foci in S phase, often persisting into G2, indicative of high levels of DNA damage. The presence of a repeat tract greatly magnified the ctf18 phenotypes. Together these results indicate that Ctf18-RFC has additional important functions in preserving genome stability, besides its role in SCC, which we propose include lesion bypass by replication forks and post-replication repair.
Project description:It is widely accepted that of the four Replication Factor C (RFC) complexes (defined by the associations of either Rfc1p, Ctf18p, Elg1p or Rad24p with Rfc2p-Rfc5p), only Ctf18-RFC functions in sister chromatid cohesion. This model is based on findings that CTF18 deletion is lethal in combination with mutations in either CTF7(ECO1) or MCD1 sister chromatid cohesion genes and that ctf18 mutant cells exhibit cohesion defects. Here, we report that Elg1-RFC not only participates in cohesion but performs a function that is distinct from that of Ctf18-RFC. The results show that deletion of ELG1 rescues both ctf7(eco1) mutant cell temperature sensitivity and cohesion defects. Moreover, over-expression of ELG1 enhances ctf7(eco1) mutant cell phenotypes. These findings suggest that the balance of Ctf7p(Eco1p) activity depends on both Ctf18-RFC and Elg1-RFC. We also report that ELG1 deletion produces cohesion defects and intensifies the conditional phenotype of mcd1 mutant cells, further supporting a role for Elg1-RFC in cohesion. Attesting to the specificity of these interactions, deletion of RAD24 neither suppressed nor exacerbated cohesion defects in either ctf7(eco1) or mcd1 mutant cells. While parallel analyses failed to uncover a similar role in cohesion for Rad24-RFC, it is well known that Rad24-RFC, Elg1-RFC and Ctf18-RFC play key roles in DNA damage responses. We tested and found that Ctf7p(Eco1p) plays a significant role in Rad24-RFC-based DNA response pathways. In combination, these findings challenge current views and document new and distinct roles for RFC complexes in cohesion and for Ctf7p(Eco1p) in DNA repair.
Project description:Genomic integrity is preserved by the action of protein complexes that control DNA homeostasis. These include the sliding clamps, trimeric protein rings that are arranged around DNA by clamp loaders. Replication factor C (RFC) is the clamp loader for proliferating cell nuclear antigen, which acts on DNA replication. Other processes that require mobile contact of proteins with DNA use alternative RFC complexes that exchange RFC1 for CTF18 or RAD17. Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) are lipid kinases that generate 3-poly-phosphorylated-phosphoinositides at the plasma membrane following receptor stimulation. The two ubiquitous isoforms, PI3Kalpha and PI3Kbeta, have been extensively studied due to their involvement in cancer and nuclear PI3Kbeta has been found to regulate DNA replication and repair, processes controlled by molecular clamps. We studied here whether PI3Kbeta directly controls the process of molecular clamps loading. We show that PI3Kbeta associated with RFC1 and RFC1-like subunits. Only when in complex with PI3Kbeta, RFC1 bound to Ran GTPase and localized to the nucleus, suggesting that PI3Kbeta regulates RFC1 nuclear import. PI3Kbeta controlled not only RFC1- and RFC-RAD17 complexes, but also RFC-CTF18, in turn affecting CTF18-mediated chromatid cohesion. PI3Kbeta thus has a general function in genomic stability by controlling the localization and function of RFC complexes.