Synthesis and evaluation of hermitamides A and B as human voltage-gated sodium channel blockers.
ABSTRACT: Hermitamides A and B are lipopeptides isolated from a Papau New Guinea collection of the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. We hypothesized that the hermitamides are ligands for the human voltage-gated sodium channel (hNa(V)) based on their structural similarity to the jamaicamides. Herein, we describe the nonracemic total synthesis of hermitamides A and B and their epimers. We report the ability of the hermitamides to displace [(3)H]-BTX at 10 ?M more potently than phenytoin, a clinically used sodium channel blocker. We also present a potential binding mode for (S)-hermitamide B in the BTX-binding site and electrophysiology showing that these compounds are potent blockers of the hNav1.2 voltage-gated sodium channel.
Project description:Hoiamide A, a novel bioactive cyclic depsipeptide, was isolated from an environmental assemblage of the marine cyanobacteria Lyngbya majuscula and Phormidium gracile collected in Papua New Guinea. This stereochemically complex metabolite possesses a highly unusual structure, which likely derives from a mixed peptide-polyketide biogenetic origin, and includes a peptidic section featuring an acetate extended and S-adenosyl methionine modified isoleucine moiety, a triheterocyclic fragment bearing two alpha-methylated thiazolines and one thiazole, and a highly oxygenated and methylated C15-polyketide substructure. Pure hoiamide A potently inhibited [(3)H]batrachotoxin binding to voltage-gated sodium channels (IC(50) = 92.8 nM), activated sodium influx (EC(50) = 2.31 microM) in mouse neocortical neurons, and exhibited modest cytotoxicity to cancer cells. Further investigation revealed that hoiamide A is a partial agonist of site 2 on the voltage-gated sodium channel.
Project description:Batrachotoxin (BTX), an alkaloid from skin secretions of dendrobatid frogs, causes paralysis and death by facilitating activation and inhibiting deactivation of eukaryotic voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels, which underlie action potentials in nerve, muscle, and heart. A full understanding of the mechanism by which BTX modifies eukaryotic Nav gating awaits determination of high-resolution structures of functional toxin-channel complexes. Here, we investigate the action of BTX on the homotetrameric prokaryotic Nav channels NaChBac and NavSp1. By combining mutational analysis and whole-cell patch clamp with molecular and kinetic modeling, we show that BTX hinders deactivation and facilitates activation in a use-dependent fashion. Our molecular model shows the horseshoe-shaped BTX molecule bound within the open pore, forming hydrophobic H-bonds and cation-? contacts with the pore-lining helices, leaving space for partially dehydrated sodium ions to permeate through the hydrophilic inner surface of the horseshoe. We infer that bulky BTX, bound at the level of the gating-hinge residues, prevents the S6 rearrangements that are necessary for closure of the activation gate. Our results reveal general similarities to, and differences from, BTX actions on eukaryotic Nav channels, whose major subunit is a single polypeptide formed by four concatenated, homologous, nonidentical domains that form a pseudosymmetric pore. Our determination of the mechanism by which BTX activates homotetrameric voltage-gated channels reveals further similarities between eukaryotic and prokaryotic Nav channels and emphasizes the tractability of bacterial Nav channels as models of voltage-dependent ion channel gating. The results contribute toward a deeper, atomic-level understanding of use-dependent natural and synthetic Nav channel agonists and antagonists, despite their overlapping binding motifs on the channel proteins.
Project description:A novel family of small molecule inhibitors of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) based on the structure of batrachotoxin (BTX), a well-known channel agonist, is described. Protein mutagenesis and electrophysiology experiments reveal the binding site as the inner pore region of the channel, analogous to BTX, alkaloid toxins, and local anesthetics. Homology modeling of the eukaryotic channel based on recent crystallographic analyses of bacterial NaVs suggests a mechanism of action for ion conduction block.
Project description:The voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.7 plays a crucial role in pain, and drugs that inhibit hNa(v)1.7 may have tremendous therapeutic potential. ProTx-II and huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV), cystine knot peptides from tarantula venoms, preferentially block hNa(v)1.7. Understanding the interactions of these toxins with sodium channels could aid the development of novel pain therapeutics. Whereas both ProTx-II and HWTX-IV have been proposed to preferentially block hNa(v)1.7 activation by trapping the domain II voltage-sensor in the resting configuration, we show that specific residues in the voltage-sensor paddle of domain II play substantially different roles in determining the affinities of these toxins to hNa(v)1.7. The mutation E818C increases ProTx-II's and HWTX-IV's IC(50) for block of hNa(v)1.7 currents by 4- and 400-fold, respectively. In contrast, the mutation F813G decreases ProTx-II affinity by 9-fold but has no effect on HWTX-IV affinity. It is noteworthy that we also show that ProTx-II, but not HWTX-IV, preferentially interacts with hNa(v)1.7 to impede fast inactivation by trapping the domain IV voltage-sensor in the resting configuration. Mutations E1589Q and T1590K in domain IV each decreased ProTx-II's IC(50) for impairment of fast inactivation by ~6-fold. In contrast mutations D1586A and F1592A in domain-IV increased ProTx-II's IC(50) for impairment of fast inactivation by ~4-fold. Our results show that whereas ProTx-II and HWTX-IV binding determinants on domain-II may overlap, domain II plays a much more crucial role for HWTX-IV, and contrary to what has been proposed to be a guiding principle of sodium channel pharmacology, molecules do not have to exclusively target the domain IV voltage-sensor to influence sodium channel inactivation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Antillatoxin (ATX) is a structurally unique lipopeptide produced by the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. ATX activates voltage-gated sodium channel ?-subunits at an undefined recognition site and stimulates sodium influx in neurons. However, the pharmacological properties and selectivity of ATX on the sodium channel ?-subunits were not fully characterized.<h4>Results</h4>In this study, we characterized the pharmacological properties and selectivity of ATX in cells heterologously expressing rNa(v)1.2, rNa(v)1.4 or rNa(v)1.5 ?-subunits by using the Na(+) selective fluorescent dye, sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate. ATX produced sodium influx in cells expressing each sodium channel ?-subunit, whereas two other sodium channel activators, veratridine and brevetoxin-2, were without effect. The ATX potency at rNa(v)1.2, rNa(v)1.4 and rNa(v)1.5 did not differ significantly. Similarly, there were no significant differences in the efficacy for ATX-induced sodium influx between rNa(v)1.2, rNa(v)1.4 and rNa(v)1.5 ?-subunits. ATX also produced robust Ca²(+) influx relative to other sodium channel activators in the calcium-permeable DEAA mutant of rNa(v)1.4 ?-subunit. Finally, we demonstrated that the 8-demethyl-8,9-dihydro-antillatoxin analog was less efficacious and less potent in stimulating sodium influx.<h4>Conclusions</h4>ATX displayed a unique efficacy with respect to stimulation of sodium influx in cells expressing rNa(v)1.2, rNa(v)1.4 and rNa(v)1.5 ?-subunits. The efficacy of ATX was distinctive inasmuch as it was not shared by activators of neurotoxin sites 2 and 5 on VGSC ?-subunits. Given the unique pharmacological properties of ATX interaction with sodium channel ?-subunits, decoding the molecular determinants and mechanism of action of antillatoxin may provide further insight into sodium channel gating mechanisms.
Project description:Voltage-gated sodium channels are known to be expressed in neurons and other excitable cells. Recently, voltage-gated sodium channels have been found to be expressed in human prostate cancer cells. ?-Hydroxy-?-phenylamides are a new class of small molecules that have demonstrated potent inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels. The hydroxyamide motif, an isostere of a hydantoin ring, provides an active scaffold from which several potent racemic sodium channel blockers have been derived. With little known about chiral preferences, the development of chiral syntheses to obtain each pure enantiomer for evaluation as sodium channel blockers is important. Using Seebach and Frater's chiral template, cyclocondensation of (R)-3-chloromandelic acid with pivaldehyde furnished both the cis- and trans-2,5-disubsituted dioxolanones. Using this chiral template, we synthesized both enantiomers of 2-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxynonanamide, and evaluated their ability to functionally inhibit hNa(v) isoforms, human prostate cancer cells and xenograft. Enantiomers of lead demonstrated significant ability to reduce prostate cancer in vivo.
Project description:Batrachotoxin (BTX), a steroidal alkaloid, and pyrethroid insecticides bind to distinct but allosterically coupled receptor sites on voltage-gated sodium channels and cause persistent channel activation. BTX presumably binds in the inner pore, whereas pyrethroids are predicted to bind at the lipid-exposed cavity formed by the short intracellular linker-helix IIS4-S5 and transmembrane helices IIS5 and IIIS6. The alkylamide insecticide (2E,4E)-N-(1,2-dimethylpropyl)-6-(5-bromo-2-naphthalenyl)-2,4-hexadienamide (BTG 502) reduces sodium currents and antagonizes the action of BTX on cockroach sodium channels, suggesting that it also binds inside the pore. However, a pyrethroid-sensing residue, Phe(3i17) in IIIS6, which does not face the pore, is essential for the activity of BTG 502 but not for BTX. In this study, we found that three additional deltamethrin-sensing residues in IIIS6, Ile(3i12), Gly(3i14), and Phe(3i16) (the latter two are also BTX-sensing), and three BTX-sensing residues, Ser(3i15) and Leu(3i19) in IIIS6 and Phe(4i15) in IVS6, are all critical for BTG 502 action on cockroach sodium channels. Using these data as constraints, we constructed a BTG 502 binding model in which BTG 502 wraps around IIIS6, probably making direct contacts with all of the above residues on the opposite faces of the IIIS6 helix, except for the putative gating hinge Gly(3i14). BTG 502 and its inactive analog DAP 1855 antagonize the action of deltamethrin. The antagonism was eliminated by mutations of Ser(3i15), Phe(3i17), Leu(3i19), and Phe(4i15) but not by mutations of Ile(3i12), Gly(3i14), and Phe(3i16). Our analysis revealed a unique mode of action of BTG 502, its receptor site overlapping with those of both BTX and deltamethrin.
Project description:Although diverse natural products have been isolated from the benthic, filamentous cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula, it is unclear whether this chemical variation can be used to establish taxonomic relationships among disparate collections. We compared morphological characteristics, secondary-metabolite compositions, and partial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences among several collections of L. majuscula Gomont, Lyngbya spp., and Symploca spp. from Guam and the Republic of Palau. The morphological characteristics examined were cell length, cell width, and the presence or absence of a calyptra. Secondary metabolites were analyzed by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Each collection possessed a distinct cellular morphology that readily distinguished Lyngbya spp. from Symploca spp. Each collection yielded a unique chemotype, but common chemical characteristics were shared among four collections of L. majuscula. A phylogeny based on secondary-metabolite composition supported the reciprocal monophyly of Lyngbya and Symploca but yielded a basal polytomy for Lyngbya. Pairwise sequence divergence among species ranged from 10 to 14% across 605 bp of 16S rDNA, while collections of L. majuscula showed 0 to 1.3% divergence. Although the phylogeny of 16S rDNA sequences strongly supported the reciprocal monophyly of Lyngbya and Symploca as well as the monophyly of Lyngbya bouillonii and L. majuscula, genetic divergence was not correlated with chemical and morphological differences. These data suggest that 16S rDNA sequence analyses do not predict chemical variability among Lyngbya species. Other mechanisms, including higher rates of evolution for biosynthetic genes, horizontal gene transfer, and interactions between different genotypes and environmental conditions, may play important roles in generating qualitative and quantitative chemical variation within and among Lyngbya species.
Project description:Voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for the initiation and propagation of action potentials in excitable cells. While the channel is functional on its own, it is the transient and stable protein-protein interactions that modulate functional outcomes. AP-MS has been successfully applied to a number of ion channels. However to the best of our knowledge, no AP-MS study has been carried out on any member of the voltage-gated sodium channel family.
Project description:With the ultimate goal of detailed structural analysis of mammalian and particularly human voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), we have investigated the relative stability of human and rat VGSCs and compared them with electric eel VGSC. We found that NaV1.3 from rat was the most stable after detergent solubilisation. The order of stability was rNaV1.3>hNaV1.2>hNaV1.1>hNaV1.6>hNaV1.3>hNaV1.4. However, a comparison with the VGSC from Electrophorus electricus, which is most similar to NaV1.4, shows that the eel VGSC is considerably more stable in detergent than the human VGSCs examined. We conclude that current methods of structural analysis, such as single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM), may be most usefully targeted to eel VGSC or rNaV1.3, but that structural analysis on the full spectrum of VGSCs, by methods that require greater stability such as crystallisation and X-ray crystallography, will require further stabilisation of the channel.