Genome-wide association study identifies a psoriasis susceptibility locus at TRAF3IP2.
ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease characterized by epidermal hyperproliferation and chronic inflammation, the most common form of which is psoriasis vulgaris (PsV). We present a genome-wide association analysis of 2,339,118 SNPs in 472 PsV cases and 1,146 controls from Germany, with follow-up of the 147 most significant SNPs in 2,746 PsV cases and 4,140 controls from three independent replication panels. We identified an association at TRAF3IP2 on 6q21 and genotyped two SNPs at this locus in two additional replication panels (the combined discovery and replication panels consisted of 6,487 cases and 8,037 controls; combined P = 2.36 × 10?¹? for rs13210247 and combined P = 1.24 × 10?¹? for rs33980500). About 15% of psoriasis cases develop psoriatic arthritis (PsA). A stratified analysis of our datasets including only PsA cases (1,922 cases compared to 8,037 controls, P = 4.57 × 10?¹² for rs33980500) suggested that TRAF3IP2 represents a shared susceptibility for PsV and PsA. TRAF3IP2 encodes a protein involved in IL-17 signaling and which interacts with members of the Rel/NF-?B transcription factor family.
Project description:Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory joint disease that is distinct from other chronic arthritides and which is frequently accompanied by psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) and seronegativity for rheumatoid factor. We conducted a genome-wide association study in 609 German individuals with PsA (cases) and 990 controls with replication in 6 European cohorts including a total of 5,488 individuals. We replicated PsA associations at HLA-C and IL12B and identified a new association at TRAF3IP2 (rs13190932, P = 8.56 × 10?¹?). TRAF3IP2 was also associated with PsV in a German cohort including 2,040 individuals (rs13190932, P = 1.95 × 10?³). Sequencing of the exons of TRAF3IP2 identified a coding variant (p.Asp10Asn, rs33980500) as the most significantly associated SNP (P = 1.13 × 10?²?, odds ratio = 1.95). Functional assays showed reduced binding of this TRAF3IP2 variant to TRAF6, suggesting altered modulation of immunoregulatory signals through altered TRAF interactions as a new and shared pathway for PsA and PsV.
Project description:Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory musculoskeletal disease affecting up to 30% of psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) cases and approximately 0.25 to 1% of the general population. To identify common susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of three imputed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on psoriasis, stratified for PsA. A total of 1,160,703 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed in the discovery set consisting of 535 PsA cases and 3,432 controls from Germany, the United States, and Canada. We followed up two SNPs in 1,931 PsA cases and 6,785 controls comprising six independent replication panels from Germany, Estonia, the United States, and Canada. In the combined analysis, a genome-wide significant association was detected at 2p16 near the REL locus encoding c-Rel (rs13017599, P=1.18 × 10(-8), odds ratio (OR)=1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.18-1.35). The rs13017599 polymorphism is known to associate with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and another SNP near REL (rs702873) was recently implicated in PsV susceptibility. However, conditional analysis indicated that rs13017599, rather than rs702873, accounts for the PsA association at REL. We hypothesize that c-Rel, as a member of the Rel/NF-?B family, is associated with PsA in the context of disease pathways that involve other identified PsA and PsV susceptibility genes including TNIP1, TNFAIP3, and NF?BIA.
Project description:Psoriasis vulgaris is a genetically heterogenous disease with unclear molecular background. We assessed the association of psoriasis and its main clinical phenotypes with common variants of three potential psoriasis susceptibility genes: ZNF750, RPTOR and TRAF31P2. We genotyped 10 common variants in a cohort of 1,034 case-control individuals using Taqman genotyping assays and sequencing. Minor alleles of all four TRAF3IP2 variants were more frequent among cases. The strongest, significant association was observed for rs33980500 (OR = 2.5, p = 0.01790). Minor allele of this SNP was always present in two haplotypes found to be associated with increased psoriasis risk: rs13196377_G + rs13190932_G + rs33980500_T + rs13210247_A (OR = 2.7, p = 0.0054) and rs13196377_A + rs13190932_A + rs33980500_T + rs13210247_G (OR = 1.8, p = 0.0008). Analyses of clinically relevant phenotypes revealed association of rs33980500 with pustular psoriasis (OR = 1.2, p = 0.0109). We observed significant connection of severity of cutaneous disease with variation at rs13190932 and suggestive with three remaining TRAF3IP2 SNPs. Another positive associations were found between age of onset and familial aggregation of disease: smoking and younger age of onset, smoking and occurrence of pustular psoriasis, nail involvement and arthropatic psoriasis, nail involvement and more severe course of psoriasis. We found no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of the examined variants of RPTOR and ZNF750 genes among our cases and controls. We have replicated the association of TRAF3IP2-_rs33980500 variant with the susceptibility to psoriasis. We have found new associations with clinically relevant subphenotypes such as pustular psoriasis or moderate-to-severe cases. We ascertain no connection of RPTOR and ZNF750 variants with psoriasis or its subphenotypes.
Project description:Psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) is a common inflammatory and hyperproliferative skin disease. Up to 30% of people with PsV eventually develop psoriatic arthritis (PsA), an inflammatory musculoskeletal condition. To discern differences in genetic risk factors for PsA and cutaneous-only psoriasis (PsC), we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 1,430 PsA case subjects and 1,417 unaffected control subjects. Meta-analysis of this study with three other GWASs and two targeted genotyping studies, encompassing a total of 9,293 PsV case subjects, 3,061 PsA case subjects, 3,110 PsC case subjects, and 13,670 unaffected control subjects of European descent, detected 10 regions associated with PsA and 11 with PsC at genome-wide (GW) significance. Several of these association signals (IFNLR1, IFIH1, NFKBIA for PsA; TNFRSF9, LCE3C/B, TRAF3IP2, IL23A, NFKBIA for PsC) have not previously achieved GW significance. After replication, we also identified a PsV-associated SNP near CDKAL1 (rs4712528, odds ratio [OR] = 1.16, p = 8.4 × 10(-11)). Among identified psoriasis risk variants, three were more strongly associated with PsC than PsA (rs12189871 near HLA-C, p = 5.0 × 10(-19); rs4908742 near TNFRSF9, p = 0.00020; rs10888503 near LCE3A, p = 0.0014), and two were more strongly associated with PsA than PsC (rs12044149 near IL23R, p = 0.00018; rs9321623 near TNFAIP3, p = 0.00022). The PsA-specific variants were independent of previously identified psoriasis variants near IL23R and TNFAIP3. We also found multiple independent susceptibility variants in the IL12B, NOS2, and IFIH1 regions. These results provide insights into the pathogenetic similarities and differences between PsC and PsA.
Project description:A common deletion mapping to the psoriasis susceptibility locus 4 on chromosome 1q21, encompassing two genes of the late cornified envelope (LCE) gene cluster, has been associated with an increased risk of psoriasis vulgaris (PsV). One previous report found no association of the deletion with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), suggesting it may be a specific risk factor for PsV. Given the genetic overlap between PsA and PsV, a study was undertaken to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapping to this locus are risk factors for PsA in a UK and Irish population.Three SNPs with prior evidence of association with susceptibility to PsV were genotyped in 1057 patients with PsA using Sequenom iPlex chemistry and genotype frequencies compared with data available for 5575 healthy controls. Two of the SNPs, rs4112788 and rs4085613, were reported to be highly correlated with the LCE deletion. The third SNP, rs6701216, was previously reported to be associated with PsV in a US population.Alleles tagging the deletion for both rs4112788 and rs4085613 were found to be enriched in cases compared with controls (69% vs 65%) and significantly associated with increased susceptibility to PsA (p(trend) = 0.001, OR 1.19 and p(trend) = 0.001, OR 1.18, respectively). No association was observed with rs6701216.The evidence presented here supports LCE deletion as a risk factor for PsA in a UK and Irish population. It suggests that this locus is a risk factor within a shared aetiological pathway that contributes to psoriatic skin disease in both PsV and PsA.
Project description:Cutaneous psoriasis (e.g., psoriasis vulgaris (PsV)) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are complex heterogeneous diseases thought to have similar pathophysiology. The soluble and cellular mediators of these closely related diseases are being elucidated through genetic approaches such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), as well as animal and molecular models. Novel therapeutics targeting these mediators (IL-12, IL-23, IL-17, IL-17 receptor, TNF) are effective in treating both the skin and joint manifestations of psoriasis, reaffirming the shared pathophysiology of PsV and PsA. However, the molecular and cellular interactions between skin and joint disease have not been well characterized. Clearly, PsV and PsA are highly variable in terms of their clinical manifestations, and this heterogeneity can partially be explained by differences in HLA-associations (HLA-Cw*0602 versus HLA-B*27, for example). In addition, there are numerous other genetic susceptibility loci (LCE3, CARD14, NOS2, NFKBIA, PSMA6, ERAP1, TRAF3IP2, IL12RB2, IL23R, IL12B, TNIP1, TNFAIP3, TYK2) and geoepidemiologic factors that contribute to the wide variability seen in psoriasis. Herein, we review the complex interplay between the genetic, cellular, ethnic, and geographic mediators of psoriasis, focusing on the shared mechanisms of PsV and PsA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:IL-17A plays an important role in inflammatory responses in myocardial infarction (MI). IL-17A signals through its receptor, for which, Act1 (TRAF3IP2) functions as a key upstream adaptor in the pathway. AIM:To compare frequencies of functional polymorphisms of TRAF3IP2 (rs13210247, rs33980500) between patients with MI and healthy controls. METHODS:The selected SNPs were studied in 201 Iranian MI patients and 201 healthy blood donors from Fars Province by PCR-RFLP in association with clinicopathologic criteria of patients. CXCL1 plasma levels in 126 MI patients and 50 normal subjects were measured by ELISA. RESULTS:A significant increase in the mutant (T) allele of TRAF3IP2 rs33980500 in patients with diastolic dysfunction of the heart (P = .01) was observed. The highest correlation, however, was observed between the TRAF3IP2 rs33980500 TT genotype and T allele with left main coronary artery stenosis (P = .01, P < .001; OR = 31.03). T allele of TRAF3IP2 rs33980500 was also associated with female gender, family history of cardiovascular disease, and mechanical complications of heart (P = .04, P = .02, and P = .01, respectively). Moreover, TRAF3IP2 rs13210247 (G) correlated with mechanical complications of the heart (P = .01). A significant increase in the plasma levels of CXCL1 chemokine in patients (P = .0006) associated with TT genotype of TRAF3IP2 (rs33980500) was observed (P = .04). CONCLUSION:The gene variants of Act1 adaptor are associated with correlates of poor outcome in patients with MI and plasma CXCL1 levels.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>It has been confirmed that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?), a macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokine, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis (PsV&PsA). In contrast, the reported association of TNF? gene promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PsV&PsA has remained controversial. Accordingly, we performed a meta-analysis to provide new evidence that SNPs in the TNF? gene promoter region alter not only the risk of psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) or psoriatic arthritis (PsA) but also of PsV&PsA.<h4>Methods</h4>Interrelated literature dated to October 2012 was acquired from the PubMed, ScienceDirect, and SpringerLink databases. The number of the genotypes and/or alleles for the TNF? promoter in the PsV and PsA and control subjects was obtained. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to calculate the risk of PsV and/or PsA with TNF? promoter SNPs.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 26 papers of 2159 for PsV (2129 normal controls) and 2360 for PsA (2997 normal controls) were included in our meta-analysis. The results showed that the variant genotype and allele of TNF? -308A/G was protective in pooled groups of patients with PsV&PsA (OR = 0.682, 0.750; 95% CI, 0.596-0.779, 0.653-0.861). However, the variant genotypes and alleles of TNF? -238A/G and -857T/C had an increased risk of PsV&PsA (OR = 2.493, 2.228, 1.536, 1.486, 95% CI, 1.777-3.498, 1.628-3.049, 1.336-1.767, 1.309-1.685). Moreover, the meta-analysis revealed a significant association between TNF? -238A/G and -857T/C polymorphism and PsA susceptibility (OR = 2.242, 2.052, 1.419, 1.465; 95% CI, 1.710-2.941, 1.614-2.610, 1.214-1.658, 1.277-1.681). In contrast, the variant genotypes and alleles of TNF? -308A/G proved to be protective against PsV (OR = 0.574, 0.650, 95% CI, 0.478-0.690, 0.556-0.759), whereas TNF? -238A/G was found to have a risk association (OR = 2.636, 2.223, 95% CI, 1.523-4.561, 1.317-3.751).<h4>Conclusions</h4>SNPs in the TNF? gene promoter region alter the risk of PsV and/or PsA.
Project description:Psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are interrelated disorders, PsA representing a disease within a disease. From an epidemiological perspective, the genetic contributions of PsV and PsA are now well documented. HLA-C is firmly established as a PsV/PsA gene, with HLA-Cw*0602 as a major risk allele. Fine-mapping studies within the MHC region in PsV and PsA have identified novel loci that are independent of the HLA-Cw6 allele. Recent genome-wide association scans have led to a substantial increase in the number of candidate genes reaching genome-wide significance in PsV and PsA cohorts. Most of these genes can be grouped into an integrated pathogenic model of PsV/psoriatic disease comprising distinct signaling networks affecting skin barrier function (LCE3, DEFB4, GJB2), innate immune responses involving nuclear factor-?B and interferon signaling (TNFAIP3, TNIP1, NFKBIA, REL, FBXL19, TYK2, NOS2), and adaptive immune responses involving CD8 T lymphocytes and interleukin 23 (IL-23)/IL-17-mediated lymphocyte signaling (HLA-C, IL12B, IL23R, IL23A, TRAF3IP2, ERAP1). Further development of a global genetic risk score and inclusion of potential gene/gene and gene/environment interactions will likely enhance the predictive value of recently identified genetic variants.
Project description:There is great interest in the identification of genetic factors that differentiate psoriatic arthritis (PsA) from psoriasis vulgaris (PsV), as such discoveries could lead to the identification of distinct underlying aetiological pathways. Recent studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the interleukin 13 (IL-13) gene region as risk factors for PsV. Further investigations in one of these studies found the effect to be primarily restricted to PsA, thus suggesting the discovery of a specific genetic risk factor for PsA. Given this intriguing evidence, association to this gene was investigated in large collections of PsA and PsV patients and healthy controls.Two SNPs (rs20541 and rs1800925) mapping to the IL-13 gene were genotyped in 1057 PsA and 778 type I PsV patients using the Sequenom genotyping platform. Genotype frequencies were compared to those of 5575 healthy controls. Additional analyses were performed in phenotypic subgroups of PsA (type I or II PsV and in those seronegative for rheumatoid factor).Both SNPs were found to be highly associated with susceptibility to PsA (rs1800925 ptrend = 6.1 × 10(-5) OR 1.33, rs20541 ptrend = 8.0 × 10(-4) OR 1.27), but neither SNP was significantly associated with susceptibility to PsV.This study confirms that the effect of IL-13 risk locus is specific for PsA, thus highlighting a key biological pathway that differentiates PsA from PsV. The identification of markers that differentiate the two diseases raises the possibility in future of allowing screening of PsV patients to identify those at risk of developing PsA.