Activation of Akt by the bacterial inositol phosphatase, SopB, is wortmannin insensitive.
ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica uses effector proteins translocated by a Type III Secretion System to invade epithelial cells. One of the invasion-associated effectors, SopB, is an inositol phosphatase that mediates sustained activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt in infected cells. Canonical activation of Akt involves membrane translocation and phosphorylation and is dependent on phosphatidyl inositide 3 kinase (PI3K). Here we have investigated these two distinct processes in Salmonella infected HeLa cells. Firstly, we found that SopB-dependent membrane translocation and phosphorylation of Akt are insensitive to the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. Similarly, depletion of the PI3K regulatory subunits p85? and p85ß by RNAi had no inhibitory effect on SopB-dependent Akt phosphorylation. Nevertheless, SopB-dependent phosphorylation does depend on the Akt kinases, PDK1 and rictor-mTOR. Membrane translocation assays revealed a dependence on SopB for Akt recruitment to Salmonella ruffles and suggest that this is mediated by phosphoinositide (3,4) P(2) rather than phosphoinositide (3,4,5) P(3). Altogether these data demonstrate that Salmonella activates Akt via a wortmannin insensitive mechanism that is likely a class I PI3K-independent process that incorporates some essential elements of the canonical pathway.
Project description:SopB is a type 3 secreted effector with phosphatase activity that Salmonella employs to manipulate host cellular processes, allowing the bacteria to establish their intracellular niche. One important function of SopB is activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt/protein kinase B in the infected host cell. Here, we examine the mechanism of Akt activation by SopB during Salmonella infection. We show that SopB-mediated Akt activation is only partially sensitive to PI3-kinase inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin in HeLa cells, suggesting that Class I PI3-kinases play only a minor role in this process. However, depletion of PI(3,4) P2/PI(3-5) P3 by expression of the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase PTEN inhibits Akt activation during Salmonella invasion. Therefore, production of PI(3,4) P2/PI(3-5) P3 appears to be a necessary event for Akt activation by SopB and suggests that non-canonical kinases mediate production of these phosphoinositides during Salmonella infection. We report that Class II PI3-kinase beta isoform, IPMK and other kinases identified from a kinase screen all contribute to Akt activation during Salmonella infection. In addition, the kinases required for SopB-mediated activation of Akt vary depending on the type of infected host cell. Together, our data suggest that Salmonella has evolved to use a single effector, SopB, to manipulate a remarkably large repertoire of host kinases to activate Akt for the purpose of optimizing bacterial replication in its host.
Project description:B cells are a target of Salmonella infection, allowing bacteria survival without inducing pyroptosis. This event is due to downregulation of Nlrc4 expression and lack of inflammasome complex activation, which impairs the secretion of IL-1?. YAP phosphorylation is required for downregulation of Nlrc4 in B cells during Salmonella infection; however, the microorganism's mechanisms underlying the inhibition of the NLRC4 inflammasome in B cells are not fully understood. Our findings demonstrate that the Salmonella effector SopB triggers a signaling cascade involving PI3K, PDK1 and mTORC2 that activates Akt with consequent phosphorylation of YAP. When we deleted sopB in Salmonella, infected B cells that lack Rictor, or inhibited the signaling cascade using a pharmacological approach, we were able to restore the function of the NLRC4 inflammasome in B cells and the ability to control the infection. Furthermore, B cells from infected mice exhibited activation of Akt and YAP phosphorylation, suggesting that Salmonella also triggers this pathway in vivo. In summary, our data demonstrate that the Salmonella effector inositide phosphate phosphatase SopB triggers the PI3K-Akt-YAP pathway to inhibit the NLRC4 inflammasome in B cells. This study provides further evidence that Salmonella triggers cellular mechanisms in B lymphocytes to manipulate the host environment by turning it into a survival niche to establish a successful infection.
Project description:Type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1) is used by the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to establish infection in the gut. Effector proteins translocated by this system across the plasma membrane facilitate invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. One such effector, the inositol phosphatase SopB, contributes to invasion and mediates activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt. Following internalization, some bacteria escape from the Salmonella-containing vacuole into the cytosol and there is evidence suggesting that T3SS1 is expressed in this subpopulation. Here, we investigated the post-invasion role of T3SS1, using SopB as a model effector. In cultured epithelial cells, SopB-dependent Akt phosphorylation was observed at two distinct stages of infection: during and immediately after invasion, and later during peak cytosolic replication. Single cell analysis revealed that cytosolic Salmonella deliver SopB via T3SS1. Although intracellular replication was unaffected in a SopB deletion mutant, cells infected with ?sopB demonstrated a lack of Akt phosphorylation, earlier time to death, and increased lysis. When SopB expression was induced specifically in cytosolic Salmonella, these effects were restored to levels observed in WT infected cells, indicating that the second wave of SopB protects this infected population against cell death via Akt activation. Thus, T3SS1 has two, temporally distinct roles during epithelial cell colonization. Additionally, we found that delivery of SopB by cytosolic bacteria was translocon-independent, in contrast to canonical effector translocation across eukaryotic membranes, which requires formation of a translocon pore. This mechanism was also observed for another T3SS1 effector, SipA. These findings reveal the functional and mechanistic adaptability of a T3SS that can be harnessed in different microenvironments.
Project description:Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) causes endothelium-dependent vasodilation, but its relation to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity remains to be elucidated. Treatment of bovine aortic endothelial cells with HGF increased eNOS activity within minutes, accompanied by an increase of activity-related site-specific phosphorylation of eNOS. The phosphorylation was completely abolished by pretreatment of the cells with a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (wortmannin) and by transfection of dominant-negative Akt, and the enzyme activity was inhibited by wortmannin. In addition, eNOS activity and phosphorylation were abolished by pretreatment of the cells with an intracellular Ca(2+)-chelator, bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester) (BAPTA/AM), with a suppression of Akt phosphorylation. These results suggest that HGF stimulates eNOS activity by a PI3K/Akt-dependent phosphorylation in a Ca(2+)-sensitive manner in vascular endothelial cells.
Project description:Cryptotanshinone, the major tanshinone isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. However, there is no report on the effect of cryptotanshinone on recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. We therefore assessed the effects of cryptotanshinone on macrophage chemotaxis.Macrophage migration induced by complement 5a (C5a) or macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) was measured in vitro. Intracellular kinase translocation and phosphorylation was assessed by Western blotting.RAW264.7 cell migration towards C5a (1 microg ml(-1)) was significantly inhibited by cryptotanshinone (1, 3, 10 and 30 microM) in a concentration-dependent manner. Primary human macrophages stimulated by C5a were similarly inhibited. C5a-evoked migration in RAW264.7 cells was significantly suppressed by wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK1/2 inhibitor) and SB203580 (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor), but not by SP600125 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor), suggesting that activation of PI3K, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signal pathways was involved in responses to C5a. Western blotting revealed that cryptotanshinone significantly inhibited PI3K-p110gamma membrane translocation and phosphorylation of Akt (PI3K downstream effector protein) and ERK1/2 induced by C5a. However, neither p38 MAPK nor JNK phosphorylation was affected by cryptotanshinone. Wortmannin significantly attenuated C5a-induced PI3K-p110gamma translocation, Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. PD98059 suppressed ERK1/2 phosphorylation but failed to modify PI3K-p110gamma translocation by C5a stimulation. Furthermore, MIP-1alpha-induced cell migration and PI3K-p110gamma translocation were also inhibited by cryptotanshinone in a concentration-dependent manner.Inhibition of macrophage migration by cryptotanshinone involved inhibition of PI3K activation with consequent reduction of phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2.
Project description:The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway was recently shown to negatively regulate LPS-induced acute inflammatory responses. We previously observed that the metabolic thiol antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (LA) inhibits LPS-induced expression of cellular adhesion molecules and adherence of monocytes to human aortic endothelial cells. Here we investigated the mechanism by which LA attenuates LPS-induced monocyte activation in vitro and acute inflammatory responses in vivo. Incubation of human monocytic THP-1 cells with LA induced phosphorylation of Akt in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In cells pretreated with LA followed by LPS, Akt phosphorylation was elevated initially and further increased during incubation with LPS. This LA-dependent increase in Akt phosphorylation was accompanied by inhibition of LPS-induced NF-kappaB DNA binding activity and up-regulation of TNFalpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1. Lipoic acid-dependent Akt phosphorylation and inhibition of NF-kappaB activity were abolished by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin. Furthermore, LA treatment of LPS-exposed C57BL/6N mice strongly enhanced phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta in blood cells; inhibited the LPS-induced increase in serum concentrations and/or tissue expression of adhesion molecules, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and TNFalpha; and attenuated NF-kappaB activation in lung, heart, and aorta. Lipoic acid also improved survival of endotoxemic mice. All of these antiinflammatory effects of LA were abolished by treatment of the animals with wortmannin. We conclude that LA inhibits LPS-induced monocyte activation and acute inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway. Lipoic acid may be useful in the prevention of sepsis and inflammatory vascular diseases.
Project description:To establish infections, Salmonella injects virulence effectors that hijack the host actin cytoskeleton and phosphoinositide signaling to drive pathogen invasion. How effectors reprogram the cytoskeleton network remains unclear. By reconstituting the activities of the Salmonella effector SopE, we recapitulated Rho GTPase-driven actin polymerization at model phospholipid membrane bilayers in cell-free extracts and identified the network of Rho-recruited cytoskeleton proteins. Knockdown of network components revealed a key role for myosin VI (MYO6) in Salmonella invasion. SopE triggered MYO6 localization to invasion foci, and SopE-mediated activation of PAK recruited MYO6 to actin-rich membranes. We show that the virulence effector SopB requires MYO6 to regulate the localization of PIP3 and PI(3)P phosphoinositides and Akt activation. SopE and SopB target MYO6 to coordinate phosphoinositide production at invasion foci, facilitating the recruitment of cytoskeleton adaptor proteins to mediate pathogen uptake.
Project description:The short and long isoforms of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2S and D2L respectively) are highly expressed in the striatum. Functional D2 receptors activate an intracellular signalling pathway that includes a cAMP-independent route involving Akt/GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3). To investigate the Akt/GSK3 response to the seldom-studied D2S receptor, we established a rat D2S receptor-expressing cell line [HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293/rD2S]. We found that in HEK-293/rD2S cells, the D2/D3 agonists bromocriptine and quinpirole significantly induced Akt and GSK3 phosphorylation, as well as ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) activation. The D2S receptor-induced Akt signals were profoundly inhibited by the internalization blockers monodansyl cadaverine and concanavalin A. Activation of the D2S receptor in HEK-293/rD2S cells appeared to trigger Akt/phospho-Akt translocation to the cell membrane. In addition to our cell culture experiments, we studied D2 receptor-dependent Akt in vivo by systemic administration of the D2/D3 agonist quinpirole. The results show that quinpirole evoked Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation in the ventral striatum. Furthermore, intra-accumbens administration of wortmannin, a PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) inhibitor, significantly suppressed the quinpirole-evoked behavioural activation. Overall, we demonstrate that activation of the dopamine D2S receptor stimulates Akt/GSK3 signalling. In addition, in vivo Akt activity in the ventral striatum appears to play an important role in systemic D2/D3 agonist-induced behavioural activation.
Project description:Bacterial flagellin triggers inflammatory responses. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulate the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines that are induced by extrinsic antigens, but the function of mTORC1 in flagellin-induced inflammatory response is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the role and the mechanism of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in flagellin-induced cytokine expression in mouse macrophages. We observed that flagellin upregulated TNF-? time- and dose-dependently. Flagellin stimulated rapid (<15 min) PI3K/Akt/mTOR phosphorylation that was mediated by TLR5. Inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 and wortmannin, and of mTORC1 with rapamycin decreased flagellin-induced TNF-? and IL-6 expression and cell proliferation. The activation of NF-?B p65 and STAT3 was regulated by mTORC1 via degradation of I?B? and phosphorylation of STAT3 in response to flagellin, respectively. Thus, the PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 pathway regulates the innate immune response to bacterial flagellin. Rapamycin is potential therapy that can regulate host defense against pathogenic infections.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms for peripheral N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated vascular oxidative stress and pressor response are not known. We conducted integrative (in vivo) and ex vivo biochemical studies to test the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent calcium influx, triggered by the activation of vascular kinases, underlies the NMDAR-mediated pressor response. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt (wortmannin, 15 ?g/kg), protein kinase C (chelerythrine: 5 mg/kg, intravenous), Ca²? influx (nifedipine, 0.35 or 0.75 mg/kg), or NADPH oxidase (NOX: apocynin, 5 mg/kg) attenuated the peripheral NMDAR-mediated pressor response in conscious male Sprague-Dawley rats. NMDAR activation enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1, JNK and p38 (Western blot), and NOX activity in vascular tissues collected during the pressor response caused by NMDA infusion (180 ?g·kg?¹·min?¹, 30 minutes). Furthermore, ex vivo studies showed that wortmannin, chelerythrine, or apocynin abrogated the NMDAR-mediated vascular nitric oxide (NO) and ROS generation and NOX activation in the vasculature. These findings implicate vascular PI3K/Akt-protein kinase C signaling in the peripheral NMDAR-mediated increases in vascular NO and NOX activation (ROS), which ultimately lead to calcium influx and pressor response in conscious rats.