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Identification of dihydroceramide desaturase as a direct in vitro target for fenretinide.


ABSTRACT: The dihydroceramide desaturase (DES) enzyme is responsible for inserting the 4,5-trans-double bond to the sphingolipid backbone of dihydroceramide. We previously demonstrated that fenretinide (4-HPR) inhibited DES activity in SMS-KCNR neuroblastoma cells. In this study, we investigated whether 4-HPR acted directly on the enzyme in vitro. N-C8:0-d-erythro-dihydroceramide (C(8)-dhCer) was used as a substrate to study the conversion of dihydroceramide into ceramide in vitro using rat liver microsomes, and the formation of tritiated water after the addition of the tritiated substrate was detected and used to measure DES activity. NADH served as a cofactor. The apparent K(m) for C(8)-dhCer and NADH were 1.92 ± 0.36 ?m and 43.4 ± 6.47 ?m, respectively; and the V(max) was 3.16 ± 0.24 and 4.11 ± 0.18 nmol/min/g protein. Next, the effects of 4-HPR and its metabolites on DES activity were investigated. 4-HPR was found to inhibit DES in a dose-dependent manner. At 20 min, the inhibition was competitive; however, longer incubation times demonstrated the inhibition to be irreversible. Among the major metabolites of 4-HPR, 4-oxo-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-oxo-4-HPR) showed the highest inhibitory effect with substrate concentration of 0.5 ?m, with an IC(50) of 1.68 ?m as compared with an IC(50) of 2.32 ?m for 4-HPR. N-(4-Methoxyphenyl)retinamide (4-MPR) and 4-Oxo-N-(4-methoxyphenyl)retinamide (4-oxo-4-MPR) had minimal effects on DES activity. A known competitive inhibitor of DES, C(8)-cyclopropenylceramide was used as a positive control. These studies define for the first time a direct in vitro target for 4-HPR and suggest that inhibitors of DES may be used as therapeutic interventions to regulate ceramide desaturation and consequent function.

SUBMITTER: Rahmaniyan M 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC3137051 | BioStudies | 2011-01-01T00:00:00Z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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