ABSTRACT: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial in diabetic patients receiving hemodialysis showed no effect of atorvastatin on a composite cardiovascular endpoint, but analysis of the component cardiac endpoints suggested that atorvastatin may significantly reduce risk. Because the AURORA (A Study to Evaluate the Use of Rosuvastatin in Subjects on Regular Hemodialysis: An Assessment of Survival and Cardiovascular Events) trial included patients with and without diabetes, we conducted a post hoc analysis to determine whether rosuvastatin might reduce the risk of cardiac events in diabetic patients receiving hemodialysis. Among the 731 participants with diabetes, traditional risk factors such as LDL-C, smoking, and BP did not associate with cardiac events (cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction). At baseline, only age and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were independent risk factors for cardiac events. Assignment to rosuvastatin associated with a nonsignificant 16.2% reduction in risk for the AURORA trial's composite primary endpoint of cardiac death, nonfatal MI, or fatal or nonfatal stroke (HR 0.84; 95% CI 0.65 to 1.07). There was no difference in overall stroke, but the rosuvastatin group had more hemorrhagic strokes than the placebo group (12 versus two strokes, respectively; HR, 5.21; 95% CI 1.17 to 23.27). Rosuvastatin treatment significantly reduced the rates of cardiac events by 32% among patients with diabetes (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.90). In conclusion, among hemodialysis patients with diabetes mellitus, rosuvastatin might reduce the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiac events.
Project description:Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis are at high cardiovascular risk. Lowering LDL-cholesterol with statins reduces the incidence rate of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease. In contrast, two randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled trials have been completed in hemodialysis patients that showed no significant effects of statins on cardiovascular outcomes.A post hoc analysis was conducted of the 4D (Die Deutsche Diabetes Dialyze) study to investigate whether LDL-cholesterol at baseline is predictive of cardiovascular events and whether the effect of atorvastatin on clinical outcomes depends on LDL-cholesterol at baseline.High concentrations of LDL-cholesterol by tendency increased the risks of cardiac endpoints and all-cause mortality. Concordantly, atorvastatin significantly reduced the rates of adverse outcomes in the highest quartile of LDL-cholesterol (?145 mg/dl, 3.76 mmol/L). The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 0.69 (0.48 to 1.00) for the composite primary endpoint, 0.58 (0.34 to 0.99) for cardiac death, 0.48 (0.25 to 0.94) for sudden cardiac death, 0.62 (0.33 to 1.17) for nonfatal myocardial infarction, 0.68 (0.47 to 0.98) for all cardiac events combined, and 0.72 (0.52 to 0.99) for death from all causes, respectively. No such decrease was seen in any of the other quartiles of LDL-cholesterol at baseline.In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing hemodialysis, atorvastatin significantly reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiac events and death from any cause if pretreatment LDL-cholesterol is >145 mg/dl (3.76 mmol/L).
Project description:The cardioprotective effect of HDL is thought to be largely determined by its cholesterol efflux capacity, which was shown to inversely correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in populations with normal kidney function. Patients with ESRD suffer an exceptionally high cardiovascular risk not fully explained by traditional risk factors. Here, in a post hoc analysis in 1147 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on hemodialysis who participated in the German Diabetes Dialysis Study (4D Study), we investigated whether the HDL cholesterol efflux capacity is predictive for cardiovascular risk. Efflux capacity was quantified by incubating human macrophage foam cells with apoB-depleted serum. During a median follow-up of 4.1 years, 423 patients reached the combined primary end point (composite of cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke), 410 patients experienced cardiac events, and 561 patients died. Notably, in Cox regression analyses, we found no association of efflux capacity with the combined primary end point (hazard ratio [HR], 0.96; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.88 to 1.06; P=0.42), cardiac events (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.02; P=0.11), or all-cause mortality (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.05; P=0.39). In conclusion, HDL cholesterol efflux capacity is not a prognostic cardiovascular risk marker in this cohort of patients with diabetes on hemodialysis.
Project description:Serum carbamylated albumin (C-Alb) levels are associated with excess mortality in patients with diabetic end-stage renal disease. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of carbamylation, we determined associations between C-Alb and causes of death in patients on chronic hemodialysis. The Die Deutsche Diabetes Dialyse Studie (4D study) was a randomized controlled trial testing the effects of atorvastatin on survival in diabetic patients on dialysis during a median follow-up of 4 years. We stratified 1161 patients by C-Alb to see whether differences in carbamylation altered the effects of atorvastatin on survival. Baseline C-Alb significantly correlated with serum cardiac stress markers troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type-natriuretic peptide and was associated with a history of heart failure and arrhythmia. C-Alb was strongly associated with 1-year adjusted risk of cardiovascular mortality, sudden cardiac death, and the 4-year risk of death from congestive heart failure (hazard ratios of 3.06, 3.78, and 4.64, respectively) but not with myocardial infarction or stroke. Patients with low C-Alb, treated with atorvastatin, experienced a significant improvement in their 4-year survival (hazard ratio 0.692). High C-Alb levels are associated with ongoing cardiac damage, risk of congestive heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. Thus, carbamylation and uremic cardiomyopathy are associated in patients with diabetes mellitus and kidney disease. In addition, statins were specifically beneficial to hemodialysis patients with low C-Alb.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>Impairment of HDL function has been associated with cardiovascular events in patients with kidney failure. The protein composition of HDLs is altered in these patients, presumably compromising the cardioprotective effects of HDLs. This post hoc study assessed the relation of distinct HDL-bound proteins with cardiovascular outcomes in a dialysis population.<h4>Design, setting, participants, & measurements</h4>The concentrations of HDL-associated serum amyloid A (SAA) and surfactant protein B (SP-B) were measured in 1152 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on hemodialysis participating in The German Diabetes Dialysis Study who were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment of 20 mg atorvastatin daily or matching placebo. The association of SAA(HDL) and SP-B(HDL) with cardiovascular outcomes was assessed in multivariate regression models adjusted for known clinical risk factors.<h4>Results</h4>High concentrations of SAA(HDL) were significantly and positively associated with the risk of cardiac events (hazard ratio per 1 SD higher, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.19). High concentrations of SP-B(HDL) were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio per 1 SD higher, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.19). Adjustment for HDL cholesterol did not affect these associations.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In patients with diabetes on hemodialysis, SAA(HDL) and SP-B(HDL) were related to cardiac events and all-cause mortality, respectively, and they were independent of HDL cholesterol. These findings indicate that a remodeling of the HDL proteome was associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with ESRD.
Project description:Oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-100 (OxPL-apoB) is a biomarker of increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in community cohorts, but its role in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) is unknown.This study sought to examine the relationship between these oxidative biomarkers and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with established CHD.In a random sample from the TNT (Treating to New Targets) trial, OxPL-apoB levels were measured in 1,503 patients at randomization (after an 8-week run-in period taking atorvastatin 10 mg) and 1 year after being randomized to atorvastatin 10 or 80 mg. We examined the association between baseline levels of OxPL-apoB and MACE, defined as death from CHD, nonfatal myocardial infarction, resuscitation after cardiac arrest, and fatal/nonfatal stroke, as well as the effect of statin therapy on OxPL-apoB levels and MACE.Patients with events (n = 156) had higher randomization levels of OxPL-apoB than those without events (p = 0.025). For the overall cohort, randomization levels of OxPL-apoB predicted subsequent MACE (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.21; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.41; p = 0.018) per doubling and tertile 3 versus tertile 1 (hazard ratio: 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14 to 2.49; p = 0.01) after multivariate adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, among others, and treatment assignment. In the atorvastatin 10-mg group, tertile 3 was associated with a higher risk of MACE compared to the first tertile (HR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.20 to 3.61; p = 0.01) but this was not significant in the atorvastatin 80-mg group (HR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.80 to 2.46; p = 0.24).Elevated OxPL-apoB levels predict secondary MACE in patients with stable CHD, a risk that is mitigated by atorvastatin 80 mg. (A Study to Determine the Degree of Additional Reduction in CV Risk in Lowering LDL Below Minimum Target Levels [TNT]; NCT00327691).
Project description:Despite current standard of care, many patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) still have elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Alirocumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody inhibitor of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9.The objective of the study was to compare the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of adding alirocumab vs other common lipid-lowering strategies.Patients (n = 355) with very high CVD risk and LDL-C levels of 70 mg/dL or greater or high CVD risk and LDL-C of 100 mg/dL or greater on baseline atorvastatin 20 or 40 mg were randomized to one of the following: 1) add-on alirocumab 75 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) sc; 2) add-on ezetimibe 10 mg/d; 3) double atorvastatin dose; or 4) for atorvastatin 40 mg regimen only, switch to rosuvastatin 40 mg. For patients not achieving protocol-defined LDL-C goals, the alirocumab dose was increased (blinded) at week 12 to 150 mg Q2W.The primary end point was percentage change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to 24 weeks (intent to treat).Among atorvastatin 20 and 40 mg regimens, respectively, add-on alirocumab reduced LDL-C levels by 44.1% and 54.0% (P < .001 vs all comparators); add-on ezetimibe, 20.5% and 22.6%; doubling of atorvastatin dose, 5.0% and 4.8%; and switching atorvastatin 40 mg to rosuvastatin 40 mg, 21.4%. Most alirocumab-treated patients (87.2% and 84.6%) achieved their LDL-C goals. Most alirocumab-treated patients (86%) maintained their 75-mg Q2W regimen. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 65.4% of alirocumab patients vs 64.4% ezetimibe and 63.8% double atorvastatin/switch to rosuvastatin (data were pooled).Adding alirocumab to atorvastatin provided significantly greater LDL-C reductions vs adding ezetimibe, doubling atorvastatin dose, or switching to rosuvastatin and enabled greater LDL-C goal achievement.
Project description:Reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) with statin-based therapy reduces the risk of major atherosclerotic events among patients with CKD, including dialysis patients, but the effect of lowering LDL-C on vascular access patency is unclear.The Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) randomized patients with CKD to 20 mg simvastatin plus 10 mg ezetimibe daily versus matching placebo. This study aimed to explore the effects of treatment on vascular access occlusive events, defined as any access revision procedure, access thrombosis, removal of an old dialysis access, or formation of new permanent dialysis access.Among 2353 SHARP participants who had functioning vascular access at randomization, allocation to simvastatin plus ezetimibe resulted in a 13% proportional reduction in vascular access occlusive events (355 [29.7%] for simvastatin/ezetimibe versus 388 [33.5%] for placebo; risk ratio [RR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.75 to 1.00; P=0.05). There was no evidence that the effects of treatment differed for any of the separate components of this outcome. To test the hypothesis raised by SHARP, comparable analyses were performed using the AURORA (A Study to Evaluate the Use of Rosuvastatin in Subjects on Regular Hemodialysis: An Assessment of Survival and Cardiovascular Events) trial cohort. AURORA did not provide independent confirmation (vascular access occlusive events: 352 [28.9%] for rosuvastatin versus 337 [27.6%] for placebo; RR, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.23; P=0.44). After combining the two trials, the overall effect of reducing LDL-C with a statin-based regimen on vascular access occlusive events was not statistically significant (707 [29.3%] with any LDL-C-lowering therapy versus 725 [30.5%] with placebo; RR, 0.95, 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.05; P=0.29).Exploratory analyses from SHARP suggest that lowering LDL-C with statin-based therapy may improve vascular access patency, but there was no evidence of benefit in AURORA. Taken together, the available evidence suggests that any benefits of lowering LDL-C on vascular access patency are likely to be modest.
Project description:Cardiopulmonary arrest during and proximate to hemodialysis is rare but highly fatal. Studies have examined peridialytic sudden cardiac event risk factors, but no study has considered associates of cardiopulmonary arrests (fatal and nonfatal events including cardiac and respiratory causes). This study was designed to elucidate patient and procedural factors associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. Data for this case-control study were taken from the hemodialysis population at Fresenius Medical Care, North America. 924 in-center cardiopulmonary events (cases) and 75,538 controls were identified. Cases and controls were 1?:?5 matched on age, sex, race, and diabetes. Predictors of cardiopulmonary arrest were considered for logistic model inclusion. Missed treatments due to hospitalization, lower body mass, coronary artery disease, heart failure, lower albumin and hemoglobin, lower dialysate potassium, higher serum calcium, greater erythropoietin stimulating agent dose, and normalized protein catabolic rate (J-shaped) were associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. Of these, lower albumin, hemoglobin, and body mass index; higher erythropoietin stimulating agent dose; and greater missed sessions had the strongest associations with outcome. Patient health markers and procedural factors are associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. In addition to optimizing nutritional status, it may be prudent to limit exposure to low dialysate potassium (<2?K bath) and to use the lowest effective erythropoietin stimulating agent dose.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cholesterol management drugs known as statins are widely used and often well tolerated; however, a variety of muscle-related side effects can arise. These adverse events (AEs) can have serious impact, and form a significant barrier to therapy adherence. Surveillance of post-marketing AEs is of vital importance to understand real-world AEs and reporting differences between individual statin drugs. We conducted a review of post-approval muscle and tendon AE reports in association with statin use, to assess differences within the drug class. METHODS: We analyzed all case reports from the FDA AE Reporting System (AERS) database linking muscle-related AEs to statin use (07/01/2005-03/31/2011). Drugs examined were: atorvastatin, simvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and fluvastatin. RESULTS: Relative risk rates for rosuvastatin were consistently higher than other statins. Atorvastatin and simvastatin showed intermediate risks, while pravastatin and lovastatin appeared to have the lowest risk rates. Relative risk of muscle-related AEs, therefore, approximately tracked with per milligram LDL-lowering potency, with fluvastatin an apparent exception. Incorporating all muscle categories, rates for atorvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, and lovastatin were, respectively, 55%, 26%, 17%, and 7.5% as high, as rosuvastatin, approximately tracking per milligram potency (Rosuvastatin>Atorvastatin>Simvastatin>Pravastatin ? Lovastatin) and comporting with findings of other studies. Relative potency, therefore, appears to be a fundamental predictor of muscle-related AE risk, with fluvastatin, the least potent statin, an apparent exception (risk 74% vs rosuvastatin). INTERPRETATION: AE reporting rates differed strikingly for drugs within the statin class, with relative reporting aligning substantially with potency. The data presented in this report offer important reference points for the selection of statins for cholesterol management in general and, especially, for the rechallenge of patients who have experienced muscle-related AEs (for whom agents of lower expected potency should be preferred).
Project description:Adequately powered studies directly comparing hard clinical outcomes of darbepoetin alfa (DPO) versus epoetin alfa (EPO) in patients undergoing dialysis are lacking.Observational, registry-based, retrospective cohort study; we mimicked a cluster-randomized trial by comparing mortality and cardiovascular events in US patients initiating hemodialysis therapy in facilities (almost) exclusively using DPO versus EPO.Nonchain US hemodialysis facilities; each facility switching from EPO to DPO (2003-2010) was matched for location, profit status, and facility type with one EPO facility. Patients subsequently initiating hemodialysis therapy in these facilities were assigned their facility-level exposure.DPO versus EPO.All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality; composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), and nonfatal stroke.Unadjusted and adjusted HRs from Cox proportional hazards regression models.Of 508 dialysis facilities that switched to DPO, 492 were matched with a similar EPO facility; 19,932 (DPO: 9,465 [47.5%]; EPO: 10,467 [52.5%]) incident hemodialysis patients were followed up for 21,918 person-years during which 5,550 deaths occurred. Almost all baseline characteristics were tightly balanced. The demographics-adjusted mortality HR for DPO (vs EPO) was 1.06 (95% CI, 1.00-1.13) and was materially unchanged after adjustment for all other baseline characteristics (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.99-1.12). Cardiovascular mortality did not differ between groups (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.94-1.16). Nonfatal outcomes were evaluated among 9,455 patients with fee-for-service Medicare: 4,542 (48.0%) in DPO and 4,913 (52.0%) in EPO facilities. During 10,457 and 10,363 person-years, 248 and 372 events were recorded, respectively, for strokes and MIs. We found no differences in adjusted stroke or MI rates or their composite with cardiovascular death (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.96-1.25).Nonrandom treatment assignment, potential residual confounding.In incident hemodialysis patients, mortality and cardiovascular event rates did not differ between patients treated at facilities predominantly using DPO versus EPO.