Genomic copy number variation in disorders of cognitive development.
ABSTRACT: To highlight recent discoveries in the area of genomic copy number variation in neuropsychiatric disorders including intellectual disability, autism, and schizophrenia. To emphasize new principles emerging from this area, involving the genetic architecture of disease, pathophysiology, and diagnosis.Review of studies published in PubMed including classic studies of genomic disorders and microarray and copy number studies in normal controls, intellectual disability, autism, and schizophrenia.The advent of novel microarray technology has led to a revolution in the discovery of classic and novel copy number variants (CNVs) in various disorders affecting cognitive development. Across autism and schizophrenia, global CNV burden and de novo CNV burden are associated with disease. Also, specific recurrent CNVs may be associated with several DSM conditions. Each condition is also associated with heterogeneous and individually rare CNVs.CNVs play an important role in the genetic architecture of the childhood neuropsychiatric disorders discussed. This discovery appears to suggest an important role for the strict regulation of gene dosage in the neurodevelopmental roots of these conditions. Microarrays have emerged as high-yield tests in the diagnosis and molecular subtyping of the childhood-onset disorders involving cognitive development. In summary, CNV studies in disorders of cognitive development have revealed interesting and important new insights and have opened an avenue of investigation that holds great promise for neuropsychiatric disease.
Project description:Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable common childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder. Some rare copy number variations (CNVs) affect multiple neurodevelopmental disorders such as intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia and ADHD. The aim of this study is to determine to what extent ADHD shares high risk CNV alleles with schizophrenia and ASD. We compiled 19 neuropsychiatric CNVs and test 14, with sufficient power, for association with ADHD in Icelandic and Norwegian samples. Eight associate with ADHD; deletions at 2p16.3 (NRXN1), 15q11.2, 15q13.3 (BP4 & BP4.5-BP5) and 22q11.21, and duplications at 1q21.1 distal, 16p11.2 proximal, 16p13.11 and 22q11.21. Six of the CNVs have not been associated with ADHD before. As a group, the 19 CNVs associate with ADHD (OR?=?2.43, P?=?1.6?×?10<sup>-21</sup>), even when comorbid ASD and schizophrenia are excluded from the sample. These results highlight the pleiotropic effect of the neuropsychiatric CNVs and add evidence for ADHD, ASD and schizophrenia being related neurodevelopmental disorders rather than distinct entities.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rare copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with risk of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by varying degrees of cognitive impairment, including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. However, the effects of many individual CNVs in carriers without neurodevelopmental disorders are not yet fully understood, and little is known about the effects of reciprocal copy number changes of known pathogenic loci.AimsWe aimed to analyse the effect of CNV carrier status on cognitive performance and measures of occupational and social outcomes in unaffected individuals from the UK Biobank. METHOD:We called CNVs in the full UK Biobank sample and analysed data from 420 247 individuals who passed CNV quality control, reported White British or Irish ancestry and were not diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders. We analysed 33 pathogenic CNVs, including their reciprocal deletions/duplications, for association with seven cognitive tests and four general measures of functioning: academic qualifications, occupation, household income and Townsend Deprivation Index. RESULTS:Most CNVs (24 out of 33) were associated with reduced performance on at least one cognitive test or measure of functioning. The changes on the cognitive tests were modest (average reduction of 0.13 s.d.) but varied markedly between CNVs. All 12 schizophrenia-associated CNVs were associated with significant impairments on measures of functioning. CONCLUSIONS:CNVs implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, are associated with cognitive deficits, even among unaffected individuals. These deficits may be subtle but CNV carriers have significant disadvantages in educational attainment and ability to earn income in adult life.Declaration of interestNone.
Project description:Autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia have been associated with an overlapping set of copy number variant loci, but the nature and degree of overlap in copy number variants (deletions compared to duplications) between these two disorders remains unclear.We systematically evaluated three lines of evidence: (1) the statistical bases for associations of autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia with a set of the primary CNVs thus far investigated, from previous studies; (2) data from case series studies on the occurrence of these CNVs in autism spectrum disorders, especially among children, and (3) data on the extent to which the CNVs were associated with intellectual disability and developmental, speech, or language delays. We also conducted new analyses of existing data on these CNVs in autism by pooling data from seven case control studies.Four of the CNVs considered, dup 1q21.1, dup 15q11-q13, del 16p11.2, and dup 22q11.21, showed clear statistical evidence as autism risk factors, whereas eight CNVs, del 1q21.1, del 3q29, del 15q11.2, del 15q13.3, dup 16p11.2, dup 16p13.1, del 17p12, and del 22q11.21, were strongly statistically supported as risk factors for schizophrenia. Three of the CNVs, dup 1q21.1, dup 16p11.2, and dup 16p13.1, exhibited statistical support as risk factors for both autism and schizophrenia, although for each of these CNVs statistical significance was nominal for tests involving one of the two disorders. For the CNVs that were statistically associated with schizophrenia but were not statistically associated with autism, a notable number of children with the CNVs have been diagnosed with autism or ASD; children with these CNVs also demonstrate a high incidence of intellectual disability and developmental, speech, or language delays.These findings suggest that although CNV loci notably overlap between autism and schizophrenia, the degree of strongly statistically supported overlap in specific CNVs at these loci remains limited. These analyses also suggest that relatively severe premorbidity to CNV-associated schizophrenia in children may sometimes be diagnosed as autism spectrum disorder.
Project description:Studies of copy number variation (CNV) have characterized loci and molecular pathways in a range of neuropsychiatric conditions. We analyzed rare CNVs in Tourette syndrome (TS) to identify novel risk regions and relevant pathways, to evaluate burden of structural variation in cases versus controls, and to assess overlap of identified variations with those in other neuropsychiatric syndromes.We conducted a case-control study of 460 individuals with TS, including 148 parent-child trios and 1131 controls. CNV analysis was undertaken using 370 K to 1 M probe arrays, and genotyping data were used to match cases and controls for ancestry. CNVs present in < 1% of the population were evaluated.While there was no significant increase in the number of de novo or transmitted rare CNVs in cases versus controls, pathway analysis using multiple algorithms showed enrichment of genes within histamine receptor (subtypes 1 and 2) signaling pathways (p = 5.8 × 10(-4) - 1.6 × 10(-2)), as well as axon guidance, cell adhesion, nervous system development, and synaptic structure and function processes. Genes mapping within rare CNVs in TS showed significant overlap with those previously identified in autism spectrum disorders but not intellectual disability or schizophrenia. Three large, likely pathogenic, de novo events were identified, including one disrupting multiple gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor genes.We identify further evidence supporting recent findings regarding the involvement of histaminergic and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic mechanisms in the etiology of TS and show an overlap of rare CNVs in TS and autism spectrum disorders.
Project description:Copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with many neurocognitive disorders; however, these events are typically large, and the underlying causative genes are unclear. We created an expanded CNV morbidity map from 29,085 children with developmental delay in comparison to 19,584 healthy controls, identifying 70 significant CNVs. We resequenced 26 candidate genes in 4,716 additional cases with developmental delay or autism and 2,193 controls. An integrated analysis of CNV and single-nucleotide variant (SNV) data pinpointed 10 genes enriched for putative loss of function. Follow-up of a subset of affected individuals identified new clinical subtypes of pediatric disease and the genes responsible for disease-associated CNVs. These genetic changes include haploinsufficiency of SETBP1 associated with intellectual disability and loss of expressive language and truncations of ZMYND11 in individuals with autism, aggression and complex neuropsychiatric features. This combined CNV and SNV approach facilitates the rapid discovery of new syndromes and genes involved in neuropsychiatric disease despite extensive genetic heterogeneity.
Project description:Copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated in multiple neuropsychiatric conditions, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, and intellectual disability (ID). Chromosome 15q13 is a hotspot for such CNVs due to the presence of low copy repeat (LCR) elements, which facilitate non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR). Several of these CNVs have been overrepresented in individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders; yet variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance are commonly seen. Dosage sensitivity of the CHRNA7 gene, which encodes for the ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the human brain, has been proposed to have a major contribution to the observed cognitive and behavioral phenotypes, as it represents the smallest region of overlap to all the 15q13.3 deletions and duplications. Individuals with zero to four copies of CHRNA7 have been reported in the literature, and represent a range of clinical severity, with deletions causing generally more severe and more highly penetrant phenotypes. Potential mechanisms to account for the variable expressivity within each group of 15q13.3 CNVs will be discussed.
Project description:Epidemiological and genetic studies suggest that schizophrenia and autism may share genetic links. Besides common single nucleotide polymorphisms, recent data suggest that some rare copy number variants (CNVs) are risk factors for both disorders. Because we have previously found that schizophrenia and psychosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD+P) share some genetic risk, we investigated whether CNVs reported in schizophrenia and autism are also linked to AD+P. We searched for CNVs associated with AD+P in 7 recurrent CNV regions that have been previously identified across autism and schizophrenia, using the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad BeadChip. A chromosome 16p11.2 duplication CNV (chr16: 29,554,843-30,105,652) was identified in 2 of 440 AD+P subjects, but not in 136 AD subjects without psychosis, or in 593 AD subjects with intermediate psychosis status, or in 855 non-AD individuals. The frequency of this duplication CNV in AD+P (0.46%) was similar to that reported previously in schizophrenia (0.46%). This duplication CNV was further validated using the NanoString nCounter CNV Custom CodeSets. The 16p11.2 duplication has been associated with developmental delay, intellectual disability, behavioral problems, autism, schizophrenia (SCZ), and bipolar disorder. These two AD+P patients had no personal of, nor any identified family history of, SCZ, bipolar disorder and autism. To the best of our knowledge, our case report is the first suggestion that 16p11.2 duplication is also linked to AD+P. Although rare, this CNV may have an important role in the development of psychosis.
Project description:Copy number variants (CNVs) are risk factors in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, epilepsy, intellectual disability (ID) and schizophrenia. Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS), defined as onset before the age of 13 years, is a rare and severe form of the disorder, with more striking array of prepsychotic developmental disorders and abnormalities in brain development. Because of the well-known phenotypic variability associated with pathogenic CNVs, we conducted whole genome genotyping to detect CNVs and then focused on a group of 46 rare CNVs that had well-documented risk for adult onset schizophrenia (AOS), autism, epilepsy and/or ID. We evaluated 126 COS probands, 69 of which also had a healthy full sibling. When COS probands were compared with their matched related controls, significantly more affected individuals carried disease-related CNVs (P=0.017). Moreover, COS probands showed a higher rate than that found in AOS probands (P<0.0001). A total of 15 (11.9%) subjects exhibited at least one such CNV and four of these subjects (26.7%) had two. Five of 15 (4.0% of the sample) had a 2.5-3?Mb deletion mapping to 22q11.2, a rate higher than that reported for adult onset (0.3-1%) (P<0.001) or autism spectrum disorder and, indeed, the highest rate reported for any clinical population to date. For one COS subject, a duplication found at 22q13.3 had previously only been associated with autism, and for four patients CNVs at 8q11.2, 10q22.3, 16p11.2 and 17q21.3 had only previously been associated with ID. Taken together, these findings support the well-known pleiotropic effects of these CNVs suggesting shared abnormalities early in brain development. Clinically, broad CNV-based population screening is needed to assess their overall clinical burden.
Project description:Copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability and schizophrenia. Recent advances in high-throughput genomic technologies have enabled rapid discovery of many genetic variants including CNVs. As a result, there is increasing interest in studying the role of CNVs in the etiology of many complex diseases. Despite the availability of an unprecedented wealth of CNV data, methods for testing association between CNVs and disease-related traits are still under-developed due to the low prevalence and complicated multi-scale features of CNVs.We propose a novel CNV kernel association test (CKAT) in this paper. To address the low prevalence, CNVs are first grouped into CNV regions (CNVR). Then, taking into account the multi-scale features of CNVs, we first design a single-CNV kernel which summarizes the similarity between two CNVs, and next aggregate the single-CNV kernel to a CNVR kernel which summarizes the similarity between two CNVRs. Finally, association between CNVR and disease-related traits is assessed by comparing the kernel-based similarity with the similarity in the trait using a score test for variance components in a random effect model. We illustrate the proposed CKAT using simulations and show that CKAT is more powerful than existing methods, while always being able to control the type I error. We also apply CKAT to a real dataset examining the association between CNV and autism spectrum disorders, which demonstrates the potential usefulness of the proposed method.A R package to implement the proposed CKAT method is available at http://works.bepress.com/debashis_ghosh/ CONTACTS: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.comSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:Differences in genomic structure between individuals are ubiquitous features of human genetic variation. Specific copy number variants (CNVs) have been associated with susceptibility to numerous complex psychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, autism-spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. These disorders often display co-morbidity with low intelligence. Rare chromosomal deletions and duplications are associated with these disorders, so it has been suggested that these deletions or duplications may be associated with differences in intelligence. Here we investigate associations between large (?500kb), rare (<1% population frequency) CNVs and both fluid and crystallized intelligence in community-dwelling older people. We observe no significant associations between intelligence and total CNV load. Examining individual CNV regions previously implicated in neuropsychological disorders, we find suggestive evidence that CNV regions around SHANK3 are associated with fluid intelligence as derived from a battery of cognitive tests. This is the first study to examine the effects of rare CNVs as called by multiple algorithms on cognition in a large non-clinical sample, and finds no effects of such variants on general cognitive ability.