Performance characteristics of a new hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer (TripleTOF 5600).
ABSTRACT: The TripleTOF 5600 System, a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer, was evaluated to explore the key figures of merit in generating peptide and protein identifications that included spectral acquisition rates, data quality, proteome coverage, and biological depth. Employing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae tryptic digest, careful consideration of several performance features demonstrated that the speed of the TripleTOF contributed most to the resultant data. The TripleTOF system was operated with 8, 20, and 50 MS/MS events in an effort to compare with other MS technologies and to demonstrate the abilities of the instrument platform.
Project description:In past two decades, numerous lipidomics approaches based on mass spectrometry with or without liquid chromatography separation have been established for identification and quantification of lipids in plants. In this study, we developed an efficient and comprehensive lipidomics approach based on UPLC with an Acquity UPLCTM BEH C18 column coupled to TripleTOF using ESI in positive ion mode and MS/MSALL scan for data collection. Lipid extract was prepared to 2 mg/ml solution according to dry tissue weight and mixed with 13 kinds of internal standards including PA, PC, PE, and PG. Each analysis required single injection of 5-10 ?l lipid solvent and completed in 32 min. A target method dataset was generated using the LipidView software for prediction of the accurate mass of target lipid species. The dataset was uploaded into the PeakView to create processing datasets to search target lipid species, which achieved batch data processing of multiple samples for lipid species-specific identification and quantification. As proof of concept, we profiled the lipids of different tissues of rapeseed. Thirteen lipid classes including 218 glycerolipids were identified including 46 TAGs, 15 DAGs, 20 PCs, 24 PEs, 13 PGs, 14 PIs, 26 PSs, 12 PAs, 16 MGDGs, 16 DGDGs, 6 LysoPCs, 5 LysoPEs, and 5 LysoPGs. Together, our approach permits the analysis of glycerolipids in plant tissues with simplicity in sample analysis and data processing using UPLC-TripleTOF.
Project description:Using concurrent IR photoactivation during electron transfer dissociation (ETD) reactions, i.e., activated ion ETD (AI-ETD), significantly increases dissociation efficiency resulting in improved overall performance. Here we describe the first implementation of AI-ETD on a quadrupole-Orbitrap-quadrupole linear ion trap (QLT) hybrid MS system (Orbitrap Fusion Lumos) and demonstrate the substantial benefits it offers for peptide characterization. First, we show that AI-ETD can be implemented in a straightforward manner by fastening the laser and guiding optics to the instrument chassis itself, making alignment with the trapping volume of the QLT simple and robust. We then characterize the performance of AI-ETD using standard peptides in addition to a complex mixtures of tryptic peptides using LC-MS/MS, showing not only that AI-ETD can nearly double the identifications achieved with ETD alone but also that it outperforms the other available supplemental activation methods (ETcaD and EThcD). Finally, we introduce a new activation scheme called AI-ETD+ that combines AI-ETD in the high pressure cell of the QLT with a short infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) activation in the low-pressure cell. This reaction scheme introduces no addition time to the scan duty cycle but generates MS/MS spectra rich in b/y-type and c/z•-type product ions. The extensive generation of fragment ions in AI-ETD+ substantially increases peptide sequence coverage while also improving peptide identifications over all other ETD methods, making it a valuable new tool for hybrid fragmentation approaches.
Project description:Plasma proteomic experiments performed rapidly and economically using several of the latest high-resolution mass spectrometers were compared. Four quantitative hyperfractionated plasma proteomics experiments were analyzed in replicates by two AB SCIEX TripleTOF 5600 and three Thermo Scientific Orbitrap (Elite/LTQ-Orbitrap Velos/Q Exactive) instruments. Each experiment compared two iTRAQ isobaric-labeled immunodepleted plasma proteomes, provided as 30 labeled peptide fractions, and 480 LC-MS/MS runs delivered >250 GB of data in 2 months. Several analysis algorithms were compared. At 1% false discovery rate, the relative comparative findings concluded that the Thermo Scientific Q Exactive Mass Spectrometer resulted in the highest number of identified proteins and unique sequences with iTRAQ quantitation. The confidence of iTRAQ fold-change for each protein is dependent on the overall ion statistics (Mascot Protein Score) attainable by each instrument. The benchmarking also suggested how to further improve the mass spectrometry parameters and HPLC conditions. Our findings highlight the special challenges presented by the low abundance peptide ions of iTRAQ plasma proteome because the dynamic range of plasma protein abundance is uniquely high compared with cell lysates, necessitating high instrument sensitivity.
Project description:The confidence in peptide (and protein) identifications with ion mobility spectrometry time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IMS-TOFMS) is expected to drastically improve with the addition of information from an efficient ion dissociation step prior to MS detection. High throughput IMS-TOFMS analysis imposes a strong need for multiplexed ion dissociation approaches where multiple precursor ions yield complex sets of fragment ions that are often intermingled with each other in both the drift time and m/z domains. We have developed and evaluated an approach for collision-induced dissociation (CID) using IMS-TOFMS instrument. It has been shown that precursor ions activated inside an rf-device with an axial dc-electric field produce abundant fragment ions which are radially confined with the rf-field and collisionally cooled at an elevated pressure, resulting in high CID efficiencies comparable or higher than those measured in triple-quadrupole instruments. We have also developed an algorithm for deconvoluting these complex multiplexed tandem MS spectra by clustering both the precursor and fragment ions into matching drift time profiles and by utilizing the high mass measurement accuracy achievable with TOFMS. In a single IMS separation from direct infusion of tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin (BSA), we have reliably identified 20 unique peptides using a multiplexed CID approach downstream of the IMS separation. Peptides were identified based upon the correlation between the precursor and fragment drift time profiles and by matching the profile representative masses to those of in silico BSA tryptic peptides and their fragments. The false discovery rate (FDR) of peptide identifications from multiplexed MS/MS spectra was less than 1%.
Project description:Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been used in analysis of proteins and their post-translational modifications. A recently developed data analysis method, which simulates MS/MS spectra of phosphopeptides and performs spectral library searching using SpectraST, facilitates confident localization of phosphorylation sites. However, its performance has been evaluated only on MS/MS spectra acquired using Orbitrap HCD mass spectrometers so far. In this study, we have investigated whether this approach would be applicable to another type of mass spectrometers, and optimized the simulation and search conditions to achieve sensitive and confident site localization. Synthetic phosphopeptides and enriched K562 cell phosphopeptides were analyzed using a TripleTOF 6600 mass spectrometer before and after enzymatic dephosphorylation. Dephosphorylated peptides identified by X!Tandem database searching were subjected to spectral simulation of all possible single phosphorylations using SimPhospho software. Phosphopeptides were identified and localized by SpectraST searching against a library of the simulated spectra. Although no synthetic phosphopeptide was localized at 1% false localization rate under the previous conditions, optimization of the spectral simulation and search conditions for the TripleTOF datasets achieved the localization and improved the sensitivity. Furthermore, the optimized conditions enabled sensitive localization of K562 phosphopeptides at 1% false discovery and localization rates. These results suggest that accurate phosphopeptide simulation of TripleTOF MS/MS spectra is possible and the simulated spectral libraries can be used in SpectraST searching for confident localization of phosphorylation sites.
Project description:Identifying proteins and their modification states and with known levels of confidence remains as a significant challenge for proteomics. Random or decoy peptide databases are increasingly being used to estimate the false discovery rate (FDR), e.g., from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses of tryptic digests. We show that this approach can significantly underestimate the FDR and describe an approach for more confident protein identifications that uses unique partial sequences derived from a combination of database searching and amino acid residue sequencing using high-accuracy MS/MS data. Applied to a Saccharomyces cerevisiae tryptic digest, the approach provided 3 132 confident peptide identifications ( approximately 5% modified in some fashion), covering 575 proteins with an estimated zero FDR. The conventional approach provided 3 359 peptide identifications and 656 proteins with 0.3% FDR based upon a decoy database analysis. However, the present approach revealed approximately 5% of the 3 359 identifications to be incorrect and many more as potentially ambiguous (e.g., due to not considering certain amino acid substitutions and modifications). In addition, 677 peptides and 39 proteins were identified that had been missed by conventional analysis, including nontryptic peptides, peptides with a variety of expected/unexpected chemical modifications, known/unknown post-translational modifications, single nucleotide polymorphisms or gene encoding errors, and multiple modifications of individual peptides.
Project description:There is an immediate need for improved methods to systematically and precisely quantify large sets of peptides in complex biological samples. To date protein quantification in biological samples has been routinely performed on triple quadrupole instruments operated in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM), and two major challenges remain. Firstly, the number of peptides to be included in one survey experiment needs to be increased to routinely reach several hundreds, and secondly, the degree of selectivity should be improved so as to reliably discriminate the targeted analytes from background interferences. High resolution and accurate mass (HR/AM) analysis on the recently developed Q-Exactive mass spectrometer can potentially address these issues. This instrument presents a unique configuration: it is constituted of an orbitrap mass analyzer equipped with a quadrupole mass filter as the front-end for precursor ion mass selection. This configuration enables new quantitative methods based on HR/AM measurements, including targeted analysis in MS mode (single ion monitoring) and in MS/MS mode (parallel reaction monitoring). The ability of the quadrupole to select a restricted m/z range allows one to overcome the dynamic range limitations associated with trapping devices, and the MS/MS mode provides an additional stage of selectivity. When applied to targeted protein quantification in urine samples and benchmarked with the reference SRM technique, the quadrupole-orbitrap instrument exhibits similar or better performance in terms of selectivity, dynamic range, and sensitivity. This high performance is further enhanced by leveraging the multiplexing capability of the instrument to design novel acquisition methods and apply them to large targeted proteomic studies for the first time, as demonstrated on 770 tryptic yeast peptides analyzed in one 60-min experiment. The increased quality of quadrupole-orbitrap data has the potential to improve existing protein quantification methods in complex samples and address the pressing demand of systems biology or biomarker evaluation studies.
Project description:We describe a solid phase microextraction (SPME), multistep elution, transient isotachophoresis (tITP) capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS) procedure which employs a high sensitivity porous electrospray ionization (ESI) sprayer for the proteomic analysis of a moderately complex protein mixture. In order to improve comprehensiveness and sensitivity over a previously reported proteomic application of the ESI sprayer, we evaluated preconcentration with SPME and multistep elution prior to tITP stacking and CE separation. To maximize separation efficiency, we primarily employed electrokinetic methods for elution and separation after loading the sample by application of pressure. Conditions were developed for optimum simultaneous electrokinetic elution and sample stacking using a tryptic digest of 16 proteins to maximize peptide identifications and minimize band broadening. We performed comparative proteomic analysis of a dilution series using CE and nanoflow liquid chromatography (nLC). We found complementary peptide and protein identifications with larger quantities (100 ng) of a Pyrococcus furiosus tryptic digest, but with mass-limited amounts (5 ng) CE was 3 times more effective at identifying proteins. We attribute these gains in sensitivity to lower noise levels with the porous CE sprayer, illustrated by better signal-to-noise ratios of peptide precursor ions and associated higher XCorr values of identified peptides when compared directly to nLC. From comparative analysis of SPME-tITP-CE with direct injection CE, the SPME-tITP process improved comprehensiveness and sensitivity.
Project description:A comprehensive platform that integrates information from the protein and peptide levels by combining various MS techniques has been employed for the analysis of proteins in fully malignant human breast cancer cells. The cell lysates were subjected to chromatofocusing fractionation, followed by tryptic digestion of pH fractions for on-line monolithic RP-HPLC interfaced with linear ion trap MS analysis for rapid protein identification. This unique approach of direct analysis of pH fractions resulted in the identification of large numbers of proteins from several selected pH fractions, in which approximately 1.5 microg of each of the pH fraction digests was consumed for an analysis time of ca 50 min. In order to combine valuable information retained at the protein level with the protein identifications obtained from the peptide level information, the same pH fraction was analyzed using nonporous (NPS)-RP-HPLC/ESI-TOF MS to obtain intact protein MW measurements. In order to further validate the protein identification procedures from the fraction digest analysis, NPS-RP-HPLC separation was performed for off-line protein collection to closely examine each protein using MALDI-TOF MS and MALDI-quadrupole ion trap (QIT)-TOF MS, and excellent agreement of protein identifications was consistently observed. It was also observed that the comparison to intact MW and other MS information was particularly useful for analyzing proteins whose identifications were suggested by one sequenced peptide from fraction digest analysis.
Project description:A new ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) platform was developed to improve upon the sensitivity and reproducibility of our previous platforms, and further enhance IMS-MS utility for broad 'pan-omics' measurements. The new platform incorporated an improved electrospray ionization source and interface for enhanced sensitivity, and providing the basis for further benefits based upon implementation of multiplexed IMS. The ion optics included electrodynamic ion funnels at both the entrance and exit of the IMS, an ion funnel trap for ion injection, and a design in which nearly all ion optics (e.g. drift rings, ion funnels) were fabricated using printed circuit board technology. The IMS resolving power achieved was ~73 for singly-charged ions, very close to the predicted diffusion-limited resolving power (~75). The platform's performance evaluation (e.g. for proteomics measurements) include LC-IMS-TOF MS datasets for 30 technical replicates for a trypsin digested human serum, and included platform performance in each dimension (LC, IMS and MS) separately.