A hierarchical whole-body modeling approach elucidates the link between in Vitro insulin signaling and in Vivo glucose homeostasis.
ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease that profoundly affects energy homeostasis. The disease involves failure at several levels and subsystems and is characterized by insulin resistance in target cells and tissues (i.e. by impaired intracellular insulin signaling). We have previously used an iterative experimental-theoretical approach to unravel the early insulin signaling events in primary human adipocytes. That study, like most insulin signaling studies, is based on in vitro experimental examination of cells, and the in vivo relevance of such studies for human beings has not been systematically examined. Herein, we develop a hierarchical model of the adipose tissue, which links intracellular insulin control of glucose transport in human primary adipocytes with whole-body glucose homeostasis. An iterative approach between experiments and minimal modeling allowed us to conclude that it is not possible to scale up the experimentally determined glucose uptake by the isolated adipocytes to match the glucose uptake profile of the adipose tissue in vivo. However, a model that additionally includes insulin effects on blood flow in the adipose tissue and GLUT4 translocation due to cell handling can explain all data, but neither of these additions is sufficient independently. We also extend the minimal model to include hierarchical dynamic links to more detailed models (both to our own models and to those by others), which act as submodules that can be turned on or off. The resulting multilevel hierarchical model can merge detailed results on different subsystems into a coherent understanding of whole-body glucose homeostasis. This hierarchical modeling can potentially create bridges between other experimental model systems and the in vivo human situation and offers a framework for systematic evaluation of the physiological relevance of in vitro obtained molecular/cellular experimental data.
Project description:This a model from the article:
A Hierarchical Whole-body Modeling Approach Elucidates the Link between in Vitro Insulin Signaling and in Vivo Glucose Homeostasis.
Nyman E, Brannmark C, Palmer R, Brugard J, Nystrom FH, Stralfors P, Cedersund G.J Biol Chem.2011 Jul 22;286(29):26028-41.
Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease that profoundly affects energy homeostasis. The disease involves failure at several levels and subsystems and is characterized by insulin resistance in target cells and tissues (i.e. by impaired intracellular insulin signaling). We have previously used an iterative experimental-theoretical approach to unravel the early insulin signaling events in primary human adipocytes. That study, like most insulin signaling studies, is based on in vitro experimental examination of cells, and the in vivo relevance of such studies for human beings has not been systematically examined. Herein, we develop a hierarchical model of the adipose tissue, which links intracellular insulin control of glucose transport in human primary adipocytes with whole-body glucose homeostasis. An iterative approach between experiments and minimal modeling allowed us to conclude that it is not possible to scale up the experimentally determined glucose uptake by the isolated adipocytes to match the glucose uptake profile of the adipose tissue in vivo. However, a model that additionally includes insulin effects on blood flow in the adipose tissue and GLUT4 translocation due to cell handling can explain all data, but neither of these additions is sufficient independently. We also extend the minimal model to include hierarchical dynamic links to more detailed models (both to our own models and to those by others), which act as submodules that can be turned on or off. The resulting multilevel hierarchical model can merge detailed results on different subsystems into a coherent understanding of whole-body glucose homeostasis. This hierarchical modeling can potentially create bridges between other experimental model systems and the in vivo human situation and offers a framework for systematic evaluation of the physiological relevance of in vitro obtained molecular/cellular experimental data.
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Project description:The pathophysiologic processes underlying the regulation of glucose homeostasis are considerably complex at both cellular and systemic level. A comprehensive and structured specification for the several layers of abstraction of glucose metabolism is often elusive, an issue currently solvable with the hierarchical description provided by multi-level models. In this study we propose a multi-level closed-loop model of whole-body glucose homeostasis, coupled with the molecular specifications of the insulin signaling cascade in adipocytes, under the experimental conditions of normal glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes.The ordinary differential equations of the model, describing the dynamics of glucose and key regulatory hormones and their reciprocal interactions among gut, liver, muscle and adipose tissue, were designed for being embedded in a modular, hierarchical structure. The closed-loop model structure allowed self-sustained simulations to represent an ideal in silico subject that adjusts its own metabolism to the fasting and feeding states, depending on the hormonal context and invariant to circadian fluctuations. The cellular level of the model provided a seamless dynamic description of the molecular mechanisms downstream the insulin receptor in the adipocytes by accounting for variations in the surrounding metabolic context.The combination of a multi-level and closed-loop modeling approach provided a fair dynamic description of the core determinants of glucose homeostasis at both cellular and systemic scales. This model architecture is intrinsically open to incorporate supplementary layers of specifications describing further individual components influencing glucose metabolism.
Project description:Insulin action in adipocytes affects whole-body insulin sensitivity. Studies of adipose-specific Glut4 knockout mice have established that adipose Glut4 contributes to the control of systemic glucose homeostasis. Presumably, this reflects a role for Glut4-mediated glucose transport in the regulation of secreted adipokines. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Rab10 GTPase is required for insulin-stimulated translocation of Glut4 (Sano et al., 2007). The physiological importance of adipose Rab10 and the significance of its role in the control of Glut4 vesicle trafficking in vivo are unknown. Here we report that adipocytes from adipose-specific Rab10 knockout mice have a ~50% reduction in glucose uptake and Glut4 translocation to the cell surface in response to insulin, demonstrating a role for Rab10 in Glut4 trafficking. Moreover, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp shows decreased whole-body glucose uptake as well as impaired suppression of hepatic glucose production in adipose Rab10 knockout mice. Thus, fully functional Glut4 vesicle trafficking in adipocytes is critical for maintaining insulin sensitivity. Comparative transcriptome analysis of perigonadal adipose tissue demonstrates significant transcriptional similarities between adipose Rab10 knockout mice and adipose Glut4 knockout mice, consistent with the notion that the phenotypic similarities between the two models are mediated by reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport into adipocytes. Transcriptome sequencing of perigonadal white adipose tissue
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Defective glucose uptake in adipocytes leads to impaired metabolic homeostasis and insulin resistance, hallmarks of type 2 diabetes. Extracellular ATP-derived nucleotides and nucleosides are important regulators of adipocyte function, but the pathway for controlled ATP release from adipocytes is unknown. Here, we investigated whether Pannexin 1 (Panx1) channels control ATP release from adipocytes and contribute to metabolic homeostasis.<h4>Methods</h4>We assessed Panx1 functionality in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in adipocytes isolated from murine white adipose tissue by measuring ATP release in response to known activators of Panx1 channels. Glucose uptake in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes was measured in the presence of Panx1 pharmacologic inhibitors and in adipocytes isolated from white adipose tissue from wildtype (WT) or adipocyte-specific Panx1 knockout (AdipPanx1 KO) mice generated in our laboratory. We performed in vivo glucose uptake studies in chow fed WT and AdipPanx1 KO mice and assessed insulin resistance in WT and AdipPanx1 KO mice fed a high fat diet for 12 weeks. Panx1 channel function was assessed in response to insulin by performing electrophysiologic recordings in a heterologous expression system. Finally, we measured Panx1 mRNA in human visceral adipose tissue samples by qRT-PCR and compared expression levels with glucose levels and HOMA-IR measurements in patients.<h4>Results</h4>Our data show that adipocytes express functional Pannexin 1 (Panx1) channels that can be activated to release ATP. Pharmacologic inhibition or selective genetic deletion of Panx1 from adipocytes decreased insulin-induced glucose uptake in vitro and in vivo and exacerbated diet-induced insulin resistance in mice. Further, we identify insulin as a novel activator of Panx1 channels. In obese humans Panx1 expression in adipose tissue is increased and correlates with the degree of insulin resistance.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We show that Panx1 channel activity regulates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes and thus contributes to control of metabolic homeostasis.
Project description:Insulin controls glucose uptake into adipose and muscle cells by regulating the amount of GLUT4 in the plasma membrane. The effect of insulin is to promote the translocation of intracellular GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. The small Rab GTPase, Rab10, is required for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Here we demonstrate that both insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane are reduced by about half in adipocytes from adipose-specific Rab10 knockout (KO) mice. These data demonstrate that the full effect of insulin on adipose glucose uptake is the integrated effect of Rab10-dependent and Rab10-independent pathways, establishing a divergence in insulin signal transduction to the regulation of GLUT4 trafficking. In adipose-specific Rab10 KO female mice, the partial inhibition of stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes induces insulin resistance independent of diet challenge. During euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, there is no suppression of hepatic glucose production despite normal insulin suppression of plasma free fatty acids. The impact of incomplete disruption of stimulated adipocyte GLUT4 translocation on whole-body glucose homeostasis is driven by a near complete failure of insulin to suppress hepatic glucose production rather than a significant inhibition in muscle glucose uptake. These data underscore the physiological significance of the precise control of insulin-regulated trafficking in adipocytes.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Adipose tissue and adipocytes are primary regulators of insulin sensitivity and energy homeostasis. Defects in insulin sensitivity of the adipocytes predispose the body to insulin resistance (IR) that could lead to diabetes. However, the mechanisms mediating adipocyte IR remain elusive, which emphasizes the need to develop experimental models that can validate the insulin signaling pathways and discover new mechanisms in the search for novel therapeutics. Currently <i>in vitro</i> adipose organ-chip devices show superior cell function over conventional cell culture. However, none of these models represent disease states. Only when these <i>in vitro</i> models can represent both healthy and disease states, they can be useful for developing therapeutics. Here, we establish an organ-on-chip model of insulin-resistant adipocytes, as well as characterization in terms of insulin signaling pathway and lipid metabolism.<h4>Methods</h4>We differentiated, maintained, and induced insulin resistance into primary adipocytes in a microfluidic organ-on-chip. We then characterized IR by looking at the insulin signaling pathway and lipid metabolism, and validated by studying a diabetic drug, rosiglitazone.<h4>Results</h4>We confirmed the presence of insulin resistance through reduction of Akt phosphorylation, Glut4 expression, Glut4 translocation and glucose uptake. We also confirmed defects of disrupted insulin signaling through reduction of lipid accumulation from fatty acid uptake and elevation of glycerol secretion. Testing with rosiglitazone showed a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism as suggested by previous reports.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The adipose-chip exhibited key characteristics of IR and can serve as model to study diabetes and facilitate discovery of novel therapeutics.
Project description:Adipose tissue contains one of the largest reservoirs of cholesterol in the body. Adipocyte dysfunction in obesity is associated with intracellular cholesterol accumulation, and alterations in cholesterol homeostasis have been shown to alter glucose metabolism in cultured adipocytes. ABCA1 plays a major role in cholesterol efflux, suggesting a role for ABCA1 in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the adipocyte. However, the impact of adipocyte ABCA1 on adipose tissue function and glucose metabolism is unknown. Our aim was to determine the impact of adipocyte ABCA1 on adipocyte lipid metabolism, body weight, and glucose metabolism in vivo. To address this, we used mice lacking ABCA1 specifically in adipocytes (ABCA1(-ad/-ad)). When fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet, ABCA1(-ad/-ad) mice showed increased cholesterol and triglyceride stores in adipose tissue, developed enlarged fat pads, and had increased body weight. Associated with these phenotypic changes, we observed significant changes in the expression of genes involved in cholesterol and glucose homeostasis, including ldlr, abcg1, glut-4, adiponectin, and leptin. ABCA1(-ad/-ad) mice also demonstrated impaired glucose tolerance, lower insulin sensitivity, and decreased insulin secretion. We conclude that ABCA1 in adipocytes influences adipocyte lipid metabolism, body weight, and whole-body glucose homeostasis.
Project description:Obesity is a global health issue associated with insulin resistance and altered lipid homeostasis. It has been described that reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) activity are involved in the development of these pathologies. The present study describes the role of endothelial NOX5 expression over adipose tissue by using two experimental systems: NOX5 conditional knock-in mice fed with a high-fat diet and 3T3-L1 adipocytes cultured with conditioned media of NOX5-expressing endothelial cells previously treated with glucose and palmitic acid. Animals expressing NOX5 presented lower body weight gain and less mesenteric and epididymal adipose mass compared to control mice fed with the same diet. NOX5-expressing mice also showed significantly lower glycaemia and improved insulin-induced glucose uptake. In addition, <i>Glut4</i> and Caveolin 1 (<i>Cav1</i>) expression were significantly increased in the adipose tissue of these animals. Likewise, 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with conditioned media from NOX5-expressing endothelial cells, incubated with high glucose and palmitic acid, presented a reduction in lipid accumulation and an increase in glucose uptake. Moreover, a significant increase in the expression of <i>Glut4</i> and <i>Cav1</i> was also detected in these cells. Taken together, all these data support that, in response to a highly caloric diet, NOX5 endothelial activity may regulate glucose sensitivity and lipid homeostasis in the adipose tissue.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Obesity-related adipose tissue dysfunction has been linked to the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Impaired calcium homeostasis is associated with altered adipose tissue metabolism; however, the molecular mechanisms that link disrupted calcium signaling to metabolic regulation are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the contribution of a calcium-sensing enzyme, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2), to adipocyte function, obesity-associated insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance.<h4>Methods</h4>To determine the impact of adipocyte CAMK2 deficiency on metabolic regulation, we generated a conditional knockout mouse model and acutely deleted CAMK2 in mature adipocytes. We further used in vitro differentiated adipocytes to dissect the mechanisms by which CAMK2 regulates adipocyte function.<h4>Results</h4>CAMK2 activity was increased in obese adipose tissue, and depletion of adipocyte CAMK2 in adult mice improved glucose intolerance and insulin resistance without an effect on body weight. Mechanistically, we found that activation of CAMK2 disrupted adipocyte insulin signaling and lowered the amount of insulin receptor. Further, our results revealed that CAMK2 contributed to adipocyte lipolysis, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced inflammation, and insulin resistance.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results identify a new link between adipocyte CAMK2 activity, metabolic regulation, and whole-body glucose homeostasis.
Project description:Dysregulation of signaling pathways in adipose tissue leading to insulin resistance can contribute to the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Alström Syndrome, a recessive ciliopathy, caused by mutations in ALMS1, is characterized by progressive metabolic alterations such as childhood obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and type 2 diabetes. Here we investigated the role of Alms1 disruption in AT expansion and insulin responsiveness in a murine model for Alström Syndrome. A gene trap insertion in Alms1 on the insulin sensitive C57BL6/Ei genetic background leads to early hyperinsulinemia and a progressive increase in body weight. At 6 weeks of age, before the onset of the metabolic disease, the mutant mice had enlarged fat depots with hypertrophic adipocytes, but without signs of inflammation. Expression of lipogenic enzymes was increased. Pre-adipocytes isolated from mutant animals demonstrated normal adipogenic differentiation but gave rise to mature adipocytes with reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Assessment of whole body glucose homeostasis revealed glucose intolerance. Insulin stimulation resulted in proper AKT phosphorylation in adipose tissue. However, the total amount of glucose transporter 4 (SLC4A2) and its translocation to the plasma membrane were reduced in mutant adipose depots compared to wildtype littermates. Alterations in insulin stimulated trafficking of glucose transporter 4 are an early sign of metabolic dysfunction in Alström mutant mice, providing a possible explanation for the reduced glucose uptake and the compensatory hyperinsulinemia. The metabolic signaling deficits either reside downstream or are independent of AKT activation and suggest a role for ALMS1 in GLUT4 trafficking. Alström mutant mice represent an interesting model for the development of metabolic disease in which adipose tissue with a reduced glucose uptake can expand by de novo lipogenesis to an obese state.